0 views

Uploaded by Ahmad Ikhwan

fluid

fluid

© All Rights Reserved

- Venturi CD at Laminar Flow
- B Hunt - Fluid Mechanics for Civil Engineers - Textbook
- MS-06-84
- Bleninger-Internal Diffuser Hydraulics
- MSME (Revision 2011)
- Lecture_2_3
- Marine Hydrodynamics
- Pszvba - Piping Pressure Drop Functions
- The Science of Mechanics of Fluids
- r5220303 Mechanics of Fluids
- Orifice Plate Calculation
- Viscous Flow
- Microsoft Word - SV_Part8
- 02 Momentum Transfer and Viscous Flow
- Introduction Exp2
- 224266089 Email Phrases
- 7.Fluid Mechanics
- The influence of temperature gradient on the Strouhal–Reynolds
- MEASUREMENT-OF-FLOWING-FLUIDS.pptx
- pdf-2-19

You are on page 1of 29

CHAPTER 4

BERNOULLI EQUATION AND APPLICATIONS

4.1 Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss behavior of fluid while it is in motion.

In this chapter the fluid is assumed to be inviscid where the viscosity is

neglected. The continuity equation is derived for a general case. The

Bernoulli’s equation is derived from Newton’s second law of motion. The

fluid flow has a wide range of applications i.e. pipe flow, open channel flow,

flows in ducting, or from a container of a spray paint unit are all cases of fluid

flow.

The motion of fluid is very complex. The study of fluid at rest is simplified by

the absence of shear forces. But when fluids flows over a body the velocity of

fluid in contact with the body has same velocity as that of the body and there

is velocity gradient at right angles to the body. The velocity gradient gives

rise to shear forces as individual particles of fluids flow move as result of

action of forces set up by difference of pressure.

Three different terminologies help us in describing a flow field.

A path line is locus points traversed by a given particle as it travels in a flow

field. It is a curve showing the position of the particles of fluid at successive

intervals of time.

If the fluid flows is made visible by injecting a stream of dye into the liquid or

gases. The result will be streakline which gives instantaneous picture of

position of all particles in a particular instant.

A streamline is line in the flow processing the following property; the velocity

vector of each particle occupying a point on streamline is tangent to the

streamline. This is shown graphically in Figure 4.1.

104

V

dr

V

r V

V

X

streamlines

streamline, no fluid can cross the walls of a streamline. The streamline is of

particular interest in fluid mechanics, a pipe is a streamtube since its walls are

streamlines and no fluid can pass through the walls. A streamtube is shown in

Figure 4.2.

In a steady flow, pathlines, streakline and streamlines are all coincident. Since the

flows that we observe in laboratories are invariably steady flows the lines we

observe re streamlines.

[a] Steady and unsteady flow; steady flow occurs when flow parameters such

as pressure, velocity, density etc. do not change with time. If the flow

parameters vary with time is called unsteady. In many engineering

problem the flow is assumed to be steady.

[b] One dimensional flow is one in which velocity varies only on one

direction such flow occur in long straight pipes as shown in Figure 4.3.

The velocity field is a functional of (r) only.

105

the velocity variety in two directions. There are many engineering

problems in which a flow is simplified to a uniform flow, the velocity and

other fluid properties are constant over the area. The schematic diagram

of uniform velocity profiles is shown in Figure 4.5.

u

r u R

u

x

umax

106

[c] Laminar and turbulent flow : Flow is said to be laminar when adjacent

fluid layers move at same velocity and paths of individual particles of

fluid do not cross each other. Laminar flow occurs with low fluid

velocities and high viscosity. Flow is said to be turbulent when

streamlines cross each other and there is mixing in fluid flow. It occurs

with high velocities and low viscosity. The two flows are shown are in

Figure 4.6.

(a) (b)

Figure 4.6 (a) Laminar and (b) turbulent flows

relatively constant. Liquid flows are incompressible and in additional

low-speed gas flows, such as the atmosphere flow are considered

incompressible. The flow is considered compressible when the fluid

density changes with pressure. The Mach number is defined as

M = v/a

107

Where v is the gas speed and a is wave speed = RT . The equation is

useful in deciding whether a particular gas flow is assumed to be

incompressible or compressible. If M < 0.3 density variation can be

neglected and the flow is considered as incompressible. If M > 0.3 density

variation cannot be neglected and flow must to be treated as compressible.

conditioning airflow, flow around automobiles and flow buildings.

Compressible flows include aerodynamic of high-speed aircraft, steam

flow through turbine and airflow through jet engines, etc.

influence the flow and are thus are neglected. In viscous flow, the effect

of viscosity is important and cannot be neglect. It is difficult to create an

invicid flow experimentally as liquid of our interests such as air and water

has viscosity. Viscous flow is important in boundary layer and the flow is

considered inviscid over the boundary layer where the shearing stress is

neglected.

Consider a stream tube be as shown in Figure 4.7. There is no flow across the

tube. If the flow is steady, the mass of fluid entering the system tube in unit time

must be equal to mass of fluid leaving the stream tube at the same time, provided

there is no accumulation of fluid within it.

108

Area A1

Volume v1

Density ρ1 A2

v2

B ρ2

n

i 1

i 0

m 1 A1v1

m 2 A2v2

Therefore;

A1v1 A2v2

109

Example 4.1:

The water flows inside a pipe has an internal diameter of 120mm at flow rate of 600

l/min and flows out through the pipe outlet with a diameter of 50mm. Determine:

(b) Velocity for both at pipe inlet and outlet

Solution:

Where A1 d12 (0.12)2 11.31 10 3 m2

4 4

A2 d 22 (0.05) 2 1.964 10 3 m2

4 4

Thus,

Q 0.01

v1 0.884m / s

A1 11.31 10 3

Q 0.01

v2 5.09m / s

A2 1.964 10 3

110

Bernoulli equation is probably used more often in fluid flow application than any

other equation. The derivation of this important equation, the Bernoulli Equation

starts with the application of Newton’s second law to a fluid particle. Let us

consider a particle positioned as shown in Figure 4.8 with the length ds and cross

sectional area dA. The forces acting on the element are due to gravity and

pressure difference acting on the sides of the sides of the stream tube. By

Newton’s second law of motion the rate of change of momentum is proportional

to the resultant of forces acting on the fluid. Summing forces in the directional of

motion, the S-direction, we get

y

p

p ds dA

s

Streamline

ds

V z

dz .ds

dA s

p dA

R (radius of curvature)

s g s. A cos

n

x

Particle moving along a streamline

Figure 4.8 Control volume

111

n

Force= mass × acceleration, ( Fi ma)

i 1

dP

PA ( P s )A gA.s. cos A.s.as

ds

dv dv ds dv

where a s v

dt ds dt ds

dz

replace cos ,

ds

Dividing by s.A ,

dv 1 dP dz

v g 0, (Euler equation)

ds ds ds

The integration product of Euler equation and for incompressible fluid (ρ= constant);

v2 P v2 P

gz cons tan t or z cons tan t

2 2 g g

Invicid flow

steady flow

along-streamline

constant density/incompressible flow

112

Example 4.2:

Water is flowing in a pipe with a diameter of 160mm and the water flows at the

velocity of 3m/s, and converge into a pipe of 100mm at 5m below from inlet (Figure

E4.2). Determine:

(b) Velocity at the pipe exit

(c) Static pressure at the pipe exit

V1= 3m/s

P1= 350kPa

D1= 160mm

5m

D2= 100mm

V2= ?

Figure E4.2

Solution:

(a) Q A1v1 (0.16)2 (3) 0.0603m3 / s

4

113

A1 d 160 2

v2 v1 v1 ( 1 )2 3( ) 7.68m / s

A2 d2 100

v12 v2

P1 gz1 P2 2 gz2

2 2

Therefore,

P2 P1 ( v12 v22 ) g ( z1 z2 )

2

1000 2

350 103 (3 7.682 ) 1000(9.81)(5 0) 374kPa.

2

Example 4.3

A 50mm diameter siphon drawing water from a reservoir is shown in Figure E4.3.

Determine the pressure at a section of 2 and the discharge of water at outlet.

2m

5m

V3

114

Figure E4.3

Solution:

v12 v2

P1 gz1 P3 3 gz 3

2 2

Where P1 = P3 = 0 and z1 - z3 = 5m

Q (0.05) 2 9.9 0.019m 3 / s

4

v 2 v2

Po PS gz or Ho h z

2 2g

The sum of the three terms is known as total head. The pressure P is static

pressure ρu2/2 dynamic pressure and the sum of the two terms is called total

pressure or stagnation pressure Po. The static pressure, PS can be measured by

using a wall pressure ‘tap’ or a static pressure probe shown in Figure 4.9.

115

Small holes

Flow

Flow

Streamlines

Stem

Pressure

tap

To manometer or

( a ) Wall pressure tap pressure gauge

Measurement of static pressure (b) Static pressure gauge

A device, known as pitot probe is used to measure the total pressure in a fluid

flow. A pitot-static probe is used to measure the difference between total and

static pressure as one probe to calculate the velocity shown in Figure 4.10.

Static

pressure

Flow holes

Flow

B

Small hole

C

To manometer or

Po

pressure gauge

Measurement of stagnation pressure (b) Pitot - static Tube

a frictionless process. If the static pressure is ρ at a point in the flow where the

116

velocity is V, then the stagnation pressure, P◦, where the velocity U◦, is zero may

be computed from

2( Po PS ) 2( Po PS )

v2 or v

Thus if the stagnation and static pressure could be measured at a point then the

equation above would give local flow velocity.

PA = PB

Or P1 M h a P2 (h a)

( P2 P1 )

And h M 1 h M 1

v1 2 gh M 1

The Bernoulli’s equation can be applied to external flows, that is, flows around object

submerged in fluid. If finds frequent application in internal flows, such as pipes, bends,

etc.

The Bernoulli equation cannot be applied through a machine such as a propeller or pump

as equation is derived by integrating along a stream-tube or streamline in the absence of

117

moving surfaces such as blades or vanes. Also it cannot be applied to cases where it is

large changes in temperature as it will change the density of the fluid.

Many types of devices using principles involved in deriving the Bernoulli equation have

been developed to measure fluid velocities and flow rates. The Pitot-static tube is an

example to measure velocity. An effective way to measure the flow rate through a pipe is

to place some type of restriction within the pipe as shown in Figure 4.11 and to measure

the differences between low velocity and high pressure at section (1) to high velocity and

low pressure at section (2). Three commonly used types of flow meter are

Venturi meter

Orifice meter

Nozzle meter

Rotameter

Converging Throat

cone

Entry Diverging section

Piezometer rings

Direction

of flow

Section 2

Pressure p2

Velocity v2

Area a2

Section 1 Leads to gauge filled with liquid in

Pressure p1 pipeline Spec. wt. =

Velocity v1

Area a1 X

Spec. wt. of gauge liquid = g

Figure 4.11

118

sided ‘throat’ and then a divergence (see Figure 4.11). Continuity requires a

greater velocity at the throat than at the inlet; there is consequently a difference

enables the rate of flow through the meter to be calculated.

Using Bernoulli’s equation may then substitute values of u1 and u1 from the

continuity relation Q=A1.v1 = A2.v2 to give

P1 Q2 P2 Q2

g 2 gA12 g 2 gA22

1

2

2 g P / g P / g

Qideal 1 2

1

2

1

2

A2 A1

h P1 / g P2 / g

slightly less than for an ideal fluid and so h slightly greater. As the use of this

value of h would give too high a value of Q a coefficient of discharge Cd is

introduced.

Thus, actual discharge

119

1

1

2 gh 2 gh

2 2

Q C d A2 C d A2 2

1 A2 / A1 2 1 m

The coefficient of discharge also accounts for effects for effects of non-uniformity

of velocity over section 1 and 2. Although Cd varies somewhat with the rate of

flow, the viscosity of the fluid and surface roughness, a value of about 0.98 is

usual with of low viscosity (Bristish Standard 1042). The equation above also can

be written in term of the flow coefficient K,

Q KA2 2 gh

Cd

where K and can be obtained from the chart as in Figure

1 A2 / A1

5.12.

If the leads of the U-tube are filled with liquid whose specific gravity is (or g)

and the gravity of the manometric fluid is m and equating pressures at section A-

A.

P1 x P2 x m

P1 P2 x m x m 1

Thus,

P1 P2

h x m 1 x m 1

120

Re d

2 gh

K v

101 102 103 104 105 106 107

1.2

Venturi meters

and nozzles

1.1 d

0.6

D

d

0.5

D

1.0

d

0.4

K D

0.9

Orifices

d

0.8 0.80

D

d d

0.40 0.70

D D

0.7

d d

0.60 0.50

D

D

d

0.20

D

0.6

d

0.10

D

0.5 1

10 102 103 104 105 106 107

4Q

Re d

dv

Figure 4.12

121

Example 4.4:

The pressure difference between the taps of a horizontal venturi meter carrying

water is 35kPa. If d=20cm and D=40cm, what is the discharge of water at 20oC?

Solution:

P 35000

h 3.57m of water

g 9810

v 1.0 x10 6

1.67 x10 6 and d/D 0.5

K=1.03

The volume flow rate,

Q 1.03 A2 2 gh

1.030.7850.2 29.813.57

2

0.271m 3 / s

122

½D

D

A2 = CcA0

D

2

Figure 4.13

An orifice plate is another method to measure discharge where the fluid flows

through a restricted opening as shown in Figure 4.13. Note that the streamlines

continue to converge a short distance downstream of the plane of the orifice.

Hence the minimum-flow area is actually smaller than the area of orifice. To

relate the minimum flow area, often called the contracted area of the jet, or vena

contracta, to the area of the orifice A2, which is defined as

A2 Cc Ao

the orifice can be calculated using,

C d Ao

Q 2 gh

1 C c2 Ao2 / A12

Q KAo 2 gh

123

Cd

where K can be obtained from the chart as in Figure 4.12 and

1 C c2 Ao2 / A12

coefficient Cv, or C D Cv Cc .

V2

Cv

Vo

Example 4.5:

A 15cm orifice is located in a horizontal 24cm water pipe, and a water-mercury

is connected to either side of the orifice. When the deflection on the manometer

is 25cm, what is the discharge in the system.

h x m 1 0.2513.6 1

h = 3.15m of water.

1

2 gh 2

Q C d Ao 2

KAo 2 gh

1 m

6

1.2 x10 6

v 1.0 x10

124

Q 0.66 Ao 2 gh

0.66 d 2 29.813.15

4

0.092m 3 / s.

Flow Nozzle

_ Flow

V1 D1 D2

P1 P2

Figure 4.14

The theoretical flow rate is calculated with the same formula as that of a

venturimeter

Q = Cd·Qt

125

1

2 gh 2

Q Cd A2 2

KA2 2 gh

1 A2 / A1

The selection of a flow meter depends on factors such cost, accuracy, ease of

installation and maintenance. Some of the factors are compared for the orifice

plate, flow nozzle and venturi meter in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1

Flow meter type Head loss Cost

Orifice High Low

Flow nozzle Intermediate Intermediate

Venturi meter Low High

4.7.4 Rotameter

The rotameter as shown in Figure 4.15 consists of a long graduated vertical tube having

uniform taper, arranged with the smaller section at the bottom. A float moves upward or

downward in response to the flow rate until a position is reached where the drag force on

the float is in equilibrium with the submerged weight. Calibration consists of correlating

the vertical elevation of the float with the discharge. The head loss depends on the

friction loss of the tube plus the loss across the floating element. The rotameter does not

provide accuracy as the differential pressure meters, typically in the range of 5% full

scale

126

If Rf = Float radius

Rt = Tube radius of rotameter

l = Distance from the base to the float at tube radius of Rt

= Angle between the tube and the vertical line

Thus,

π R 2 t R 2 f 2R f .δ flow area

Volume flow rate

Velocity

and δ .θ

Q 2R f .θ

Q α

m α 1

127

It can be seen that the calibration line is linear for the rotameter.

Problems

1. A differential pressure gage is connected across the taps of a Pitot tube. When this

Pitot tube is used in a wind tunnel test, the gage indicates a P of 730 Pa. What is

the air velocity in the tunnel? The pressure and temperature in the tunnel are 98

kPa absolute and 20ºC?

2. Blood of specific gravity, s= 1.0 flows through an artery in the neck of a giraffe

from its heart to the head. If the pressure at the beginning of the artery (outlet of

the heart) is equal to 0.212m of mercury, determine the pressure at the end of the

artery when the head is:

(b) 1.8m below the heart

3. Two Pitot tubes are shown. The one on the top is used to measure the velocity of

air, and it is connected to an air-water manometer as shown in Figure Q3. The one

on the bottom is used to measure the velocity of water, and it too is connected to

an air-water manometer as shown. If the defection h is the same for both

manometers, then one can conclude that

(a) VA = Vw (b) VA > Vw (c) VA < Vw

128

air

VA

h

water

air

h

Vw

water

Figure Q3

gage. If the air temperature is 20ºC at standard atmospheric pressure at sea level,

and if the differential gage reads a pressure difference of 3 kPa, what is the air

velocity?

5. The apparatus shown in the figure is used to measure the velocity of air at the

center of a duct having a 10 cm diameter. A tube mounted at the center of the duct

has a 2 mm diameter and is attached to one leg of a slant tube manometer. A

pressure tap in the wall of the duct is connected to the other end of the slant-tube

manometer. The well of the slant-tube manometer is sufficiently large that the

elevation of the fluid in it does not change significantly when fluid moves up the

leg of the manometer. The air in the duct is at a temperature of 20ºC, and the

pressure is 150 kPa. The manometer liquid has a specific gravity of 0.7, and the

slope of the leg is 30ºC. When there is no flow in the duct, the liquid surface in

the manometer lies at 2.3 cm on the slanted scale. When there is flow in the duct,

the liquid moves up to 6.7 cm on the slanted scale. Find the velocity of the air in

the duct. Assuming a uniform velocity profile in the duct, calculate the rate of

flow of the air.

129

V 10cm

P= 150kPa

. 6.7cm

.

2.3cm

Figure Q5

6. If the velocity in an air stream (Pa = 98 kPa, T = 10ºC) is 12m/s, what deflection

will be produced on an air-water manometer if the stagnation tube is 2 mm in

diameter?

Deflection

Stagnation tube

Figure Q6

same pressure drop across the orifice (approximately 50 kPa), what will be the

percentage increase in discharge?

upstream pressure tap is P1 and the pressure at the downstream pressure tap is P2.

The pressure at the transducer connected to the upstream tap is PT,1 and to the

downstream pressure tap, PT,2. Show that the difference in piezometric pressure

130

defined as (P1 + γz1)-( P2 + γz2) is equal to the pressure difference across the

transducer, (PT,1 - PT,2).

P1

l1

PT,1

PT,2

l2

P2

Figure Q8

9. The pressure differential across this venture meter is 100 kPa. What is the

discharge of water through it?

ΔP

d= 1.0m

D= 2.0m

Figure Q9

10. The differential-pressure gage on the venturi meter reads 45 kPa, d = 10 cm, D =

20 cm, and h = 80 cm. What is the discharge of gasoline (S = 0.69, = 3 X 10-4 N

s/m2) in the system?

131

ΔP

Figure Q10

11. Estimate the pressure P1 and velocity V1 of water if V2 = 20m/s and h= 5cm.

1 2

mercury

Figure Q11

-oooOOOooo-

- Venturi CD at Laminar FlowUploaded byFatih Fırat
- B Hunt - Fluid Mechanics for Civil Engineers - TextbookUploaded byHoracio Nelson Astete Wesche
- MS-06-84Uploaded byask_friend
- Bleninger-Internal Diffuser HydraulicsUploaded byJulio Tovar
- MSME (Revision 2011)Uploaded byMSK65
- Lecture_2_3Uploaded byhmxa91
- Marine HydrodynamicsUploaded byGlenn Tørå
- Pszvba - Piping Pressure Drop FunctionsUploaded byRafael Reyes
- The Science of Mechanics of FluidsUploaded byfreejim22
- r5220303 Mechanics of FluidsUploaded bysivabharathamurthy
- Orifice Plate CalculationUploaded bySatish Sohani
- Viscous FlowUploaded bymitulkind
- Microsoft Word - SV_Part8Uploaded byaftabulalam
- 02 Momentum Transfer and Viscous FlowUploaded byM Pedroso
- Introduction Exp2Uploaded byaydn_89
- 224266089 Email PhrasesUploaded byAnonymous H9n5g3aaCE
- 7.Fluid MechanicsUploaded byizzyguy
- The influence of temperature gradient on the Strouhal–ReynoldsUploaded byAlireza GHazanfari
- MEASUREMENT-OF-FLOWING-FLUIDS.pptxUploaded byJohn Mark Manalo Rosales
- pdf-2-19Uploaded byRoha Javed
- 1_flow_mechUploaded byVinay Gupta
- SnoeijerAJP14Uploaded byWissam Jarmak
- 12P305 (3)Uploaded byRAJA
- Reynold'sUploaded bysarthak_shah92
- Final Report ReynoldsUploaded byHirizza Junko Yamamoto
- 99034 How Operating and Environmental Conditions Affect Erosion (51300-99034-Sg) (1)Uploaded byjutll
- document.pdfUploaded byAbdur Rashid
- The Effect of Clays on the PermeabilityUploaded byBangsawan Arief
- What Are the Navier-Stokes EquationsUploaded bysumohi
- Drilling Hydraulics Formulae.pdfUploaded byMohammed Zubair Ahmed

- Chap 6 Graphical Method UpdatedUploaded byAhmad Ikhwan
- CHAPTER 7 Dimensional Analysis FinalUploaded byAhmad Ikhwan
- 2017 Quiz1 SolutionsUploaded byAhmad Ikhwan
- LEC2.pdfUploaded byAmin Zaquan
- Intro Week1Uploaded byAhmad Ikhwan
- CBasics-Week2Uploaded byAhmad Ikhwan
- 3rd Edition Anthony J. Wheeler Ahmad R.Uploaded byAhmad Ikhwan
- Chapter 2 FluidsUploaded byAhmad Ikhwan
- CHAPTER 1 PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS.docxUploaded byAhmad Ikhwan

- Principles of TeachingUploaded byAmin D. Ace
- CFM-56 Gen Fam.pdfUploaded byCatts Admin
- 3d Image Reconstruction From Point Cloud of 2d ImagesUploaded byAnirudhan Adukkathayar
- JGKKKGGKUploaded bybadbastard
- 785_List of References for Submission of New Request Inquiry FormUploaded byعبدالعزيز بدر
- Spot Drilling CollarUploaded byKelvin Ng
- Popular Science - The Future of Food (October 2015) [CPUL]Uploaded byDilhani
- Jim Rogers My First MillionUploaded bySEKAi.org
- Active 8 Language GamesUploaded bydenisastasie
- Come As You AreUploaded byLambertoDiPiero
- Wysiwyg Web Builder 9 FaqUploaded byassopapou
- motherboard.docxUploaded byJai Chavez
- tcrm0204-417Uploaded byNora Nagy
- Zigzag Capitalism Youth Entrepreneurship in the Contemporary Gl 2013 GeoforUploaded byAlex Colman
- PrinsipMikroekonomiUploaded bycantona78
- Final STR for Elevator Amdt_1Uploaded byAnonymous vGdMOyaVj
- UNEP AssessingHumanVulnerabilityUploaded byAlbertoEduardoLazaroAngulo
- Global Safety Security Resource GuideUploaded byParminder Rai
- Election Watch AP 2009 - A ReportUploaded byTR Madhavan
- Setup Sheets TutorialUploaded byRade Lekic
- LIM Replacement KITSUploaded bychinitn
- TheBigReadMe.rtfUploaded byJose Luis Aguilar Castellon
- Gomez-Acevedo 2010 Neotropical Mutualism Between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex Phylogeny and Divergence TimesUploaded byTheChaoticFlame
- slide pengolahan mineral.pdfUploaded byRahmadi Siahaan
- Induction Motors-scalar ControlUploaded byNarolex
- tnpsc important notes.pdfUploaded byyesuinbaraj
- PMCL 400 Series MonitorUploaded bynestkwt1
- 43818_v2_indxUploaded byWon-young Seo
- PA Goat Production - 2007Uploaded byJay Adones
- UntitledUploaded byeurolex