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1.1 Brief History of The Ethio Telecom

Telecommunication refers to long distance communication. At present such communication
is carried out with the aid electronic equipment such as radio, telegraph, telephone and
television. In earlier times however smoke signals, drums, light and various forms of
semaphore were used for the same purpose. The information that can be transformed can be
in the form of voice, symbols, pictures or data or a combination of these. The physical
equipment for a telecommunication systems include a Transmitter, one or more Receivers,
and Channel of communication such as the air, water, wire, cable, communication satellite or
some combination of these.

1.1.1 Telecommunications in Ethiopia

The introduction of telecommunications services in Ethiopia dates back to 1894, seventeen

years after the invention of telephone technology in the world. Like many modern
technologies, it was Minilik II, the King of Ethiopia, who introduced telephone technology to
the country around 1894, with the installation of 477 km long telephone and telegram lines
from Harar to Addis Ababa (The capital city of Ethiopia).However the first Ethiopian pioneer
of telephony was his cousin Ras Mekonnen who came back with telephone apparatus in 1889
after his visit of Italy. Gradually, the technological scheme was proved to contribute to the
integration of the Ethiopian society when the extensive open wire line system was laid out
linking the Ethiopian capital city with all the important administrative towns of the country.
which becomes the Ethiopian Telecommunication Authority (ETA) in 1981 after several
change of names, has undertaken a number of development projects and was in charge of
both the operation and regulation of telecommunications service in Ethiopia. It is obvious that
the telecommunications service had made a major change of technological advancement in
telecommunications sector ranging from automatic to digital technology.

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The Ethiopian Telecommunications Authority was also replaced by the Ethiopian

Telecommunications Corporation (ETC) by regulation number 10/1996 of the Council of
Ministers to which all the rights and obligations of the former Ethiopian Telecommunication
authority were transferred to the Corporation. ETC then has taken a responsibility to operate
as a public enterprise with the principal duty of installing telecom infrastructure facilities and
expanding telecommunications services in the country by the Proclamation 49/1996, and
providing domestic and international telephone, telex, and other communication services
under the supervision of Ethiopian Telecommunications Agency (ETA), which is a separate
regulatory body, with the objective of promoting the development of "High quality, efficient,
reliable and affordable telecommunications services". In this respect, it is currently deemed
by the regulation that ETC is the sole operator of any telecommunications related services,
including the provision of Internet and public phone in Ethiopia. ETC is the oldest Public
Telecommunications Operator (PTO) in Africa.

Today the backbone network is constituted from a variety of microwave, satellite and fiber
optic links. International access is provided by the PANAFTEL terrestrial microwave
network, connecting Ethiopia to the rest of the world via links of some neighboring countries.
For its international traffic links and communication services, ETC mainly uses its earth
station at Sululta which transmits and receives to and from both the Indian Ocean and the
Atlantic Ocean satellites making it easy to reach all over the world.

By 1972 a new organizational structure was made and Ethiopian Telecommunications

Authority (ETA) was established. The authority comprises of the following three departments
and respective divisions.

1.Financial and supply department

 Finance division
 Supply division
2.Operations department
 Traffic division
 Maintenance coordination division
 The seven regional divisions
3.Energy department

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 Radio division
 Telephone division
 Civil engineering division
Ethiopian Telecommunications service and ETA were in charge of both the operation and
regulation of telecommunications service in Ethiopia. Specifically ETA was responsible for
service quality check and price setting. On November 1996 the Ethiopian Telecommunication
service becomes Ethiopian Telecommunications Corporation by council of ministers
regulation no 10/1996. The subsequent proclamation 49/1996 expands the ETC duties and
responsibilities. By the year of 2005 on January ETC transferred from narrow band system to
broad band service.

As of 2007, IP based Next Generation Network of Fixed Telephone Lines, Third Generation
Network (3G) of mobile service based on Wideband Code Division Multiple
Access(WCDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Dense Wavelength
Division Multiple (DWDM) based Optical Fiber Transmission have been introduced in
Ethiopia. when we come to recent days we can see the transformation from ETC to Ethio
Telecom. As a continuation of the last five years plan and after concentrating its efforts on
educations health and agriculture, the Ethiopian government have decided to focus on the
improvement of telecommunication service, considering them as a key in the development of
Ethiopia. Ethio Telecom was born on Monday 29th November 2010, from this ambition of
supporting the steady growth of our country as public enterprise on proclamation no
197/2010 of council of ministers. Ethio Telecom as a company is governed by the
supervision authority (board of directors). The organizational structure, vision and mission,
end users and services and products will be covered in the next sections of this chapter.

1.1.2 Company Objectives

In line with its ambitious mission, Ethio Telecom has ambitious goals:

 Being a customer centric company

 Offering the best quality of services
 Meeting world-class standards
 Building a financially sound company

To reach these goals, all our divisions will focus on:

 Developing and enhancing network and information system

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 Ensuring easy access and coverage to the whole population

 Creating a strong brand
 Developing human resources management

The Ethiopian Government has decided to transform the telecommunication infrastructure

and services to world class standard, considering them as a key lever to the development of

1.1.3 Vision:

 To be world-class telecommunication service provider.

1.1.4 Mission:

 Connect every Ethiopian through Information Communication Technology.

 Provide telecommunication services and products that enhance the development of
our Nation.
 Build reputable brand known for its customers' consideration.

 Build its managerial capability that enables Ethio telecom to operate an international

1.2 Main products and services

Ethio Telecom have many product and services offered to its customers. Even if there are
some difference on which products must be accessed by which customer the overall
description of main products and services is as follows.

1.2.1 Fixed Lines services

Fixed line is traditional wired phone service , it delivers voice, fax and internet service, it is
fixed in locations such as home and office , no mobility. It is most importantly reliable and
cheap alternative for business.

A. Fixed wireless CDMA

Fixed wireless refers to the operation of wireless devices or systems in fixed locations such as
homes and offices. It is much similar to the ordinary fixed telephone service; it uses Fixed
Wireless Terminal (FWT) which enables it to give a voice, data and other value added
services. It works wherever CDMA network is available. It substitutes the service of the
ordinary fixed telephone by providing only the voice service.

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B. ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

Integrated services digital network (ISDN) is an international communications standard for
sending voice, video and data over digital telephone lines or normal telephone wires. It can
transmit data and phone conversations digitally over normal telephone lines.

C. Fixed line value added services

There are different packages of fixed line value added services which are very important for
enterprise and residential customers.

 CLIP/Caller Line Identification Presentation: enables to identify the person calling

the number displays on your screen while the phone is ringing.

 Call waiting: alerts you when a caller wants to speak to you

 Call Baring: Baring national and international calls to control who makes these calls
using your fixed line.

 Don’t disturb: do not disturb routes all your call to your voice mail

 Call divert: incoming calls are sent to another number or mobile number.

 Fixed Hot line: dial a number automatically when the hand set is lifted.

 Call-Conference: lets you speak to two or more people at the same time.

 Short number call: it is similar to the normal fixed line call except that this calls are
made through short numbers (three digits)

1.2. 2 Mobile services

A. GSM (Global System for Mobiles) Mobile (prepaid/ postpaid)

The service is given using SIM (Subscriber Identity Module). It has voice, data, SMS(Short
Message Service), and other value added capabilities, in order to use the service in pre-paid
scenario; it is required to charge using stretchable cards and for post paid services, users are
charged at the end of every month (usage charge + rent) .

Services offered in addition to voice are :

SMS (short messaging service)

 Before using this service the message service center should be set by putting

Call divert

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 It allows an incoming call to called party to be redirected to another mobile or fixed

telephone number.

 It can be activated from the phone.

Call waiting

 Is a feature that alerts someone using the phone to an incoming call and allows
switching between calls.

 It can be activated from the phone.

Call Barring

 This service enables to restrict or bar certain or all types of calls to and from your
mobile phone

 To use this service it needs to visit nearby sales office and subscription is required.

Credit transfer service for pre paid mobile customers

As per its corporate values, Ethio Telecom shall strive to commit to understand, meet and
exceed the telecommunications needs and expectations of the country at large and of
customers in particular. To this end, Ethio Telecom has recently launched a credit transfer
service for the pre paid mobile customers in order to meet the needs of communities living in
voucher card inaccessible areas.

The service is fast and easy since it is in user’s hands and does not require visiting Ethio
Telecom sales office.

USSD command service introduction

Ethio Telecom has also introduced the USSD command service which has the following
advantages in recharging and balance inquiring:

 It is customer user friendly (that is ,no time out, no error to network, no to follow
voice command)

 It reduces voice network congestion

 USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) command is a global system for

mobile (GSM) communications technology that is used to send text between a mobile
phone and an application program in the network.

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B .WCDMA (Wide Code Division Multiple Access)

It offers a wide range of advanced services: high speed internet accesses, video and high
quality image transmission, video conversation, online chat; it requires mobile phones that
support 3G, services users are charged at the end of every month (usage charge + rent),
accessing calls while browsing the web page is possible, you can transmit and receive data at
greater speed and capacity, and it also supports all services offered by 2G GSM services in
addition to voice.

GOTA (Global Open Trucking Architecture) is a service given using the CDMA2000
wireless network for the purpose of group communication, the service allows two or more
individuals to communicate and also use it for private and group calls, and the service also
allows the subscriber to make external calls by also subscribing to the mobile wireless

It is also allowing the following functionalities:

 Users can subscribe for to make or receive calls with external network with full or
limited mobility

 One-to-one private calls and one- to- many group calls

 The ability to set the user’s priority

 The ability to perform forced insertion/release based on the user’s priority

 The ability to provide special services such as system paging, group paging, sub
group paging The ability to give organizations a user name and pass word to manage
their users remotely from their organization as per their requirement

D. Satellite mobile telephone

This service enables customers in every part of the globe to be beneficiaries of telecom
services through satellite stationed on the universe. This kind of service needs special
telephone apparatus. This telephone service has been also provided to those customers found
outside the mobile telephone coverage. They provide similar functionality to terrestrial
mobile telephones: voice, short messaging service and low band width internet access are
supported through this system. It is important service for enterprise mainly working in an
area not covered by the GSM network.

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1.2.3 Internet and Data

A. Broad band internet:

 The term broadband refers to the wide bandwidth characteristics of a transmission

medium and Ability to transport multiple signals and traffic types simultaneously.

Broad band internet is a relatively faster than narrow band internet service provided
thoroughly wired and wireless connections.

 Wired broad band

 Wireless broad band
1.Wired broad band internet

The wired broad band is provided through copper or fiber cables with different access
methods (ADSL). It can be provided with different speed depending on customer’s
requirement and the access they use.

ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology for transmitting digital

information at a high bandwidth on existing copper telephone lines to customers.
ADSL broadband internet is a high-speed internet access service that utilizes normal
telephone lines to send and receives data at speeds which far exceed convention, dial-
up modems.

2.Wireless broad band internet

The wireless can be given through EVDO, VSAT and AIRONET. EVDO is standard
for high speed wireless broad band. The acronym is short for “Evolution Data Only”
or “Evolution Data Optimized”. It is a CDMA technology that supports the high speed
internet data connection with peak speed of 3.1 mb/s and with an average speed of
800Kb/s-1.7mb/s. it works where ever CDMA network is available. EVDO is given in
both post paid and pre paid format. It is now available throughout Addis Ababa and
200 major towns and cities in Ethiopia. It is in bundled in three packages 1, 2 and

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1.2.4 Roaming Service

Roaming define as the ability for GSM user to automatically make and service voice call,
when traveling outside the geographical coverage area of their own home network, customer
travelling abroad can use the service of another foreign operator where Ethio-Telecom has a
commercial roaming agreement in place facilitate this.

There are two types of roaming services. Broadband Internet services uses asymmetric
digital subscriber line (ADLS) and fixed wireless access (FWA) technologies.

1.3 Customer
Ethio telecom is the sole telecommunication operator in the country, every telecom service is
provided by the company. After the company is reborn as ethio telecom the number of
customers are dramatically increasing due to the services provided become more enhanced
both in coverage and quality.
There are two types of customers in the new Ethio telecom organization .Ethio telecom has
divided its customers to make clear and simple for user. The two types of Ethio telecom
customers includes:-
1 .Enterprise customers and
2 .Residential customers.
The Enterprise customers are those customers like governmental organizations, private
companies and nongovernmental organizations. Generally those customers who take a bundle
of services or organization of residential customers are Enterprise customers.
other hand the residential customers are those customers who are single users like me On the
and you. Ethio telecom has its own rule and regulations on how it gives services for those two
different classes of customers differently.

1.3.1 Data customer:

Service is used by some organizations that have their own server & want the telecom
company for the transportation of their signal between their server & client computers.
Examples are:
 Banks for ex. Dashen Bank, Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, etc.
 Companies and organization

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1.3.2 Internet customers

 Internet cafe
 Universities

1.3.3 Mobile customer

 All prepaid mobile customers
 All post-paid mobile customers

1.3.4 Fixed phone customers

All the above services except data services are directly accessible by Individual customers

1.4 Overall Organizational Structure and Work Flow

Ethio-telecom organizational structure includes different functional divisions that are under
direct administration of board of directors. As the picture below shows the organization
structure of Ethio-telecom depends of functional structure. The company has six major
significant divisions which are led by chief officer, departments led by officer and section by
managers. Even if this is create divisional rivalries it is best suit the company for easy
implementation of enterprise solutions application. Division is responsible for the sales
generated from residential people. Enterprise division is responsible for all enterprise like
government organization, profit and nonprofit organization. Marketing and communication
division take care of marketing related activities like tariff revision, new product or service
launch and sales give different sales analysis including market research. Customer service
divisions undertake after sales and per sales activities many, 994,980 for VIP customers.

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Board of Directors

Chief of Executive Chief of Operating

officer Officer

Jean-Michel Latute Daniel Fermine

Chief of Finance Chief Internal

Officer Audit Officer

Woldegabriel Tewolde Andualem Admassie

Chief of Legal
Chief Security

Colonel Gudeta
Lemma Tesemma Olana

Chief of Sourcing
PMO officer
And Facilities Officer

Jean Marie Veron

Jean Beraud

Chief Human Resource Chief of Quality

Officer And process Officer

Kidist Zegeye Christian Galdemas

Chief Residential Chief Enterprises Chief Customer Chief Technical Chief Information
Marketing and Sales Officer Services Officer Officer

Patrick Boulet Eric Frachon

Andria Ramaherijaona
Denis Nicolas Desbareau Michel Levet

Figure 1.1 management organization chart of ethio telecom

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Beside the main office structure, the company has 10 regional offices throughout the country.
These regional offices are located in main cities and they are also used as a regional gateway
(regional exchange).
The name of the regional offices are listed below
1. Addis Ababa 1 regional office(Addis Ababa)
2. Addis Ababa 2 regional office(Addis Ababa)
3. North eastern &Semera regional office(Dessie)
4. Northern regional office(Mekelle)
5. North western regional office(Bahir Dar)
6. Eastern &Jijiga regional office(Dire Dawa)
7. South western regional office(Jimma)
8. Southern regional office(Shashemene)
9. South eastern regional office(Nazret)
10. Western regional office(Nekemt)

1.4.1 Work flow description

The above figure clearly shows the work levels and work flows of ethio telecom. The figure
starts from the board of directors and chief executive directors, Chief finance officer and
internal Audit. The chief executive officer control and coordinate the lower branches. The
branches which are called Chief sourcing Facilities officer, Chief Operating officer, Chief
Technical Officer and Chief Technical Officer of all the regional divisions. When other sub
division such as Chief Operating officer is also controls Chief Residential Marketing & Sales,
Chief Residential Marketing & Sales Officer and Chief Customer Services Officer.

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2.1 How We Get Into The Company?

Jigjiga university gives us a chance for finding our internship hosting company by ourselves.
The curriculum of the University states that when the students of Institute of Technology are
4th year, they should be sent to the company to accomplish the internship program. To
facilitate the program, the university established an independent office. This office is the
university industry linkages (UIL) office. We found that ethtio telecom is suitable according
to our department, interest and its site of location. After deciding this, we went to ethio
telecom Addis Ababa (legehar branch) submitting a request letter for internship. Now Ethio
Telecom formerly Ethiopian telecommunication corporation Addis Ababa(Legehar branch) is
the company we prefer for the internship where we could get practical work experience and
develop my practical knowledge.

2.1.1 Work section in Ethiotelecom Company

After the gate is opened and we join Ethiotelecom the first task we have done were taking an
induction training to introduce ourselves with the overall matters in Ethiotelecom. At the end
of the induction training we select the work section that we stay for the next four months in
Ethio telecom.

There are different divisions in ethiotelecom which are allowed for student to practice
during their internship for four month this division is:
 The customer service division
 The network division
 The information system division and
 The enterprise division
 From these divisions the first division (The customer service division) has three
section under the main division. These departments are
 Trouble Ticket section (TTS)
 Customer Service section (CS)
 Technical support section (TSS)

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The selection process is by our chance we take a paper from a pot which contains the
name of the sections. by our chance we take a paper to join us to The customer service
division department.

As we totally explain in our monthly report of the internship practice we spent around
two weeks to start the practice session by some issues like work visit and arranging some
matters in the offices.

2.2 Work flow in the section of customer service

Figure 2.1 customer section division

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2.2.1 Contact Center Section Center

As the name indicates in section where our customer can contact ethio telecom for complaint,
enquiry, request, feedback & soon the means of contact for is via phone will be multiple
channel contact center very soon.

 The contact center function using two access number those are 994&980
 994 is dedicated for residential
 Information the company on contacts profile to analyses reasons for calling
identify customer needs
 Create trouble if tickets for incident that are not solved in first call

2.2.2 Trouble Ticket Section

Trouble ticket section is central management of all customer complaints of ethio telecom
customers. The section is managed by one manager & four supervisors. The section main
activates are

 managing TT conformation for major and critical customer TT

 Trouble shooting normal & major customer Controlling & follow up company
back log TT
 Controlling & follow up ping pang TTS (TTs which are in back and forth status
with our giving solution and impacting customer Highly)
 managing customers escalated TTs

2.2.3 Technical Support Section

 Interface between customer service and TT
 New tools Implementation when /if need
 Corrective action and implements done in due time when needed

We practiced how to talk the customers and how to solve customers’ problem.

The work flow goes on by using the software known as IPCC (Internet Protocol Contact
Center) .These software is been held before three month on previous time they use NGCC
(Next Generation Contact Center) as a tool to contact customers. Since we practiced after
NGCC we don’t know that much about it ,all we know is they still use these NGCC for
registering TT (Trouble Ticket) .

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The structure of contact center

Figure 2.2 Next Generation Contact Center (NGCC)

Figure 2.3 structure of Internet protocol contact center (IPCC)

2.2.4 Internet protocol contact center (IPCC)

IP Contact center (IPCC) is an intelligent device platform with processing capability.

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it integrates the access processing technologies of mediasuch as the Internet ,VoLP,E-mail,

fax and video.

Basic Concepts of IPCC

There are three Important equipment's in IPCC system:

 UAP (Universal Access Platform)

 CTI platform (Computer & Telephony Integration )

 MSP System (Multimedia service Platform)

 CTI Technology

It is a technology that allows interactions on a telephone and a computer to be

integrated or coordinated.

 MSP Technology
It is a Technology that allows interaction on data.
 UAP Technology
It is a Technology that allows interaction on voice

2.2.5 Voice Call Operations

 After the incoming call is forwarded out, the forwarded-to service agent

begins to talk with the customer. In addition, the forwarded-to service agent
can read the communication description that you enter and the information
about the service request type that you select.

Agent state description as below

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State Description

Login A service agent logins to the system but he/she is not ready to serve/make
calls (on preparation) and only can receive call after clicking "service" tab

Idle State when a service agent is waiting for an incoming call allocated by the

Taking State when a service agent is processing an incoming call.

When the agent is under talking state, the agent can perform other customer
care operations example: TT creation, call reason registration, knowledge

Arranging State when a service agent is processing the transactions related to calls
(such as filling in a service request) after a customer hangs up.
BUSY for(reason) State when a service agent shows busy.

Busy State when a service agent shows busy.


Learning A service agent can enter the Learning state to perform operations such as
querying information, browsing bulletins and memos, and browsing

Tables 2.1Control Connection Status

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2.3 Technical support for CDMA

1.numbers on the voucher card and press #
In short
Dial 903...
1#1#hidden numbers on the card#

2. How to Query My Balance?

Step 1. Dial 903
Step 2. Press 2#
Step 3. Press 1# or enter your CDMA number and press #
Step 4. Enter your user pin nu 1.


Step-1.Check whether the account exists on ZSMART and the status is not terminated
or blocked.

 If the account is not exist inform the customer to go to ET shop.

 If the serves is terminated or blocked tell the customer an appropriate action to
resolve the problem.
 If the service is active proceed to the next step.
 Step 2.ask the customer whether the modem is powered on and all lights are green.

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 If there is no light on power advise the customer to powered the modem or making
on off the switch.
 If there is no light Ethernet advice the customer to check his connection.
 If there is no light on DSL or internet create TT.
 If all lights are green proceed to the next step.

Step 3. Inform the customer to accessed his modem from his computer.

 Launch internet explorer or another web browser.

 Connect to the modem with an IP address of
 Inter admin on both user name and password.
Step 4.Check before connection status.

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If XDSL modem cannot be accessed/disconnect advise the customer the following

possible solution:
 Recheck ADSL network physical connection.
Make his/ her computer network configuration dynamic
STEP 5.Check after connection status .


 If the connection is ready to connect but have error code refer error code list and
provide solution.
 If the problem cannot be solve online create TT.

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SIM Lost/stolen to be locked

SIM status Enquiry

Unable to make call with Fixed Line

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Figure 2.4 voice call operation



Evolution of mobile communication

Mobile communication is commercialized it has experienced three stages according
to the development process and trend. These are:
 First Generation Mobile System (1G) and it is described as analog mobile telephony
system. Its focus is on voice communication.
 Second Generation Mobile System (2G) or digital mobile communication system. It
uses digital signal processing techniques and interconnects with digital network.
There is an additional system which is called 2.5G. The transition from 2G to 2.5G
was based upon the introduction of data service and packet switching methods. This
new methods enabled the introduction of new services, namely the Internet.
 Third Generation Mobile System (3G) or wideband mobile communication system. It
was further improved with a focus in new services
3G Internet refers to third generation wireless network

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A connection between two people a caller and called person is the basic service of all
telephone networks. To provide this service, the network must be able to set up and
maintain a call, which involves a number of tasks: identifying the called person,
determining the location, routing the call, and ensuring that the connection is
sustained as long as the conversation lass. In practice, the network has to find
solutions to three problems before it can even set up a call.
 Where is the subscriber?
 Who is the subscriber?
 What does the subscriber want?

In other words, the subscriber has to be located and identified to provide him/her with the
requested services. Although, its frequency multiplexing greatly increases the system
capacity; the network intelligence enables the cell-crossing transit and roaming function and
increases the service scope, it has limitation.

2.4 Work Tasks

After knowing the work flow of each of the sections and the overall telecom system the
technical manager gives us the chance to select one of the section in which we can
accomplish our work task. We told him that we are willing to do at the customer service
(CS) especially in Trouble Ticket section (TTS). When I first entered into the CS class,
we asked our supervisor what the major task in the section is and he told us that it is fault
or alarm management and when the problem occurred in site you will be seen. After he
gave us some introduction about the software, he gave to us manuals which make us
introduced well with the software. From day to day we developed our skill in utilizing the
software by reading the manuals that he gave to us and also asking questions when we
were faced by conditions difficult to understand.
2.5 Challenges we faced and measures we have taken

There are many challenges we faced during our internship report in ethiotelecom.

These challenges are:

 Lack of practical knowledge related to our work Lake of prerequisite courses

 There is no enough access of materials like that of computer.
 The supervisors didn’t give much of their time for us and there is no one who order
us to know some practices about customer services of ethio telecom .

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 The company supervisor is not given the project.

 We didn’t expose too much for practical works

The basic thing on facing challenges is that how much we are ready and able to
propose a solution and we have undertaken the solution in to practice and solve or
overcome the challenges we faced. By getting this in to our mind we try to propose
some solutions and we put them on practice. The measures we have taken to
overcome the challenges we faced can be listed as follows.

1. By dealing with our supervisors we got some documents and put all our effort to read
them. After reading those documents we got some basic knowledge about customer
services of ethiotelecom. Basically we are going to study about the software base
switch (soft switch) operation and their function in ethiotelecom.

2. As explained before we are going to search for the appropriate materials from our
supervisors for practice and we get one computer with two or three students .But this
is not enough for us but we are still continue or work by sharing knowledge we have
got from ethiotelecom documents.

3. In our department which is customer services our supervisor is busy but by asking our
supervisors repeat we try to contact any supervisor and customer worker to see some
customer of ethiotelecom

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After our university was accepted these programs from the ministry of education we are
implement this program to develop our theoretical knowledge toward practical knowledge. In
addition to practical knowledge we also get many things like how we can operate and next
generation network (NGN) , Internet Protocol Contact Center (IPCC) based on software
switching and sub netting of internet protocol by sharing with our theoretical knowledge we
got before.

In university we learnt more theoretical, calculation and some laboratory techniques (labs)
parts until four year second semester. This was very important for us to share some of our
knowledge with ethiotelecom Company. In case of practical and theoretical knowledge we
learnt more about data communication and communication like that of how we are working
with application layer .

during the internship, we are able to know that understanding the courses is not the only
requirement to be a good worker, but additional skills are needed. This includes:
 Having a good work ethics
 Having a good inter personal communication skills
 Having a good team playing skill
 Being able to relate different courses to build and understand a given system
 Being initiative and having a good perception about your works
 Increase practical skills
 Develop communication skills

3.1 Theoretical Knowledge

After we began internship in ethio telecom Addis Ababa (Legehar branch ) we usually read
about the Customer service soft copy because we was assigned in CS room for the
internship practical works. Gathering information from any written materials are like a good
set of direction to upgrade our theoretical knowledge and ask some questions then to get
information to the CS.
The duties that we perform to upgrade my theoretical knowledge in the internship includes:
 Exchange information

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 Asking different questions from ethio telecom workers, ZTE workers, advisors
 Using reference books
 By using internet resource
The theoretical knowledge that we have gained to understood that for system that have
different electrical and electronic devices we have to take care of their safety and ourselves.
Generally from the internship we have upgraded our theoretical knowledge regarding
wireless communications in addition to formal learning.

3.2 Practical skill

To improve our practical skill, we make and use the following tasks frequently while we
were in the company
 To creating good relationships within employees
 Giving special attention to the practice.
 Rising questions
 Trying to know the environment
 Knowing what to offer
 To be alert to get information
 Exchanging information
 Respecting others and keeping the rules and regulations of the company
In addition to this, we have got practical skills about how to handle faults and what
procedures to take to correct the faults and also seen the function of hardware

3.3 Interpersonal Communication Skills

It measures the people’s quality within the society, his/her sociability, polite and respectful
manners. We have responsible to others by acting ethically, legally and morally and by
communicating our feelings, thoughts, needs etc. appropriately. We have responsible to our
work colleagues to perform our task effectively and in a manner. In general, we have
observed that it is a must to create smooth relation amongst different workers. This is because
each and every department in the factory is dependent one on the other. So to be fruitful there
has to be good communication between each and every members of the company.
Inter personal communication helps to improve self-worth and self-confidence and establish
greater recognition that the employee (we and other workers) can contribute in a meaningful
way. The following are the ways that benefits for creating meaning full relationships and
helps us to improve our interpersonal communication skill from the internship. These are:

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 To be a good listener and speaker

 Be polite
 Attack ideas not people
 Avoid faulty generalization
 Avoid confusing
 Respect others etc.
We have concluded that, inter personal communication is the most essential ground for the
efficiency of the company in delivering its desired services

3.4 Team Playing Skills

We really understand team work is important to strength the effort to accomplish the task. In
our observation and doing the following are necessary when we are involved in team work
 Making discussion of ideas
 Coordinate the team
 Directing the discussion in terms of the team goals
 Making decision
General that we gained by team playing good communication, concentration, fast decision
making, self-confidence, developing social interaction ,upgrading our potential, progressing
speaking ability and a wellbeing feeling are important for all team members.

3.5 Leadership Skills

The overall benefit that we gain from the internship regarding improving leadership is that,
directing successful leadership results in the employee growth and development with new
skills and capabilities that enables to increase the productivity. People follow a great leader
because he is representative of the beliefs of a group.
The overall benefit that we gain from the internship regarding improving leadership is that,
directing successful leadership results in the employee growth and development with new
skills and capabilities that enables to increase the productivity. People follow a great leader
because he is representative of the beliefs of a group. This person is often a well-principles
individual who is focused on a common goal and eliminates excess fear.

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3.6 Work Ethics

Work discipline or desired work behavior can be achieved only by obeying and respecting

the moral or ethical standards of profession. Ethical standards enable workers to distinguish

the right or desired way of conduct from the wrong ones.

A worker with a right conduct or good ethical standard:
 Arrive to work at least 15 minutes before the schedules start time this offers the ability to
mentally prepare for tasks.
 Shall not be absent from work unless for sufficient reason.

 Developing a strong work ethic involves taking initiative.

 Shall have good relations with the factory administration and the employees.

 Shall not involve in corruption.

 Put a positive spin on negative comments.

3.7 Entrepreneurship skill

Previously there were people employed in the company which had much connection with
entrepreneurship and creating new things usable by the society and profitable for the
company. Currently there is nothing seen which can be appreciated as an entrepreneurship.

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In the last sixteen weeks long internship program, we have really transformed from the
theoretical world to the practical and touchable world. This program actually created a great
deal of opportunity to check ourselves about how good we are in accepting and handling our
responsibilities and generally helped us to recognize who really we are regarding the way that
we handle problems and design solutions, communicate with colleagues, develop
entrepreneurship skills and so on. The performance department where we have spent most of
our internship time is a section which the performance of the outcomes of every departments
are seriously followed up and analyses are made. Therefore customer complaints and
questions are handled and got solutions in this department. This in turn greatly helped us in
developing skills as to how we can manage these complains and questions and treat our
customers. Specially, the optimization process which is the base for improving the network
performance with the existing resources is very exciting and helped us to explore and
investigate the whole customer related conditions. Because, its critical target is to increase the
utilization of the network resources, solve the existing and potential problems on the network
and identify the probable solutions for future network planning which is directly related to
customer demands.

The key transition from the first to the second generation was due to digitalization, i.e., while
1G was based on analog technology, 2G was based on digital signal processing techniques.
The transition from 2G to 2.5G was based upon the introduction of data service and packet
switching methods. This new methods enabled the introduction of new services, namely the
Internet. With 3G this scenario was further improved with a focus in new services, instead of
only improving technology to provide higher data rate and broader bandwidth.

Generally, what we have gained from the internship program can be shortly listed as follows.

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 Practical and theoretical realization of the telecommunication world

 Customer treatment and complain handling
 Cooperation and team working skills with colleagues
 Familiarization of optimization process in telecommunication areas
 Troubleshooting skills whenever fault occurs
 Responsibility handling

4.2 Recommendations for the company

1. We would strongly recommend that ethiotelecom should provide some bonus and
appreciation for the interns so that the interns would be initiated and moralized to accomplish
many important and problem solving ideas

2. The ethio telecom Addis Ababa(legehar branch) is very profitable and economically

developed company but even there is no sufficient access of internet service.

3. When the problem occurred at to save workers time, the problem is not solved quickly.
4. There is no common assistance for internship students.
5.We also recommend Jigjiga University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

to send mentors to ethiotelecom periodically that is every month so that they should have to
check the student result.

4.3 References

1. GSM manual
2. GSM/GPRS Evaluation and optimization tools
3. Day to day activity note book of ourselves
4. Ethiotelecom workers
5. Different ethiotelecom’s documents

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4.4 Appendix

PTO…….Public Telecommunication Operator

ETA……Ethiopian Telecommunication Authority
ETC…..Ethiopian Telecommunication Corporation
FWA…..Fixed wireless Access
VMS….Voice Mail Service
NGN…..Next Generation Networking
FDMA…..Frequency Division Multiple Access
TDMA…..Time division Multiple Access
CDMA….Code Division Multiple Access
BRAS……Broad Band Access Service
IP……Internet Protocol
ETC......Ethiopian Telecommunication Corporation
GSM..... Global System for Mobile communication
SIM.....subscriber identity number
TTS... Trouble Ticket section
CS..........Customer Service section
TSS.... Technical support section
IPCC..... Internet Protocol Contact Center

NGCC..... Next Generation Contact Center

UAP...... Universal Access Platform

CTI ..........Computer & Telephony Integration

MSP ...s.........Multimedia service Platform

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