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G R E AT W A L L O F C H I N A

NOT JUST ONE WALL, MANY


INTRODUCTION

• Total length of 21,196 kms

• Built from east to west in the norther frontiers of china

• Protects the Chinese states against raids and invasions


from the north

• Different dynasties constructed different courses

• Signal towers at hill tops and other high points for


visibility
HISTORY

Early walls
- 8th & 5th cen BC
- Wall building during
spring and autumn
- Warring states
- Period 5th to 2nd BC
- Qin (West)
- Three Jins (Central)
- Han, Wei & Zhao
- Qi (East)
- Chu (South)
- Yan (North east)
- 10th to 13th cen AD
- Liao, Jin, Yuan dynasty
E A R LY W A L L S

Rammed earth was used in plains


Stones from mountains were used in mountain ranges
MING’S ERA (14TH CENTURY AD)
• Defeat during 14th century from Mangols revived the
construction of the walls again during Ming’s dynasty

• Stronger and more elaborate by using bricks and mortars

• Approx 25,000 watch towers constructed

• Repaired and reinforced walls near Beijing, 1,200 watch


towers built

• Liaodong wall built to protect the agricultural heartland in


Liaodong province
MING’S ERA WALLS
CONSTRUCTIONS
Qin’s period Han period

Ming’s period (14 cen AD onwards)


MENTIONS BY FOREIGN VISITORS

• None of the European visitors mentioned the Great Wall (Oh…) -


Marco Polo, Giovanni da Plan del Carpine, William of Rubruck,
and so on.

• Ian Batuta during 14th century (Yuan’s dynasty) visited China,


heard about such walls did not see as it is 60 days of travel.

• Europeans after their arrival and Ming China by sea, people came
to know about the recent developments of the wall, and started
tourism

• When China opened its borders to foreign merchants and


visitors, the Great Wall became more attraction
DIFFERENT SECTIONS
PRESENT CONDITION

• Portions of North Beijing and near tourist centers are extensively renovated
and maintained.

• In many other locations, wall is in disrepair

• Most areas serve as village play ground or a source of stones to rebuild houses
and roads

• 2012 report says 22% Ming’s Great wall disappeared

• Gansu province, due to sandstorms and erosions about 60km may disappear in
next 20 years

• Many places the height of the wall reduced from >5m to just <2m

• Images from the watch towers have disappeared


Thank you

– V E N K ATA K R I S H N A N S U T H A R S A N