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4.1 Introduction
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss behavior of fluid while it is in motion.
In this chapter the fluid is assumed to be inviscid where the viscosity is
neglected. The continuity equation is derived for a general case. The
Bernoulli’s equation is derived from Newton’s second law of motion. The
fluid flow has a wide range of applications i.e. pipe flow, open channel flow,
flows in ducting, or from a container of a spray paint unit are all cases of fluid

4.2 Fluid flow

The motion of fluid is very complex. The study of fluid at rest is simplified by
the absence of shear forces. But when fluids flows over a body the velocity of
fluid in contact with the body has same velocity as that of the body and there
is velocity gradient at right angles to the body. The velocity gradient gives
rise to shear forces as individual particles of fluids flow move as result of
action of forces set up by difference of pressure.

4.3 Path lines, streaklines and streamlines

Three different terminologies help us in describing a flow field.
A path line is locus points traversed by a given particle as it travels in a flow
field. It is a curve showing the position of the particles of fluid at successive
intervals of time.
If the fluid flows is made visible by injecting a stream of dye into the liquid or
gases. The result will be streakline which gives instantaneous picture of
position of all particles in a particular instant.
A streamline is line in the flow processing the following property; the velocity
vector of each particle occupying a point on streamline is tangent to the
streamline. This is shown graphically in Figure 4.1.


r V

A stream tube formed by a bundle of



Figure 4.1 Streamline in a flow field Figure 4.2 stream-tube

A streamline is a tube whose walls are streamlines. Since velocity is tangent to a

streamline, no fluid can cross the walls of a streamline. The streamline is of
particular interest in fluid mechanics, a pipe is a streamtube since its walls are
streamlines and no fluid can pass through the walls. A streamtube is shown in
Figure 4.2.

In a steady flow, pathlines, streakline and streamlines are all coincident. Since the
flows that we observe in laboratories are invariably steady flows the lines we
observe re streamlines.

4.4 Classification of fluid flow

[a] Steady and unsteady flow; steady flow occurs when flow parameters such
as pressure, velocity, density etc. do not change with time. If the flow
parameters vary with time is called unsteady. In many engineering
problem the flow is assumed to be steady.

[b] One dimensional flow is one in which velocity varies only on one
direction such flow occur in long straight pipes as shown in Figure 4.3.
The velocity field is a functional of (r) only.

Figure 4.3 Example of one-dimensional flow

An example of a two-dimensional flow is illustrated in Figure 5.4 where

the velocity variety in two directions. There are many engineering
problems in which a flow is simplified to a uniform flow, the velocity and
other fluid properties are constant over the area. The schematic diagram
of uniform velocity profiles is shown in Figure 4.5.

r u R


Figure 4.4 2D velocity profiles in pipe and ducting


Figure 4.5 Uniform velocity profiles

[c] Laminar and turbulent flow : Flow is said to be laminar when adjacent
fluid layers move at same velocity and paths of individual particles of
fluid do not cross each other. Laminar flow occurs with low fluid
velocities and high viscosity. Flow is said to be turbulent when
streamlines cross each other and there is mixing in fluid flow. It occurs
with high velocities and low viscosity. The two flows are shown are in
Figure 4.6.

(a) (b)
Figure 4.6 (a) Laminar and (b) turbulent flows

[d] Compressible and incompressible flow

The flow is considered incompressible when the fluid density remains

relatively constant. Liquid flows are incompressible and in additional
low-speed gas flows, such as the atmosphere flow are considered
incompressible. The flow is considered compressible when the fluid
density changes with pressure. The Mach number is defined as

M = v/a

Where v is the gas speed and a is wave speed = RT . The equation is
useful in deciding whether a particular gas flow is assumed to be
incompressible or compressible. If M < 0.3 density variation can be
neglected and the flow is considered as incompressible. If M > 0.3 density
variation cannot be neglected and flow must to be treated as compressible.

Incompressible gas flows include atmosphere flows, heating and air-

conditioning airflow, flow around automobiles and flow buildings.
Compressible flows include aerodynamic of high-speed aircraft, steam
flow through turbine and airflow through jet engines, etc.

[e] Viscous and Inviscid flow

An inviscid flow is one in which viscous effect do not significantly

influence the flow and are thus are neglected. In viscous flow, the effect
of viscosity is important and cannot be neglect. It is difficult to create an
invicid flow experimentally as liquid of our interests such as air and water
has viscosity. Viscous flow is important in boundary layer and the flow is
considered inviscid over the boundary layer where the shearing stress is

4.5 Continuity Equation

Consider a stream tube be as shown in Figure 4.7. There is no flow across the
tube. If the flow is steady, the mass of fluid entering the system tube in unit time
must be equal to mass of fluid leaving the stream tube at the same time, provided
there is no accumulation of fluid within it.

Area A1
Volume v1
Density ρ1 A2
B ρ2

Figure 4.7 Streamtube

From conservation of mass:


The mass flow rate, m: m

i 1
i 0

Thus mass flow rate at section 1:

m  1 A1v1

and mass flow rate at section 2:

m  2 A2v2


m  1 A1v1  2 A2v2 (4.1)

Where ρ= density, A= cross-sectional area and v= velocity.

For incompressible flow, ρ1=ρ2, and equation 5.1 will be:

A1v1  A2v2

These equations can be used:

m  Av  cons tan t


Q  Av  cons tan t since ρ= constant.

Example 4.1:
The water flows inside a pipe has an internal diameter of 120mm at flow rate of 600
l/min and flows out through the pipe outlet with a diameter of 50mm. Determine:

(a) Volume flow rate m3/s

(b) Velocity for both at pipe inlet and outlet


(a) Volume flow rate in m3/s is:

Q= 600 × 0.001/60 = 0.01m3/s

(b) Q  A1v1  A2v2

 
Where A1  d12  (0.12)2  11.31  10 3 m2
4 4
 
A2  d 22  (0.05) 2  1.964  10 3 m2
4 4


Q 0.01
v1    0.884m / s
A1 11.31  10  3

Q 0.01
v2    5.09m / s
A2 1.964  10  3

4.6 The Bernoulli Equation

Bernoulli equation is probably used more often in fluid flow application than any
other equation. The derivation of this important equation, the Bernoulli Equation
starts with the application of Newton’s second law to a fluid particle. Let us
consider a particle positioned as shown in Figure 4.8 with the length ds and cross
sectional area dA. The forces acting on the element are due to gravity and
pressure difference acting on the sides of the sides of the stream tube. By
Newton’s second law of motion the rate of change of momentum is proportional
to the resultant of forces acting on the fluid. Summing forces in the directional of
motion, the S-direction, we get

 p 
 p  ds dA
 s 
V z
dz .ds
dA s

p dA 
R (radius of curvature)

s  g  s. A cos 

Particle moving along a streamline
Figure 4.8 Control volume

Second law of Newton,


Force= mass × acceleration, ( Fi  ma)
i 1

Therefore, forces acting along the stream-tube,

PA  ( P  s )A  gA.s. cos  A.

dv dv ds dv
where a s    v
dt ds dt ds

replace cos   ,

Dividing by s.A ,

dv 1 dP dz
v  g  0, (Euler equation)
ds  ds ds

The integration product of Euler equation and for incompressible fluid (ρ= constant);

v2 P v2 P
  gz  cons tan t or   z  cons tan t
2  2 g g

This is known as Bernoulli equation.

Note: Assumptions made in deriving this equation are

 Invicid flow
 steady flow
 along-streamline
 constant density/incompressible flow

Example 4.2:
Water is flowing in a pipe with a diameter of 160mm and the water flows at the
velocity of 3m/s, and converge into a pipe of 100mm at 5m below from inlet (Figure
E4.2). Determine:

(a) Volume flow rate in m3/s

(b) Velocity at the pipe exit
(c) Static pressure at the pipe exit
V1= 3m/s

P1= 350kPa
D1= 160mm


D2= 100mm

V2= ?

Figure E4.2


(a) Q  A1v1  (0.16)2 (3)  0.0603m3 / s

(b) Q  A1v1  A2v2

For the velocity at 2, v2;


A1 d 160 2
v2  v1  v1 ( 1 )2  3( )  7.68m / s
A2 d2 100

(d) Pressure can be determined by Bernoulli equation

v12 v2
P1    gz1  P2   2  gz2
2 2


P2  P1  ( v12  v22 )  g ( z1  z2 )

1000 2
 350  103  (3  7.682 )  1000(9.81)(5  0)  374kPa.

Example 4.3

A 50mm diameter siphon drawing water from a reservoir is shown in Figure E4.3.
Determine the pressure at a section of 2 and the discharge of water at outlet.




Figure E4.3


From the Bernoulli equation;

v12 v2
P1    gz1  P3   3  gz 3
2 2

Where P1 = P3 = 0 and z1 - z3 = 5m

v32  2 g ( z1  z 3 )  2(9.81)(5) ; v3  9.9m / s

Thus, the discharge Q;

Q (0.05) 2  9.9  0.019m 3 / s

Re-write again Bernoulli equation in the form

v 2 v2
Po  PS   gz or Ho  h  z
2 2g

The sum of the three terms is known as total head. The pressure P is static
pressure ρu2/2 dynamic pressure and the sum of the two terms is called total
pressure or stagnation pressure Po. The static pressure, PS can be measured by
using a wall pressure ‘tap’ or a static pressure probe shown in Figure 4.9.

Small holes



To manometer or
( a ) Wall pressure tap pressure gauge
Measurement of static pressure (b) Static pressure gauge

Figure 4.9 Static pressure and stagnation pressure

A device, known as pitot probe is used to measure the total pressure in a fluid
flow. A pitot-static probe is used to measure the difference between total and
static pressure as one probe to calculate the velocity shown in Figure 4.10.

Flow holes
Small hole

To manometer or
pressure gauge
Measurement of stagnation pressure (b) Pitot - static Tube

Figure 4.10 Pitot and Pitot-Static tubes

The stagnation pressure is obtained when a flowing fluid de-accelerated to zero by

a frictionless process. If the static pressure is ρ at a point in the flow where the

velocity is V, then the stagnation pressure, P◦, where the velocity U◦, is zero may
be computed from

The velocity u is obtained by

2( Po  PS ) 2( Po  PS )
v2  or v
 

Thus if the stagnation and static pressure could be measured at a point then the
equation above would give local flow velocity.

For a manometer of U-tube, where


Or P1   M h  a  P2   (h  a)

( P2  P1 )    
And  h M  1  h M  1
      

Therefore, the velocity in the pipe is given by:

 
v1  2 gh M  1
  

The Bernoulli’s equation can be applied to external flows, that is, flows around object
submerged in fluid. If finds frequent application in internal flows, such as pipes, bends,

The Bernoulli equation cannot be applied through a machine such as a propeller or pump
as equation is derived by integrating along a stream-tube or streamline in the absence of

moving surfaces such as blades or vanes. Also it cannot be applied to cases where it is
large changes in temperature as it will change the density of the fluid.

4.7 Application of Bernoulli equation

Many types of devices using principles involved in deriving the Bernoulli equation have
been developed to measure fluid velocities and flow rates. The Pitot-static tube is an
example to measure velocity. An effective way to measure the flow rate through a pipe is
to place some type of restriction within the pipe as shown in Figure 4.11 and to measure
the differences between low velocity and high pressure at section (1) to high velocity and
low pressure at section (2). Three commonly used types of flow meter are
 Venturi meter
 Orifice meter
 Nozzle meter
 Rotameter

4.7.1 The Venturi-meter

Converging Throat
Entry Diverging section

Piezometer rings

of flow
Section 2
Pressure p2
Velocity v2
Area a2
Section 1 Leads to gauge filled with liquid in
Pressure p1 pipeline Spec. wt. = 
Velocity v1
Area a1 X
Spec. wt. of gauge liquid =  g

Figure 4.11

The device consists of a convergence in a pipe-line, followed by a short parallel-

sided ‘throat’ and then a divergence (see Figure 4.11). Continuity requires a
greater velocity at the throat than at the inlet; there is consequently a difference
enables the rate of flow through the meter to be calculated.

Using Bernoulli’s equation may then substitute values of u1 and u1 from the
continuity relation Q=A1.v1 = A2.v2 to give

P1 Q2 P2 Q2
  
g 2 gA12 g 2 gA22

for a horizontal venturi-meter.

The ideal discharge,

  2

 2 g P / g   P / g 
Qideal  1 2

 1
 2
1 
 2 
 A2 A1 

where the change in piezometric head,

h  P1 / g   P2 / g 

In practice, friction between section 1 and 2 although small, causes P2 to be

slightly less than for an ideal fluid and so h slightly greater. As the use of this
value of h would give too high a value of Q a coefficient of discharge Cd is
Thus, actual discharge

 
2 gh  2 gh 
2 2
Q  C d A2    C d A2  2 
1   A2 / A1 2  1  m 

where m=A2 /A1.

The coefficient of discharge also accounts for effects for effects of non-uniformity
of velocity over section 1 and 2. Although Cd varies somewhat with the rate of
flow, the viscosity of the fluid and surface roughness, a value of about 0.98 is
usual with of low viscosity (Bristish Standard 1042). The equation above also can
be written in term of the flow coefficient K,

Q  KA2 2 gh
where K  and can be obtained from the chart as in Figure
1   A2 / A1 

If the leads of the U-tube are filled with liquid whose specific gravity is  (or g)
and the gravity of the manometric fluid is m and equating pressures at section A-

P1  x  P2  x m

 
P1  P2  x m    x  m  1
  
P1  P2    
h   x m  1  x m  1
      

Re d
 2 gh
K v
101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Venturi meters
and nozzles
1.1 d
 0.6
 0.5
 0.4

0.8  0.80

d d
 0.40  0.70
d d
 0.60  0.50
 0.20
 0.10

0.5 1
10 102 103 104 105 106 107
Re d 

Figure 4.12

Example 4.4:
The pressure difference between the taps of a horizontal venturi meter carrying
water is 35kPa. If d=20cm and D=40cm, what is the discharge of water at 20oC?

P 35000
h    3.57m of water
g 9810

d 2 gh 0.2 29.813.57 

v 1.0 x10 6
 1.67 x10 6 and d/D  0.5

From the chart,

The volume flow rate,
Q  1.03 A2 2 gh
 1.030.7850.2 29.813.57 

 0.271m 3 / s

4.7.2 Orifice Plate



A2 = CcA0


Figure 4.13

An orifice plate is another method to measure discharge where the fluid flows
through a restricted opening as shown in Figure 4.13. Note that the streamlines
continue to converge a short distance downstream of the plane of the orifice.
Hence the minimum-flow area is actually smaller than the area of orifice. To
relate the minimum flow area, often called the contracted area of the jet, or vena
contracta, to the area of the orifice A2, which is defined as

A2  Cc Ao

and Cc is a contraction (vena contracta) coefficient. Thus, the discharge through

the orifice can be calculated using,

C d Ao
Q 2 gh
1  C c2 Ao2 / A12

Again this equation can be written in term of flow coefficient K.

Q  KAo 2 gh

where K  can be obtained from the chart as in Figure 4.12 and
1  C c2 Ao2 / A12

discharge coefficient, CD is related to vena contracta coefficient, Cc and velocity

coefficient Cv, or C D  Cv  Cc .

The coefficient velocity Cv can be calculated from:

Cv 

Example 4.5:
A 15cm orifice is located in a horizontal 24cm water pipe, and a water-mercury
is connected to either side of the orifice. When the deflection on the manometer
is 25cm, what is the discharge in the system.

For manometer head h,

 
h  x m  1  0.2513.6  1
  
h = 3.15m of water.

 2 gh  2
Q  C d Ao  2
 KAo 2 gh
1  m 

The kinematic viscosity of water at 20oC is 1.0x10-6,

d 2 gh 0.15 29.813.15

  6
 1.2 x10 6
v 1.0 x10

From the chart (Figure 4.12),


For d/D = 0.625, K = 0.66

Q  0.66 Ao 2 gh

 0.66 d 2 29.813.15
 0.092m 3 / s.

4.7.3 Nozzle meter

A typical nozzle meter is shown in Figure 4.14.

Flow Nozzle

_ Flow
V1 D1 D2

P1 P2

Figure 4.14

The theoretical flow rate is calculated with the same formula as that of a

Where m = ratio of area Q is less than the theoretical discharge

Q = Cd·Qt

The actual Cd coefficient of discharge of the nozzle meter as


 2 gh  2
Q  Cd A2  2
 KA2 2 gh
1   A2 / A1  

The selection of a flow meter depends on factors such cost, accuracy, ease of
installation and maintenance. Some of the factors are compared for the orifice
plate, flow nozzle and venturi meter in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1
Flow meter type Head loss Cost
Orifice High Low
Flow nozzle Intermediate Intermediate
Venturi meter Low High

4.7.4 Rotameter

The rotameter as shown in Figure 4.15 consists of a long graduated vertical tube having
uniform taper, arranged with the smaller section at the bottom. A float moves upward or
downward in response to the flow rate until a position is reached where the drag force on
the float is in equilibrium with the submerged weight. Calibration consists of correlating
the vertical elevation of the float with the discharge. The head loss depends on the
friction loss of the tube plus the loss across the floating element. The rotameter does not
provide accuracy as the differential pressure meters, typically in the range of 5% full

Figure 4.15: Schematic Diagram of Rotameter

From Figure 4.15,

If Rf = Float radius
Rt = Tube radius of rotameter
l = Distance from the base to the float at tube radius of Rt
 = Angle between the tube and the vertical line


 
π R 2 t  R 2 f  2R f .δ  flow area 
Volume flow rate
and δ  .θ
 Q 2R f .θ
Q α 
m α 1

It can be seen that the calibration line is linear for the rotameter.


1. A differential pressure gage is connected across the taps of a Pitot tube. When this
Pitot tube is used in a wind tunnel test, the gage indicates a P of 730 Pa. What is
the air velocity in the tunnel? The pressure and temperature in the tunnel are 98
kPa absolute and 20ºC?

2. Blood of specific gravity, s= 1.0 flows through an artery in the neck of a giraffe
from its heart to the head. If the pressure at the beginning of the artery (outlet of
the heart) is equal to 0.212m of mercury, determine the pressure at the end of the
artery when the head is:

(a) 2.4m above the heart

(b) 1.8m below the heart

3. Two Pitot tubes are shown. The one on the top is used to measure the velocity of
air, and it is connected to an air-water manometer as shown in Figure Q3. The one
on the bottom is used to measure the velocity of water, and it too is connected to
an air-water manometer as shown. If the defection h is the same for both
manometers, then one can conclude that
(a) VA = Vw (b) VA > Vw (c) VA < Vw






Figure Q3

4. A Pitot tube used to measure air velocity is connected to a differential pressure

gage. If the air temperature is 20ºC at standard atmospheric pressure at sea level,
and if the differential gage reads a pressure difference of 3 kPa, what is the air

5. The apparatus shown in the figure is used to measure the velocity of air at the
center of a duct having a 10 cm diameter. A tube mounted at the center of the duct
has a 2 mm diameter and is attached to one leg of a slant tube manometer. A
pressure tap in the wall of the duct is connected to the other end of the slant-tube
manometer. The well of the slant-tube manometer is sufficiently large that the
elevation of the fluid in it does not change significantly when fluid moves up the
leg of the manometer. The air in the duct is at a temperature of 20ºC, and the
pressure is 150 kPa. The manometer liquid has a specific gravity of 0.7, and the
slope of the leg is 30ºC. When there is no flow in the duct, the liquid surface in
the manometer lies at 2.3 cm on the slanted scale. When there is flow in the duct,
the liquid moves up to 6.7 cm on the slanted scale. Find the velocity of the air in
the duct. Assuming a uniform velocity profile in the duct, calculate the rate of
flow of the air.

V 10cm

P= 150kPa

. 6.7cm

Figure Q5

6. If the velocity in an air stream (Pa = 98 kPa, T = 10ºC) is 12m/s, what deflection
will be produced on an air-water manometer if the stagnation tube is 2 mm in


Stagnation tube

Figure Q6

7. A 15 cm plate orifice at the end of a 30 cm pipe is enlarged to 20 cm. With the

same pressure drop across the orifice (approximately 50 kPa), what will be the
percentage increase in discharge?

8. A pressure transducer is connected across an orifice as shown. The pressure at the

upstream pressure tap is P1 and the pressure at the downstream pressure tap is P2.
The pressure at the transducer connected to the upstream tap is PT,1 and to the
downstream pressure tap, PT,2. Show that the difference in piezometric pressure

defined as (P1 + γz1)-( P2 + γz2) is equal to the pressure difference across the
transducer, (PT,1 - PT,2).







Figure Q8

9. The pressure differential across this venture meter is 100 kPa. What is the
discharge of water through it?

d= 1.0m
D= 2.0m

Figure Q9

10. The differential-pressure gage on the venturi meter reads 45 kPa, d = 10 cm, D =
20 cm, and h = 80 cm. What is the discharge of gasoline (S = 0.69,  = 3 X 10-4 N
s/m2) in the system?


Figure Q10

11. Estimate the pressure P1 and velocity V1 of water if V2 = 20m/s and h= 5cm.

1 2


Figure Q11