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GraZyna Blaszczyk Violetta PtasiIiska

English
for Polish
Lawyers
Graiyna Blaszczyk • Violetta Ptasinska

English
for Polish
Lawyers

[! I
~
WVDAwnlCTWD ZRZESZEnlA
AwnlKOW POLSKICH
zo 'ft;sr>Z8wa - 2009
© Copyrigh~ by Centrum lnformacji Prawno-Finansowej Sp. z 0.0.,
Wydawmctwo Zrzeszenia Prawnik6w Polskich - ZO Warszawa
Warszawa 2009 r. '

IGNORANTIA IURIS NOCET


IZaO)lZS V.M.Vlld O~OWOrVNZffi:N

ISBN 978-83-87218-43-0

Redakcja: Tadeusz T. Nowacki

Sklad i lamanie: GRAF Wydawnictwo-Reklama

Zdj~cie na okladce: © Yanik Chauvin - fotolia.com

Projekt okladki: Stefan Sobczak

Druk i oprawa: Drukarnia ARIA

Wydawca: Centrum Informacji Prawno-Fiansowej sp. z 0.0.


Wydawnictwo Zrzeszenia Prawnik6w Polskich - Z/O Warszawa
ul. Grodzienska 21,29; 03-750 Warszawa,
tel. 022 619-25-90; e-mail: cipf@ewspa.edu.pl
Con.ten.ts

introduction - - - - - - " " - " - - - , - ' , " . . . . .. .. . .. . ... 4


i. Legal Pro '\!So on: ( 10 et ,a Pt iris ). .... ... . . . . . . .. 5

2. Elements of L _" 0
0

- La :yer - - t: .- o~ion of ign


(Gra ::yna Blas;:c:: ". ___, __, . . 13

3. Diyision of the Law ( • ~ -,a p.as.n.


-; "- ~ ) .. _ . .
.18
4 . Entrepreneurs (ViOl -m.:ka) . . , . _ .30
5. Contracts (Graiyna B~n~..,.r7"..1-1, • , __ • .39

6. Employment (Labour) tta Ptasms - ) .51

7. Intellectual Propem" .ra Ptasiris " ) .61

8. The Polish Judicial . 0 =vna Blas::c::vk)


~ , .73

9. Criminal (Penal) Law (G~-"""<"I31aszczyk) . .81

10. Administrative Law (Gra....'] a Blaszczyk) .91


100
11. Key.
ll~

12. Bibliography

13. Online sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115


Introduction

The authors are pleased to present a new coursebook with a difference.


The book, unlike any other of its kind, is based on Polish law. It is aimed
at Polish students, Polish lawyers and all those who intend to begin
. tudying legal English in a Polish la\'\' context, and who have a knowledge
of Engli h at the intermediate level.

The exercises provided in each chapter are meant mainly to teach learners
techniques used in ILEC and TOLES examination papers. The answers
provided in the key do not include answers to the glossary or translation
exercises as they arc supposed to develop self-work.

The authors would like to draw the readers ' attention to the fact that the
handbook is based on British English and only presents legal issues as
a source of linguistic, not legal knowledge.

Special thanks are conveyed to Mr Piotr Ptasinski for his linguistic


support.
1. Legal Professions

Find words or phrases in the text which mean:

ustawa -
ratyfikowane umowy mi~dzynarodowe -

post~powanie karne -
prawo wsp61notowe -
lamanie prawa -
sprawa karna -
oskarzac w s'ldzie -
upowainienie/umocowanie -
akt notarialny -
sporz'ldzac kontrakt -
poswiadczenie -
dokumenty urz~dowe -
osoba zaufania publicznego -
sprawy opiekuncze -

In Poland, a graduate of the faculty oflaw at a university who acquired the


qualification (title) of a Master is referred to as a lawyer. The programme
of the studies covers, among others:
_ the history of the Polish system of government,
legal logics,
- Latin for lawyers,
- ethics,
- rhetorics,
- constitutional law,
Roman law,
- administrative law,
- civil law,
- criminal (penal) law,
- tax law,
employment (labour) law,
- commercial (mercantile, business) law,
- banking law,
- financial law,
- administrative/civil/criminal (penal) proceedings.

The legal professions requiring further training are as follows:


1. a judge,
2. a (public) prosecutor,
3. an advocate,
4. a legal adviser,
5. a notary (public).

A judge

Judges are officials who preside over a court and decide cases. They settle
disputes and administer justice un behalf of the state. 111ey exercise their
power independently, which means that they are excluSively subject to:
a. the Constitution,
b. the laws (statutes/acts),
c. ratified international agreements,
d. the Community Law.
A (public) prosecutor

Prosecutors are legal representatives of the prosecution, i.e. the legal


party responsible for presenting the case against an i~divi~ual suspec~ed
of breaking the law in a criminal trial. In co-operatlOn with the polIce,
they conduct the preparatory proceedings in criminal cases, pres.ent the
indictment and prosecute (accuse) in court. They undertake actiOns ~et
forth in the laws, based on the principle of impartiality and the equahty
of treatment of all citizens.

An advocate and a legal adviser

Advocates and legal advisers advise people who are involved in disputes
and represent them in court. They provide legal aid to legal subjects, i.e.
natural and legal persons, providing legal advice, drafting legal opinions,
etc. Based on a power of attorney, they act in courts and administrative
organisations on behalf of their clients. The main difference between
advocates and legal advisers is that advocates can perform the full range
of legal services, while legal advisers are prohibited from providing legal
services involving family, guardianship or criminal cases. Legal advisers
mainly deal with business and public administration cases and often work
as in-house counsels. Bars of Advocates and Bars of Legal Advisers are
independent, self-governing organisations uniting the members of the
above professions.

A notary (public)

The notary public is a lawyer appointed by the Minister of Justice to


perform duties connected with drafting contracts in the form of notarial
deeds, certifications, etc. He provides independent and impartial advice
to the contractual parties and provides legal advice with respect to con-
tracts. The documents issued by a notary public are official documents.
He is a person of public trust and is protected as a public officer.
I. Are the statements below true or false?

1. A graduate of a faculty of law may perform the profession of


a prosecutor.
2. The range of competence of advocates and legal advisers is the same.
3. Advocates may represent a client in family cases.
4. Bars of Advocates are subordinated to the Supreme Court.
5. Documents issued by a notary are deemed official.

II. Who would you consult in the following matters:

1. You have some problems with land which you have just inherited.
2. You want to transfer property rights to your sister.
3. You are not satisfied with a ruling of a court in a criminal case and
you want to appeal.
4. Your house has been burgled.
5. Your company has some problems with a merger.

III. Match the words to make collocations. Translate them into Polish.

1. exercise ............. . a. disputes


2. settle ............... . b. indictment
3. administer ......... . c. justice
4. act .................. . d. on behalf of a client
5. present ............ .. e. power

IV. Complete the missing prepositions.

1. Advocates appear in court ......... behalf ......... their clients ........ .


the basis of a power ......... attorney.
2. Lawyers are obliged to maintain independence .. ....... pressures
exercised ....... .. political and administrative authorities as well
as remain independent ......... their clients in spite ......... representing
their interests.
different siz.e and they range . ....... . a one-person
3. Law firms are. . . . . . . . . .
· large world-wide compames.
soI0 practIce. . . . . . . . . d . t th
. 1 d )'uristic doctrine explain an mterpre e
• La"..rvers lnVO ve .. , ... , . . 'Co
-±. . I I d any specl11c
1.aw, b ut ........ . an abstract manner, not re ate .. , ..... .
cases. 1
5. Lawyers-practitioners specialise ......... different areas ......... the aw,
often entailing a lot ......... trial work.

V. Complete the missing word.

1 A judge ......... over a court.


a. rules b. presides c. decides

2 .......... the law may result in severe punishment.


a. breaking b. supporting c. braking

3. In criminal cases, the police ... ... . .. proceedings together with the
prosecutor.
a. implement b. provide c. conduct

4. A notary ......... contracts, certifications and other documents


of an official character.
a. \vrites b. signs c. drafts

5. A ......... person is a person from the moment of birth until death.


a. natural b. physical c. legal

VI. Complete the sentences with the missing words. Choose


from among the following: Community, Roman, Constitution,
employment, commercial

1. 'The . ........................ is the highest law of the Republic


of Poland.
2. Civil law is based on ......................... law.
3. The member-states of the EU are subject to the .... " .............. law.
4. Company law is a part of ......................... law.
5. In Great Britain, ......................... law is not exactly the same
as labour law.

VII. Paraphrase the following expressions from plain English into


more formal, legal language.

to prepare a document -
...............................................................

to make necessary arrangements before an event - ................. .

to describe/determine something in a document - ................. .

to act according to the Constitution - ............................. .


. .. ... . .. .... .. ... ... .. .. . .. .. .. .. ... .. ... . .. .. ... . . . .. .. . . .. ..

to give advice on legal matters - .................................. .


. . . . . .. .. .. .. .. ... ... .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. . .. . ... . . .. .... .. .. .. . .. . ..

VIII. Give short definitions (in English) of the following:

the principle of impartiality


., ............................................... ..... , ....... .
. .. .. ... .. . . .. ... .. . . . . . ... . . .. .. .. . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . .. ... . . . .. .. .
equality of treatment
..... , ........ , ..... , .......................... , .............. .
. . , ...................... , ... , ........ , .................... , ., .
a legal person
.. , ., .... , ..... , ................... , ..... , ., .... , .......... , .. .
.. .. . . . .... .. ... .. .. , ..................... , ................ , ., .
a natural person
....... , ., .................... , ., .......... , .. , ., ............. .
. .. . ..... . , ............................... , ........ , ., .. , .. , ., .

'"
a person of public trust
....... . .. . . . ..... .. .......... . ..... ..... .. . ... .. .........
. ......... .
.......... . ..... . . . . ......... .. .......... . ......... .

IX. Translate into Polish.

1. The contract needs to be concluded in the form of a notarial deed .


...... ....... . .... .. . ... ... .. .. .......................... .
.................... . ......................................... .
2. Judges are subordinated to, among others, ratified international
agreements which were approved by an act of Parliament.

...............................................................

3. Clerks of the court and registrars are responsible for court


administration .
.............................................................. .
.............................................................. .

4. In some countries, a bailiff is a court clerk appointed to submit writs .


.............................................................. .
. .. . ........................ ... . .. .... ... ... ... .. ............ . .

5. To act on behalf of a client, an advocate needs to be provided with


a power of attorney.
.............................................................. .
. .. ... .. . .... . . . ... ... ... .. ... .. ....... ....................... .

X. Translate into English.

1. iezawislosc s~dzi6w daje im prawo do podejmowania decyzji


niezaleinie od sytuacji politycznej panstwa .
.... ............ ......... ... . .. . ... .... ... ................... . .

1 1
2. Adwokaei s,! zrzeszeni w niezaleznyeh izbaeh adwokaekieh .
.. .... ... ... .... ..... . .... .. ........ .. . .. .... . .. ... . .... ...... .
. . ... .. ... ... .. .. ... ... ...... ... . .. .. . . . ...... ... . , . .......... .
... ....... . .. .. ..... .. ........ .. .... ........ .. ... . .. .... . .. .. ..
3. JeSli niemoiliwe jest rozstrzygni((cie sporu pozas'!dowo, strony mog,!
bye reprezentowane w s,!dzie przez adwokatow.

· ...... '" ...... . ........... " . .. " .. ...... .. ... .. ... . '" ..... .
.. ...
" " ..................................................... .
4. Wymierzanie sprawiedliwosci nalezy do s'!dow, ktore sprawuj,! t((
funkej(( w imieniu panstwa.
· ......... ... " .......................... . ...... ........ .... .
"

·. '"......................... .. ... ............ .. ...


'" .... . '"

· .... " . .. ............................. ....... .... ... ....... . "

5. Zakres kompeteneji adwokatow i radeow prawnyeh jest bardzo


zblizony. Radey prawni nie mog,! reprezentowae klientow w sprawaeh
rodzinnyeh, opiekunezyeh i karnyeh.
· ............................................ .. ......... ... . .
"

· ................... ........................... .. ... .. ...... .


"

· .. " ....................................... . ... .... . ...... ... .


....... ... . .. .. . . .. .. .. ... .. . . .. . .. . .. .. ... . . . .. . .. .. . . .. . . . . ..

XI. Work in pairs. Tell your partner about your professional plans.

XlI. Topics for discussion:

1. The legal training system in Poland.


2. The types of work opportunities for lawyers in Poland.
2. Elements of Logi~S for Lawyers
_ the Notion of Slgn

Find wo rds or phrases in the text which mean:

zawrzec umow~ -
strona umowy -
kodeks cywilny -
wyrazic zgod~ -
zachowanie -
s~dzia -
prokurator -
swiadek -
skladac zeznania -
niewinnosc -

wycofac si~ z umowy -

The basic element of culture is the ability to use signs, especially word signs
- spoken or written. However, there are also other signs, e.g. someone
ties a knot to rerriember to pay a telephone bill or the commander
of a squad shoots a signal flare to give the sign to start a battle. In each
of these situations man caused a certain state of affairs triggering a set
of phenomena or rules following it.
1 '2
Lawyers in their work also deal with signs and not only word signs.
When a contract is concluded there should be acceptance of both
contracting parties. Although such a statement of acceptance is usually
made by using word signs, according to art. 60 of the Polish Civil Code,
if there is no objection, the party may express its acceptance by its
conduct, e.g. by nodding the head, which according to our customs means
consent. If a passenger takes a seat on a bus after he has paid the fare
it means that he has entered into a contract with the transport company
and accepted the terms and conditions of the contract. In special situations
the passive conduct of one party can mean a lack of acceptance, e.g.
if one party does not respond to the offer. A lawyer should be familiar
with the signs used by a given community. The whole collection of word
signs creates a language. Generally languages differ from one another
by their vocabulary and syntax. While talking about the vocabulary
of a given language, we should remember that an important part of it
are idioms - complex expressions with a meaning different from the one
that separate words would suggest. A judge or a prosecutor working with
a special group of people should know idioms. Otherwise, there can be
misunderstandings while a witness gives evidence. There is also a special
kind of language used by the people of the same professional jargon.
An example of it is the "legal language". The purpose of this book is
to make you familiar with it.

Exercises

1. Decide if the sentences are true or false.

1. People always tie knots when they want to remember about some-
thing.
2. When parties accept the contract they always shake their heads.
3. According to the Polish Civil Code the contracting parties may accept
the conditions of the contract by way of special behaviour.
4. An example of a contract is when a passenger buys a ticket and a bus
takes him to his destination.
5. Idioms are expressions used by people belonging to the same profes-
sional group.
II. Match the words from the text with their meanings.

1. conclude (a contract) .. . .. al set of laws


2. contracting party. . . . . . . .. bl behaviour
3. Civil Code. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . c/ make
4. conduct.. . ... ............. dl the side of an agreement
5. enter (into a contract) . . .. el to declare that somebody will take part
in something
6. syntax.... ... ......... .... . fl a person who sees an event take place
7. judge. . . . . .. . .. ... . . . .... .. gI arrangement of words into phrases
8. prosecutor................. hi an officer with authority to decide cases
in a court of law
9. give evidence. ... ... . . ..... if tell what one has seen (testify)
10. witness. ... . ... . . . .. . .. ... jl a person representing the state in
a court of law

III. In the text you have a sentence:

Although such a statement of acceptance is usually made by using word


signs, according to Art. 60 of the Polish Civil Code, if there is no objection,
the party may express its acceptance by its conduct, e.g. by nodding the
head, which according to our customs means consent.

You can express the same idea in the following way:


In spite of (despite) the fact that such a statement of acceptance is usually
made by using word signs, according to Art. 60 of the Polish Civil Code,
if there i~ no objection a party may express its acceptance by its conduct, e.g.
by nodding the head, which according to our customs means consent.
In SPit~ of such a statement of acceptance being made by using word signs,
according to ~rt. 60 of the Polish Civil Code, if there is no objection the party
may e~press Its acceptance by its conduct, e.g. by nodding the head, which
according to Our customs means consent.

15
Transform the following sentences:

1. Although the witness took an oath to tell the truth, the jury did not
believe him.
In spite of the fact that ................. '....................... .
............................................................ .
.... ..... ....... .............................. .. ............ .

2. In spite of the fact that the judge was convinced of the criminal's
innocence, he hesitated whether he could acquit him.
Although the judge ......................... ... ... .. .......... .

3. Although the parties concluded a contract of sale, one of them decided


to withdraw from the contract later.
Despite the parties' .......................................... .

4. Despite the fact that the court ordered him to stop distributing the
product in Poland, Mr Kowalski continued to do so.
Despite the court's ...... .... .............. ............... ..... .

............................................................ .

5. Although the judge knew the thieves' jargon, he had problems with
understanding the witnesses' testimonies.
In spite of the fact ............................................ .
..................................... ..... .... .............. .
.................................. ......................... ,.

IV. Form the noun or verb.

Noun Verb
1. testimony
2............ . conclude
3 .. . ......... . prosecute
16
4. objection
::> . acceptance

V. Translate.

1. Przy zawieraniu umowy potrzebna jest zgoda obu stron.

2. Wedlug polskiego kodeksu cywilnego kazda ze stron moze wyraziC


zgod~ na warunki umowy nie tylko za pomoq slOw.

3. Prawnik powinien zapoznac si~ z warunkami umowy.

4. Pojawily si~ pewne nieporozumienia w trakcie skladania zeznan.

5. Kiwni~cie glowCl nie oznacza zgody we wszystkich kulturach.

VI. Give examples of signs generally accepted in our country.

VII. Give an example of a situation when smoke or raising hands means


something (conventional meaning).

VIII. Give an example of a contract that is concluded without using


words.

17
3. Division of the Law

Taking into consideration different factors, the law is divided into sections
or branches. One of the oldest classifications is:
1. public law, and
2. private law.
The former regulates legal relations between autonomous subjects entitled
to their own, legally protected areas of proprietary and non-proprietary
interests, the latter refers to legal relations in which at least one of the
parties is a state body, self-governing territorial body or other organisation
appointed by operation of law.

Within both of the sets, there are branches of the law, which are coherent
and organised compilations of legal norms regulating vast categories
of legal relations. On the basis of the method of regulation, the law
is divided into the following main branches:
• civil law,
• criminal (penal) law,
• administrative law.

CIVIL LAW

Find words or phrases in the text which mean:

skodyfikowany -
prawo stanowione -
zr6dl:a prawa -

kodeks cywilny -
prawo wlasnosci intelektualnej -

prawo zobowi<!zan -
prawo spadkowe -

swoboda umow -
dobra wiara-
dobra osobiste -

Division and principles of civil law

Civil law is the branch of the law, based on the Corpus Juris Civilis,
which governs the relations beh..'een private individuals, their rights
and obligations towards each other and regulates the law directed
at property. Since the 19th century, it has become statutory law and since
1965 it has been codified. The basic source of civil law in Poland is the
Civil Code, which is its systematic compilation. It consists of four Books
divided into Sections, which are in turn sub-divided into Chapters, some
of which are split into Divisions.

Civil law has many sub-branches. A specific role is given to employment


(labour) law, intellectual property law, commercial law or family law (law of
domestic relations), which are often treated as separate branches of the law.

FollOWing the Civil Code, a classical sub -division of civil law is as


follows:

1. general part - referring to the principles which are common for the
entire civil law,
2. property law - containing legal norms of absolute (effective for
everybody, nature connected with o"''Ilership, possession and other
things,

19
3. law of obligations (contract law) - regulating the forms of the
exchange of goods and services between the subjects of civil law,
4. law of succession/inheritance - presenting the legal norms referring
to the transfer of the decedent ' s property to. other legal subjects.

Civil law is guided by certain principles, some of which are:

• protection of property,
• freedom of contract,
• lex retro non agit,
• protection of good faith,
• protection of personal goods and chattels.

1. True or false?

1. Civil law derives from Roman law.


2. Civil law is based on codes.
3. All Chapters of the Polish Civil Code are divided into Divisi.ons.
4. Property law is guided by legal norms which do not apply ill all cases
referring to possession.
5. The law is retroactive.

II. Give short definitions in English of the following expressions:

Civil Code-
statutory law -
commercial law -
decedent -
inheritance -

20
III. Complete the chart.

I verb person abstract noun


inheritance
\
succession
I
regulate -

decedent
refer -

IV. In the text below, find the English equivalents of the words
or expressions:

ratyfikowane umowy mi«dzynarodowe-

rozporzqdzenie -
organ -
stan nadZ\vyczajny I wojenny I wyjqtkowy -
ustawodawca -
uchwala -
prawo do glosowania -
akty wykonawcze -
ogloszenie ustawy (two expressions) -
zawrzec umow« -
traktat -
porozumienie -
karta -
zgodnie z konstytucjq -
strona (umowy) -
Dziennik Ustaw -

przewidywac np. w umowie)-


")1
Sources of civil law

The sources of civil law are set forth in the Constitution, in the
hierarchical order:
• the Constitution,
• the laws (statutes, acts),
• ratified international agreements,
• regulations.

The Constitution is the most significant law in the Republic of Poland,


which means that no higher normative system can be recognised.
It regulates the rights and obligations of citizens, including the legal
relations ben.yeen citizens and the authorities, as well as the system of the
public authorities, definitions of their sources, powers and bodies. It also
deals with public finances and extraordinary measures, such as martial
law, state of emergency or state of natural disaster.

Statutes are the next source of the law. They may be passed independen-
tly, i.e. always when the legislator considers it necessary, provided they
do not breach the Constitution. A bill may be proposed by:
1. the President of the Republic of Poland,
2. the Council of Ministers, acting by way of a resolution,
3. the Senate, acting by way of a resolution,
4. at least 15 members of Seym, acting by way of a resolution
passed by a Seym committee, and finally
5. the citizens, having full voting rights to the Seym, acting in a group
of at least 100,000 people.
A bill is filed with the Seym in writing, supported by a justification and
the drafts of the necessary executive legislation. After all necessary pro-
ceedings, a law is Signed by the President, who orders its promulgation.

International agreements also constitute one of the most impo-


rtant sources of the law. They are concluded by states or international
organisations and may be bilateral or multilateral. A multilateral agree-
ment may allow the accession of other states. An international agreement
may be referred to as a treaty, pact, convention, protocol, settlement,

22
charter, declaration, contract, statute, etc. The name does not depend
on the content of the agreement and may be chosen deliberately by
the parties. Under the Constitution, international agreements to wh ich the
Republic of Poland is a party, constitute a part of the domestic legal order
and are applied directly provided that they are promulgated (published)
in the Journal of Laws and they do not stipulate that their effectiveness
will be dependent on an enactment of a law.

Regulations may be issued by the following bodies set forth in the


Constitution:
(1) The President of the Republic of Poland,
(2) the Council of Ministers,
(3) the Prime Minister,
(4) Ministers,
(5) the National Broadcasting Council.
A regulation is an executory provision and may be issued on ly if a law
expressly authorises one of the above bodies to execute and 1
the regulation. promu gate

V. Answer the questions.

1. What is the source of information on th d' ..


Republic of Poland? e IVlSlon of powers in the

2. How can the Council o f M'misters


. propose a bill?
3. What documents should be filed . h
4. Who enacts a law? Wit the Seym together with a bill?

!: ~~:\'a::~Y :arties ~ay there be to an international agreement?


mean the ~a:::;;rnatlOnal agreements, do a declaration and a settlement

Can a sh. o,u ld'l~ternational agreements be published to be valid t


7 Where
8'
. mmlster Issue a regulation? .
9. What bodies are allowed to issue regulations t
10. \'\There are the names of the above bodies se~ forth t
VI. Complete the missing prepositions. Then refer to the text and
check.

International agreements are concluded ............ (1) states or inter-


national organisations and may be bilateral or multilateral. A multi-
lateral agreement may allow the accession ............ (2) other states.
An international agreement may be referred ............ (3) as a treaty,
pact, convention, etc. The name does not depend ............ (4) the content
............ (5) the agreement and may be chosen deliberately ............ (6)
the parties ............. (7) the Constitution, international agreement
to which is the Republic ............ (8) Poland is a party, constitute
a part ............ (9) the domestic legal order and are applied directly.

VII. Choose the most suitable word to complete the sentences.

1. Civil law is one of the ............ of the law.


a. divisions b. branches c. sources

2. Absolute nature of property law means that it ............ to all citizens.


a. applies b. enforces c. regulates

3....... '" ... of contract belongs to the principles that guide civil law.
a. library b. litigation c. freedom

4. International agreements are a source of civil law provided that they


are ............ .
a. ratified b. rectified c. retracted

5. The Constitution ......... , .. the rights and obligations of the citizens.


a. sets otf b. sets forth c. sets

VIII. Find the synonyms. Choose from among the words given below.

set forth statute act procedure stipulate written law


proceedings succession statutory law inheritance
....... . .. ..... . . .. .. .. .... ... ... .... .........................

- '" ..... .... . .. . .... . .. ....... . ... ............................. .

........ ........... ....... ... ..... ... . ...................... .

-:::........... . .......... . .... ..... .. ............................ .

...... ..... . ........ .. ...................................... .

IX. In the above texts, there are some sentences containing "provided
(that)", e.g.: International agreements are applied directly provided
(that) they are published in the Journal of Laws.

The sentence may be expressed in other ways:


• International agreements are applied directly if they are published in the
Journal of Laws.
• International agreements are not applied directly unless they are
published in the Journal of Laws.
• International agreements are not applied directly if they are not published
in the Journal of Laws.
• International agreements are applied directly on condition that they are
published in the Journal of Laws.
• International agreements are applied directly subject to a condition that
they are published in the Journal of Laws.
• International agreements are applied direcly with a proviso that they are
published in the Journal of Laws.

Change the following sentences using the word suggested in the


brackets:

1. All citizens have the right to vote if they are of age. (provided)
.. .............................................................
.......... .......... . ... ... ..... .... . ...... . .................. .

25
2. Statues may be passed independently unless they breach the
Constitution. (subject to a condition)

3. International agreements are a source oflaw provided they are ratified.


(with a proviso)

4. A regulation may be issued by the National Broadcasting Council only


if a law authorises the body to its promulgation. (unless)
...............................................................
............... ............................................... .

5. Subject to the condition that all necessary proceedings are completed,


a law is signed by the President. (if)
...............................................................
.............................................................. .

x. Rephrase the following phrases into more formal, legal English.


to decide what the citizens may do - ............... . .............. .
........................................................ .

to submit a document to an institution - .......................... .


.............................................................. .
to break what the Constitution says in article 31 - .................. .
................................................. .
......... .
the companies that signed a contract - ............................ .
.................................. ... ........ .... ... .......... .

to let the Prime Minister issue a regulation - .. ... ... .............. . .


........................................... . . ........... . ..... .

26
XL Translate the following articles of the Constitution into Polish.
C~mpare with the original text in the Constitution .

. rreedom of the person shall receive legal protection. (Art. 31.1)


......... .... . .......................................................
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

...... .. . , ...... ........................ , ........................... , . .


,

. ..... . . . ........ . , ., ... , .. , ........ , ....... , ., ................. . ......... .

2. No one shall be discriminated against in political, social or economic


life for any reason whatsoever. (Art. 32.2)
................................. , .... , .... , ., ...... , ............... , ., ..
..... ....... .. , ............ ... , ............. , ., ............. , ..... .
,

. .... ...... .... ... .. , .. , ., .... , ........ , ...... ....... . . , ., ..... . ,

.... .. .... ...... .. . .... . ... . , ............... ........... . ......... , .


,

3. The principles of and procedures for the conclusion, ratification and


rescission of international agreements shall be specified by a statute.
(Art. 89.3)
.......................... , ................................... .
. . . . .. . . .. ... . .. . ..... ... . .. . , .......... , ............. , ....... .
.. . .. ... . ... . .. . .. . , .......................................... .

4. Extraordinary measures may be introduced only by an ordinance,


issued on the basis of a statute, which shall additionally require
to be publicised. (Art. 228.2)

5. The provisions of the Constitution shall apply directly, unless the


Constitution provides otherwise. (Art. 8.2)
XII. Translate the following Articles of the Constitution into English.

1. Rzeczpospolita Polska jest dobrem wspolnym wszystkich obywateli.


(Art. 1)
· . ............................................. , .............. ,

· .................................... , ........................ .
· ............................................................. .
· .................................... , ........................ .

2. Rzeczpospolita Polska przestrzega wi'!z'!cego j,! prawa mi((dzynaro-


dowego. (Art. 9)
... , . . ... , ....... , .............. , ....................... , ..... .
. . .. . .. . . , ., ... . ................ , ... , ............ . .. , ......... .
. . . . . .. ... . . . ... .. .. . .. ... . . . .. .. . . . . . . . , ..................... .
..... .. , ...... , ............................. , . . ... , ........... .
3. KOScioly i inne zwi,!zki wyznaniowe s,! rownouprawnione. (Art. 25.1)
· .................... ........... .... . .... . ................ .
" , ,

· ....... ..................................................... ,
,

.... , .............. . . . ........................................ ,


· ............ , ................................................ .
4. Zasady i tryb oglaszania aktow normatywnych okresla ustawa.
(Art. 88.2)
· ............................................................. .

5. Rzecznik Praw Obywatelskich stoi na straiy wolnoSci i praw czlowieka


i obywatela okrdlonych w Konstytucji oraz w innych aktach norma-
tywnych. (Art. 208.1)
· ............................................................. .
· ............................................................. .
· .... ... ... .. . . .. ... . . .. . . . . .. . . .... . ..... ..... ... .. " .. ' " ..
"

. . . .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. .. ... " ......... .. .. " ' "

28
XlII. Topics for discussion:

I. \ w ch of the freedoms granted by the Constitution do you consider


m e most important?
=. "'Lex retro non agit" is one of the basic rules of the law. When would the
legislator want the law to work retroactively? Think about the benefits.
Wben would you want to break this principle?
4. Entrepreneurs

Find words or phrases in the text which mean:

przedsi~biorca -
przedsi~biorstwo -

osoba fizyczna -
osoba prawna -
jednostki organizacyjne nieb~d,!ce osobami prawnymi -
zdolnosc prawna -

we wlasnym imieniu -
sp6lka cywilna -
dzialalnosc gospodarcza -
ewidencja dzialalnoSci gospodarczej -

Krajowy Rejestr Sqdowy-

The Civil Code defines an entrepreneur as a natural or legal person or


a non-corporate organisational unit with legal capacity conducting econo-
mic and professional activity on its own behalf. This definition applies to
civil law activities. Under article 4 of the Act of 2 July 2004 on freedom
of economic activity, also partners in partnerships are referred to

30
_ entrepreneurs within the scope of their economic activities. This
.: c - nition applies to relationships under public law.
"'::' rrepreneurs conduct their activity under a business name, which must
registered in:
• the National Court Register, in the case of enterprises, or
• the register of economic activities, in the case of natural persons
who conduct economic activity individually or jointly, and partners in
partnerships.

According to the Act mentioned above and the Civil Code, economic
activity is a permanent, profit-making, productive or professional activity
characterised by an organised structure, infrastructure as well as general
principles of operation while an enterprise is defined as an organised set
of tangible and intangible components necessary to conduct economic
activity.

Due to rapid economic development, there appeared different forms of


economic concentration.

FORMS OF ECONOMIC CONCENTRATION


_______
/ I I I I~_________
concern trust cartel consortium joint venture holding poll conglomerate

A concern is a union of legally independent enterprises under one


management which indicates the direction of economic activity. Under
Anglo-Saxon law, the terms - concern and a trust - are synonyms. A trust
is also defined as the most developed form of a concern.

A conglomerate is a capital union of enterprises and their groups,


organised usually in the form of a concern. Its aim is to allow the enter-
prises to specialise in specific areas and to minimise the effects of changes
of the economic situation.

A cartel is an economic arrangement of legally independent enterprises


which aims at an agreed market activity. If enterprises agree on prices,
it is a price cartel; if on production limits, it is a quota cartel, etc.
A syndicate is a specific form of a cartel. In this case, the enterprises set
up a common sales or purchase office. A poll, which is a specific form
of a cartel, is an arrangement of independent enterprises to accumulate
and distribute profits jOintly, according to agreed rules. A cartel restricts
competition due to which it is subject to legal regulations.

A consortium may be established in international business. It is an


arrangement between independent enterprises which agree to perform
a risky or costly undertaking on behalf of a particular investor. The
consortium members are assigned tasks and they discharge them on their
own behalf and at their own risk.

A joint venture, also existing in international business, means joint


undertaking and joint risk, usually with the participation of foreign
entities. Sometimes a joint venture is identified with a consortium.

A special position in business is given to holdings, which centralise


capital and profit allocation through exercising control over legally
independent companies. This results in establishing a group of companies
with at least one controlling company (also called a holding company
'o r a parent company) while the other ones are subsidiaries. The parent
company influences the activity and operation of its subsidiaries
by holding a controlling block of shares or appointing more than half
of the members of the management board of a subsidiary.

I. Answer the questions.

1. What is the definition of an entrepreneur under public and civil law?


2. Where do you register an enterprise?
3. What kind of business organisation is required to conduct economic
activity?
4. What did fast economic growth result in?
5. Which of the forms of economic concentration are regulated by the
provisions of unfair competition law?

32
fl. Below there is a short definition of a holding company
. 'ded by the online Britannica Encyclopaedia. Complete the
using the following words: stock exercise solely enga-
o'wns holding

. ~ -orporation that ................ (1) enough voting ................ (2)


in one or more other companies to ................ (3) control over them.
_-\ corporation that exists ................ (4) for this purpose is called
a pure .............. (5) company, while the one that also ............. (6)
in a business of its own is called a holding-operating company:'

III. The National Court Register performs two functions: informa-


tional and legalisational. Complete the missing prepositions in the
following description.

The ational Court Register gives certain entities easy access


to competent information ............. (1) the legal status ............. (2)
a partner, main details of his financial situation or his powers
of representation. The information is available ... . ........ (3) the
central database which includes the data ............ (4) all entities
subject ............ (5) registration.

The legalisational function is determined ............ (6) the fact that all
registration requirements must be met before a given entity is allowed
to perform its legal activity. Only ............ (7) the registration, the entity
is provided ............ (8) legal personality.

IV. For each group of the words find a verb or a verb followed
by a preposition which makes collocations with each of the nouns /
phrases, e.g. do business / a favour / protocol.

1. ............................ economic activity / a business /


an enterprise

2 ................... . . ________ - e terms of a contract / market activity /


;roduction limits
3............................. control / a function / power

4. ............................ shares / the management board / a manager 's


performance

5 ..... ..... .............. .... . shares / a meeting / a decision

V. Read the text below. Some of the words are missing. Complete the
text with the words that fit best. Use only one word for one gap.

The term "entrepreneur" has a French origin and was first introduced
by an Irish economist Richard Cantillon. He defines an entrepreneur as
a person who operates a new ....... ................ ..... or venture and
assumes some accountability for the inherent ............................ '
Nowadays, an entrepreneur is ............................ to as a person
who ............................ the risks involved to undertake a business
............................. Entrepreneurs often set up a business on their
............................ and in this context they are called "founders"
or "promoters". In general, the term applies to ........................... .
people who ............................ value by offering a product
............................ to obtain profits, accepting a high level risk
to pursue market ............................. To become successful,
entrepreneurs must effectively use labour, capital and natural resources.

VI. Choose the best word to complete the following sentences.

1. Entrepreneurs conduct their economic activity on their own ...... .


a. risk b. behalf c. scope d. discretion

2. Business name is synonymous with ...... .


a. trade name b. company name c. legal name d. business title

3. A cartel may ...... on the lowest prices.


a. contest b. consent c. contain d. combine
34
ember of a consortium ...... their functions at their own risk.
b. disregard c. discharge d. discourage

-0 dmg is often referred to as a ...... .


-idiary b. poll c. parent company d.daughtercompany

=no Below you can find excerpts from the Act of 2 July 2004 on
- eedom of economic activity. Translate them into Polish.

1. Article l. The Act sets forth the principles for undertaking, conducting
and terminating economic activities within the territory of the Repub-
Uc of Poland and responsibilities of public administration authorities in
this area.

2. Article 6. 1. Everyone shall be free to undertake, conduct and terminate


economic activity under equal rights and pursuant to the terms and
conditions set forth by the laW'.
. . ..... . ................................................... . .. .
. ...................................... . ...................... .
.............................................................. .
• "" I •• " ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

3. Article 17. Entrepreneurs shall conduct their economic activity based


on the principles of fair competition and due respect of good practices
and the legitimate interest of consumers .

.............................................................. .
...... ..... ........ .... ..... . .. ......... .. ..... ........ . ..... . .
· .. .. .. ... . - - ........ ...................... .. ........... ... ...... .
· ......... ............... ..... ..... .. . ...... ...... ... .... ... .... .. .. .
35
4. Article 18. Entrepreneurs shall meet all requirements related
to economic activity set forth in legal provisions, and in particular
requirements related to the protection of life, human health and public
morality, as well as protection of the environment.

.. . . .. . ... .. .. .. .... . .. . .. .... ... . ... . .. . .... ... .. .. .... .. . . . . .


5. Article 24. 2. Everyone shall have the right to access the data recorded
in the Records and to browse registry records of any entrepreneur
registered therein.
· .. ..... ............. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . ... .. , ............... ,.
· ......... , .......................... , ... . . ..... . ........ , ., .,.
· .. , . .. .. , ., .. .. , ., ..... , . ... , ., ., .... . .... . ... ... ....... . , ... .
· ., .. , ., .. , . . ... . ........ , .... , ... , .. ...... , .......... , ...... ,
,

., ., ., ., ... , ... . . .. .. , .. , ... , . , ........ , ....... , ............. , .


. . , ....... , ... , ..... , . , .. , ., . .. , ...... , ..... , .............. ... .

VIII. Translate into English.


oznacza skladanie wszystkich wniosk6w
l. Zasada "jednego okienka" . . ..
rejestrowych do jednego tylko organu admmlstraC)l.
: ......... , . , . , .. .. ... . .... , .. .. .
· . ....... . ... ...... . ... .. ..... . .... ..................... ..... .
· .. , .. , ., .. , ....... , ., . , .
· .. , ., .... , ... , ., ... , ., ., .. , .. . ... , . . , ... . , .............. , .... .
. . . . , ...... . , .. , ... , . . , .. ..... . .... , ., .. ,
· .. . , ... , .......... , ..
· ., .. . , .. , ., ... , .. , ., .. , ., ... , ., .. , ............. , .. , .... , .. , .,.
· ., ........... , .. , ., ................. , ., ... ... .. . ........... , . .
· ... , ....... ....... ........ , ..... , ....... , ............... , .... .
· ., ., ....... ... , ............................ , .. . . ....... , .... .
,

· ........... , ........... , ...... , ... .... . . . . . .. . . . ........ ..... .

':u:::
"'\:-."".......,. _~ ,,-a
handlowego obslugiwane bt;dC! przez Krajowy Rejestr
~ a o50by fizyezne - przez ewidenej~ w gminaeh.
----_. _ _ ....... . .. . .. . . ................................................................................... ..
------_ . . . . . . . . . . .......................................................................................... .
--_....... ............ ...... . ..... . . . ............................................................................. .
--... .......... . .... .......... . ........................................ ...... ..................................... . .
.. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .

.. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. . .. .. . .. .. . . .. . .. .. . . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .

3_ Za mikroprzedsi~biore~ uwal,any jest kal,dy, kto w dw6eh ostatnich


lataeh nie zatrudnial wi~eej nil, 10 os6b i kt6rego obroty nie przekro-
ezyly kwoty 2 mIn euro .
.. ...... . .... ...... ...... .... . . . .. .. . .. . . .... . .... . .. . .. .... . ...... .. .. . . .. . . ........ .... .. .. .. . .. .. .... .... .

........ .... . . ...... .... .... .... . . .... .. . ........ ...... . .. .... ...... .... . ...... ....
. .. .... . .. ...... . . .. . . .... . .

. .... ... . .... . ... .. . .. . . . . . . .. ... .. .. . . . . , ....................... .

. .... .. ... .. .. .. ..... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. , .......... ... .. .... .... .


. .... ..... . . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. . ... .. .. . .... . . . .. ..... .. . . .. . .. . .. ..
.... .. ..... .. .. ... .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. .... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .
4. Przedsi~biorea moze uzyskac porooe publieznq ro.in. na dzialalnosc,
w wyniku kt6rej produkty krajowe uzyskalyby pozyej~ uprzywilejowan<}
w stosunku do produkt6w importowanyeh .
... ... ...... .... . ... . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . ... ... ... ..
........ ... ...... ... .. .. ... .. .. . . .. . ..... .. .. . . . .. .. ... .. . .. .. .
· .......... ... ... ' " ..... ................................... . "

· ............ ....... .... .. . . . . .......................... ' " .. "

..... . ..... . ... ... .. .. . . .. .... . .. ... ... .. ' " .................. .
· ........................... ................................ . "

5. W sparcie oehrony wlasnosci przemyslowej oznaeza porooe finansowq


udzielonq przedsi~biorey w formie bezzwrotnego dofinansowania
eelem uzyskania oehrony prawa wlasnosci przemyslowej .

.. , ...... .. ... , ........ .. . ..... . .. ...... ....... .............. . .


IX. Topics for discussion.

1. What risks do entrepreneurs face when entering a new market?


2. Discuss the advantages and drawbacks . of the forms of economic
concentration.

'20
Contracts

Find words or phrases in the text which mean:

strona umowy -
zawrzec umow~ -
wykladnia prawa -
powolac si~ na cos -
postanowienie (umowy) -
naruszyc umow~ -
uzupelnjaj~ca rala norm -
nabywca -
sprzedawca -

umowa nazwana -
umowa 0 dzielo -
umowa zlecenia -

wady oswiadczenia woH _

akt notarialny _
podstt;p -

39
pozornosc -
egzekucja majqtkowa-

Most of us enter into contracts every day. When we buy bread, when
we buy a ticket and use public transport. A contract is a basic tool
regulating the transfer of goods, services and money. It is concluded when
two or more parties consensually express the will to enter into it. If there
is no consensus, there is dissensus and the contract is not concluded.
A contract is an independent and integral whole, which creates legal
relations between parties. The consensual declarations of the parties
take place when we can undoubtfully state that they have the same thing
in mind. The Civil Code provides the interpretation principles. According
to them, consensus is not always equal to the consensual will of the parties.
It is possible that after concluding the contract one of the parties can refer
to the defects in a declaration of will in order to avoid stipulated penalty
for breaking the contract.

The features of a contract

• One of the features of a contract is that it should define the legal


consequences of breaching or breaking the contract (the Civil Code).
The parties do not have to include all the possible consequences because
it is the legal norms that regulate it (the Civil Code). However, these norms
play only a complementary role for the decisions of the parties themselves.
Consensus should embrace the minimum range of legal effects called
"essential stipulations".
• Another basic element which makes a contract valid is defining the
parties, e.g. when we buy a piece of clothing we are buyers (or purchasers),
the shop sign informs us who the seller (the vendor) is.
Generally there is much independence in contracts concerning their
content and the parties involved. The Civil Code stipulates: "The
parties concluding a contract may arrange the legal relationship at their
discretion on condition that the content or the purpose of that contract
is not contradictory to the nature of relationship, statutory law and the
principles of community life.

40
e statutory limitations

• -ever, sometimes the law can impose certain restrictions, e.g. we


- enter into insurance agreements only with insurance companies,
_",,-.Jo..j-.ug services are provided by banks only. Sometimes the partners
transactions are prioritised, e.g. in certain situations the right to buy
.:. ~elongs to the person who cultivated it for a certain period of time.
ther situations the selection of candidates (in the public sector) takes
- -e according to auction or tender rules.
- ther example of a statutory limitation is the requirement to conclude
-ea1 property sale contract in the form of a (notary) deed.
--- ther limitation on the freedom of contracts is the "property"
- ~elationship, which means that the basic components of the contract
- cld be kept.

~e concluding a contract the parties should also remember about the


- :i:lciples of community life, which refers to the requirement of honesty
_. e concluding the contract.

ors which can invalidate a contract are:

certain mental states connected with the so-called faults of will


declaration when one can not consciously make decisions or express
one's will;
appearance, which means that somebody made a declaration of will
:0 the other party in return for "its consent for appearances" (the Civil
Code). It takes place \-·,hen e.g. one person's assets are endangered by
enforcement proceedings;
an error, which takes place when there is a discrepancy between an
objective reality and its picture in the person's consciousness. Such
an error can concern certain features of the object of the transaction
(e.g. X buys jeans mistakenly thinking that they are original ones while
in fact they are only a fake );
• a threat, which is a statement that somebody will do harm to somebody
else but he does not undertake any steps in order to carry out the threat.
The person that the threat is addressed to has two options: either
to perform the demanded legal act or be endangered that the threat
will be realized (the Civil Code);
• a deceit, which takes place if the error was caused using tricks,
misleading the other person. It can also be a case when someone does
not reveal certain information although he/she has a duty to do so (e.g.
a civil servant who wants to buy a parcel of land being state property
hides the information that there is another potential buyer).

I. Decide if the following sentences are true or false.

1. Consensus and dissensus between parties are two factors that make
a contract invalid.
2. While concluding a contract it is essential to define the legal
consequences of breaking the contract.
3. Appearance, error and deceit are the only circumstances that make
a contract unenforceable.

II. Insert the missing prepositions: from, to, into, in, between, on, of
(hvo of them should be used hVice).

1. the parties ................. a contract.


2. to enter ................... ,. a contract.

3. invitation .................... · conclude a contract.

4. legal relation ..................... parties.


5. legal consequences ..................... breaching a contract.
6. a real estate sale contract must be ............... the form ............. .... . . . .

a notary deed.
7. claims arise ........................ breach of a contract.

8. promises of the parties are independent ..................... each other.

42
~u~. ~."'"" sentences into informal ones using the words

all transfer the Property to the Purchaser by 20 th October


eller}.

--e erms set forth in this agreement are as follows (described).

Each party shall be bound by the terms of this agreement (has to,
-ollow).

- ~e Parties hereby are obliged to perform the services with due


diligence (by thi , have to .

- The Licensor is obliged to re train from assigning his rights (keep


from, transfer to third partie .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . ... . . .

~. The language of contracts is full of archaic words, like: "hereof",


erein", etc. They are used in legal jargon, called legalese. Generally
ere" means this thing or this document you are reading and "there"
- that thing or that document, "where" - which thing.

tch the words with their meaning.


al conSidering that
bl relating to that document
_ therein ....... . c/ on which
. ereto .... ... . dl from making that document until now

43
5. therewith .... . el resulting from this document
6. hereby ....... . fI mentioned later in this document
7. hereunder ... . gl in that document.
8. hereinafter ... . hi mentioned in the same section of this document
9. whereas ...... . if following that document
10. whereon .... . jl together with that document

Types of contracts

Because of the fact that contracts are widely used in the modern world
there was a necessity to systemise them. A nominate contract is a kind
of agreement that can belong to a certain type of contract and the
provisions of civil law regulate it. Such contracts are purchase and sale
contracts, personal service contracts, specific task contracts.
Another kind of contract is an innominate contract which is a document
created by two parties in which the solutions are so different from the
typical ones that they cannot be assigned to any type of contracts.
A mixed contract contains the elements of a nominate contract and some
new original ones.
Ways of concluding a contract

~
auction and tender
negotiations
offer / acceptance
d b the consensual declaration of will
Although ~ontracts are .ma e :a in ractice there are specific ways
of the partles expressed hlll an~ ~d a:ceptance, negotiations, auction
of concluding them, suc as 0 er
and tender.

An offer is when there is a firm declaration of will to conclude


a contract (the Civil Code). The essential stipulations of the contract
should be included in it. When the other party accepts it the contract c~n
g X wants to sell his car. He shows it to Y and says: I will
b e conc1u ded , e..
sell it to you. Y answers: OK - he accepts it.

44
'. -e cannot treat as offers proposals
"0 enter into a contract but they are nm - ITi1 -

hows a product to sell but does not gr:-e --., ~- ~_ -


. only
.~.

• a:: o':=er
,
lit
an invitation to conclude a contract ..- - . e offeror (the
Civil Code) which means that the offeree - - . . .ding a contract
by its acceptance. The time when the con inding depends
on the receiver of the offer. If it is an incmi - - e, it is binding
u

from the moment he/she had access to the 0=;:: .:. study its content
the Civil Code). If the offer is addressed·o - t=:..:i::r.:I~';:ed receiver then
it is binding from the moment of its announc_

Negotiations are the second way leadin5 ............-4."""-........ug a contract.

They take place when there is a mutual i.n.&..?":e • --= parties on each
other in order to conclude a contract. In the - .......-se : :legotiations, they
exchange information about the circumstances --- could influence
their decisions concerning concluding the co::uac -:"ey evaluate each
other's services or products and progressin= y - _ ulate a contract.
It is also more and more common in our country·o :-:ite letters of intent
which express the willingness to conclude a negc ~ contract.
The third way to make a contract is an auction or tender, the aim of which
is to enable the party interested in entering into a contract to choose the
most profitable offer.

The lack of capacity to legal transactions of the parties entering into


a contract is a factor that may invalidate the contract. According to the
Polish Civil. Code, people under 13 do not have this capacity - what means
that they are not able to conclude valid contracts. However, if they enter into
a contract for necessities (such as bu)ing bread), it is valid at the moment
of its performance. Persons aged betvveen 13 and 18 have a limited
capacity to legal transactions. At the age of 18, a minor attains majority
and has full capacity to legal transactions. A person under 18 can also
attain majority by getting married.
The~e are certain people over 13 who can be legally incapacitated. The
reasons for total legal incapacity are: mental disease, mental handicap or
another mental disorder, especially drug addiction or drinking to such an
extent that a person does not control his/her behaviour (the Civil Code).
V. Decide if the folio'wing sentences are true or false.

1. Candidates for partners in a transaction are always selected according


to the auction procedure.
2. Deceit takes place if someone misleads the other person using tricks.
3. If the parties are under 13 they cannot enter into any contracts.

VI. Add the negative prefixes; in, un, il, dis:

e.g. validate - invalidate


enforceable -
due (diligence) -
legal-

capacity -

legitimate -

agreement -
qualify -
reasonable -

VII. Negotiating a contract

These are some expressions connected with certain stages of negotiating


the contract:
Making suggestions:
I suggest ...
My suggestion is .,.

Rejecting a suggestion:
I am afraid I cannot accept it.
Sorry we cannot go along with it.
That would be difficult for us.
That's out of the question.
expressions and role play with a partner.

. 1r X has a transport company and he wants to buy 5 trucks.


"aD to pend PL 250,000 on them (in installT1ents) and have then"
=>- . °ered immediately.

tudent B
'our client sell trucks that Mr. X is interested in. The price of one
~ck is PLN 60,000 \-vith 10% discount if you pay in cash . They can
be delivered within one month the earliest.

VIII. Here is a part of a car ale contract and its translation;

Concluded on lOth January 200 in \ oar aw between Mr X, residing in


Warsaw at 25 Bliska Street, Apt - hal er 0 identity document no. AEJ
l34234, issued by the Mayor of the ci ,- of Oar aw, hereinafter referred
to as the Vendor, and Mr Y, re iding in Lublin at -! Daleka Street, holder
of identity document no. AEJ 4567 9, ' ued by the Mayor of the city
of Lublin, hereinafter referred to as the Purcha er. The Vendor and the
Purchaser are hereinafter referred 0 in this contrad a the Parties.

§l. The subject of this Contract is e eo e 'ollowing make of car:


ABC, engine no. 4567890, registra: °0 no. TFG 237 4, undercarriage
no. 238944.

§2. The Vendor declares that ined in § 1 above is free


of all legal defects and thir· _ _. and i not subject to any
proceedings that may no . ~e, eyoke any effect on this
declaration.

47
§3. The Purchaser declares that he is aware of the technical condition
of the vehicle defined in § 1 of this Contract and makes no claims,
either now or in the future, with respect to this vehicle.

§4. The Parties set the price of the vehicle (together with its fixtures
and fittings) defined in the Contract at PLN 300,000 (in words three
hundred thousand Polish zlotys).

§s. This Contract has been drawn up in two copies in a Polish language
version and two copies in an English language version with one copy
in each language version for each Party. In the event of discrepancies
between the Polish and English language versions, the Polish version
shall be binding.

Now translate the following expressions:

1. umowa zawarta
......... .. . .. ... .. ..... ... ...... .. .............. ....... .... ...

2. umowa sporz'!dzona
..................... .. .......... . . . ................. ...
....... .
3. sprzedaj'lcy
..... .............. . .............
...... . ....... . ............. . .
4. kupuj'lcy
........ ...
....................... . .... .... . .. .. ....... .. .

5. przedmiot umowy
............................................. . .......... .

6. pojazd wolny od wad prawnych


...................... . .... ... .. .... . . .. ..... ....... . . ...

7. bye przedmiotem post~powania


...................... . ...................................
8. oswiadczye, ie znany jest stan techniczny pojazdu
...................... . ........... .. ..... .... .
............

48
9. zglaszac roszczenia
.. . ....... . .. .... . . .
. ........... . ............ . . . .... .... ...... . .. . . ............ . ........ .

10. ustalic cen~


......................................... . ...... . . . ...... . .... . . . . . . .

11. w przypadku rozbieinosci


...... ............. ........................ .......................... . . . ..................................

12. wi'lz'lca wersja

IX. Translate the following part of the contract into English:

Umowa sprzedaiy na raty

Umowa zawarta mi~dzy panem X zamieszkalym w Krakowie pod adre-


sem: 01-543 Krakow, ul. Dluga 5, legitymuj'lcym si~ dowodem osobistym
nr AGH 132879 wydanym przez prezydenta miasta Krakowa, a panem
y .... ....... .

§ 1. Sprzedawca oswiadcza, ie jest wlascicielem motocykla marki WFM,


nr silnika 34289, nr rejestracyjny BXC 24573.
§2. Sprzedawca oswiadcza, ze przedmiot sprzedaiy jest wolny od wad
prawnych.
§3. Cena przedmiotu sprzedaiy wynosi 20.000 PL (slownie ........... .
................................. ) i zostanie zap lacona w nast<:puj'!cy
sposob:
al w dniu podpisania niniejszej umowy Kupuj'lcy zaplaci Sprzeda-
j'lcemu kwot~ 8000 PL (slownie .................................... )
bl pozostala cz<:sc ceny zostanie zaplacona w szesciu rownych ratach
po 2000 PLN (slownie ..... ........................................ )
§4. Niniejsza umowa zostala sporz'ldzona w dwoch egzemplarzach

.................................................................................. .............................. .
..................................................................................................... ........ .

. .................................... . . ............ ................. ........ ............ .................... .... .


...........
....... .
..................... ... .
......... . ........ . . ................ .
................. . ...... . . .. ..... .
................ . .............. .
........... .
....... . .............. . .......... . . .......................... .
....... . ........... . . ......... .
............ ..... ... .. .
........ . ................ .
. ................... .
................ .
......... . ......... . ............ . . ................ .
......... . ..................... .
. ............................. .
................... . ........... . . ................ .
............................................ .
........................................................... .
.................... .
......................................... .
.............................................................. .

X. Decide which answer best fits the space:

The (1) ............... of this Contract is the donation of a Passenger


Car Fiat 126p hereinafter (2) ......... to as the (3) ............... of Donation
for the Red Cross Organisation.
The Donor (4) ............... that the Object of Donation is his (5) ...... .. .
. . . . . . . . . . .. property and is (6) ............. .. of encumbrances, restrictions
(7) ............. its disposal and (8) ............... party rights.

al object bl subject c/ theme


l.
2. a/ referred b / described c/ considered
3. al object bl subject cl thing
4. al says bl states cl approves
5. al total bl inclusive cl exclusive
b/ charged c/ accused
6. al free
7. at about b/ to cl regarding
8. a/ third bl second cl first

XI. Have you ever entered into a written contract? What issues should
you include in a lease contract (when you rent a flat)?

XII. What are the elements of a binding contract under Polish law?

50
6. Employment (Labour

Find words or phrases in the text which mean:

zwi,!zki zawodowe -
umowa na czas nieokrdlony -
umowa na czas okrdlony -
kodeks pracy -
data rozpoczt;cia (pracy) -
pelnic obowi'}zki -
nalezyta starannosc -
przestrzegac/stosowac sit; -
obowi'}zek poufnosci -
wynagrodzenie -

In British English, employment law constitutes a separate division of the


law,and covers the issues pertaining to contracts between employers and
employees, It is controlled by enactments, such as statutes, regulations,
resolutions or orders, which regulate work performed under a contract of
employment.
Labour law, in British English, mainly relates to the relationship between
employers and trade unions, which represent the employees within the
field of collective rights and interests.

An employment contract can be concluded:


• for an indefinite term (time),
• for a fixed term:
(a) for a definite time,
(b) for the time of performance of a specified job (for the time
it takes to complete a specific task),
(c) to replace an employee,
(d) for a trial period.

An employer and an employee are the parties to an employment contract.


The Labour Code defines an employee as "a person employed on the basis
of a contract of employment, an appointment, an election, a nomination,
or a cooperative contract of employment" (art. 2). To be employed,
an individual has to be at least 18 years of age and have full capacity
to (enter into) legal transactions. An employer is referred to as "any
organisational unit even if it has no legal personality, and any legal person
if they engage employees:' Younger and partially inc.apacitated persons
may be employed provided certain conditions are met.

A contract of employment usually includes the following clauses:

1. Names of the parties to the contract,


2. Commencement date,
3. Job title and description of the position,
4. Address of the workplace,
5. Salary (remuneration),
6. Hours of work,
7. Holiday entitlement,
8. Sickness entitlement,
9. Pension scheme,
10. Grievance procedure,
11. Disciplinary procedure,
12. Notice periods required from both the Employee and the Employer.

52
Under the Labour Code, all in ';i - equal rights arising from
the performance of the same du .es.

A labour relationship is the our e 0 charged y the employee


-'

and the employer. The employee - ·0 perform err dU'e with


due diligence and to comply l\i th • uperior ' s order. He must
observe the safe ty and health re . play initiath'e and comply
with the duty of confidentiality an ~ p rinciples of community life.
The employer is obliged to pa 're e:a 'on resulting from the contract
of employment, grant paid holida: and comply with equal employment
rights policy. The employer should al 0 provide the employees with safe
and healthy conditions of work as well as social insurance and insurance
policies.

I. There is a word or phrase missing from the follOwing sentences. For


each sentence, choose the word which best fits into the space, A, B, C or
D from the options provided.

1. Collective bargaining relates to . , . . ... . ...... between an employer and


trade unions.
2. Collective bargaining procedures result in a collective .............. .
3. Employees are usually represented by a .... " ' " .. '" .
4 . In the USA, collective bargaining is regulated, among others,
by federal and state statutory ...... .. ......,
5 ................ is a method of Alternative Dispute Resolution.
6 . ArbItration is deSignated in collective b '.
to .. . . . ...... . .. disputes. argammg as the means
7. Employment Discrimination laws aim at . . . .
8. Unemployment . . " " .. " " .. " dlscrunmatlOn.
Insurance . prOVIdes some unemplo ed
payments until they find a new job. y . ............ .
9.:....... :..... payment enables an unemployed worker to find a new
Job, WhlCh meets his/her qualmcations.
10. Without employment
. . ' ........... " numerous unemployed workers
would take Jobs WhICh do not require high qualifications.
1. a) agreements c) discussions
b) negotiations d) networking
2. a) agreement c) arrangement
b) union d) dismissal
3. a) proxy c) representative
b) power of attorney d) union
4. a) bills c) laws
b) constitutions d) provisions
5. a) termination c) discrimination
b) arbitration d ) redundancy
6. a) plead c) resolve
b) assess d) handle
7. a) prosecuting c) rendering
b) preventing d) enforcing

8. a) monetary c) currency
b) money d) price

9. a) Employment c) Employed
b) Unemployment d) Unemployed

10. a) salary c) remuneration


b) pension d) compensation

II. Read the text below and think of the word that best fits each space.
Use only one word in each space.

retrieved from: http://www.paiz.gov.pl

"An employment contract is concluded in (1) ..... ......... ..... .... and
should be signed no later than on the day the employee starts work-
ing. If no contract is (2) .......................) then the employee should
be provided with a written confirmation of the contract conditions on the
day he starts work at the latest. Any changes in (3) ...................... .
contract conditions should also be made in writing. The employer
hould include additional ccnain
engagement 4 ) ....................... ontract.
The labour (5) ....................... prmi ions e 6, ...................... .
the regulations that hould be included in the employmen ontract
and in the additional written information."

III. Read the following contract clause. The mis ing , ords are in the
list below. For each gap choose the word which best fits in the space
from the options provided. Use each option only once.
dismissal, disciplinary, minor, suspend, duty

Extract from an Employment Contract

Disciplinary procedure
Where the Employer believes that the Employee has acted in an unfit
way in the course of carrying out their (l) ......................., or the
Employee brings the Employers business into di repute, the Employee
will face a (2) ........ .. .... . .... .... inquiry.

If the Employee is found to have committed a (3) ... .. ......... .. ...... .


misconduct, the Employer has the option of a verbal warning, or a written
warning depending on the severity of the misconduct.

If the Employee is found to have committed gross misconduct, the


Employer has the option of a verbal warning, a written warning, a final
. or instant (4) . .............. ...... .. , The Employer a1so
written warning,
has the optIOn to (5) th
E .. ..... .. .... .. .. .. .. ... e Employee where the
mployer needs to make an mquiry into the misconduct.

~v. Read the follOwing contract clause. The . . . .


In the list below. For each h lUlssmg prepoSItIons are
. gap c oose the prep 't' .
Into the space £rOIn the o p t i o n s ' OSI Ion which best fits
to, for, with of 0 t 'd provIded. Use each option only once.
, , u SI e

Retrievedfrom: http://wWw.bizhelp24.com
Hours of work
The Employee's working week will consist (1) ........ 40 hours, from
Monday to Friday and from 9 am to 6 pm. There is a I-hour lunch break:
timing to be agreed (2) ........ immediate supervisor.

From time to time, the Employee may be asked 'to work (3) ........ of
the contracted hours. An hourly rate of 1.5 times the normal hourly rate
will be paid.

Holiday entitlement
The Employee is entitled (4) ........ 4 weeks (20 days) paid holiday per
annum. At the end of 5 years service an extra days holiday entitlement
is given - followed by a further I-day holiday entitlement (5) ........
each of the next 4 years service: bringing maximum holiday entitlement
to 5 weeks (25 days).

V. Read the following sentences which have a preposition missing from


them. For each sentence, choose the preposition which best fits into the
space, A, B, C or D from the options provided.

1. Find ..... the rules on your rights and responsibilities.


2. The notice of termination is required ..... writing.
3. The manner of serving you with a notice will be set ..... in your
contract.
4. You should be given a reasonable period ..... notice.
5. Fixed-term contracts end without notice ..... their end date.

a) in b)on c) out d) off


1.
2. a) in b) at c) by d) through

3. a) out b ) for c) off d) by

4. a) off b ) of c) to d) with
5. a) at b) of c) with d) to

56
· from an employment contract. Some
VI. Read the followmg extract lined. Explain the meaning of these
of the words or phrases are under d· plaID· English
v . one 'or m
underlined words or phrases. J.OU can
or a short explanation.

Duration of Contract .
1 yment with the Emplo' ~ der this Contract 1 com-
Your emp 0
menced on 1 October 20., and shaJ -ontinue, ubject 0 your te~s
and conditions of employment, un · the earlier of the comple~on
of the XYZ Project or 31 March 20., being the end of a fixed penod
of 6 months or unless your employment is terminated earlier in accor-
dance with clause 14.

1. Period of Continuous Employment


No period of employment (2) prior to your commencement date
counts as part of your period of continuous employment and accor-
dingly your period of continuous employment for the purposes of the
Employment Rights Act 1996 commenced on the Commencement
Date.

2. Job Title and Flexibility


3.1 You are employed as Project Co-ordinator reporting to the Chief
Executive.
3.2 You are expected to perform all duties which may be required of
you in this role and as set out in the attached job description. You
must (3) comply with all reasonable instructions given to you
and observe all the policies, procedures and rules of the Employer
as may be introduced andlor (4) amended from time to time.
3.3 The Employer operates a policy of job flexibility and the Employer
may, (5) at its discretion, require you to perform additional
or other duties, whether skilled or unskilled, not within the scope
of your normal duties and may at its discretion amend your job
description at any time.

(1) . .. ....................................... ...... ........... .

(2) ............................................... . ....... .. .. .


(3) ........................................................... .

(4) ........................................................... .

(5) ................................................ .... ....... .

VII. Translate the following sentences into Polish.

Garden leave
The employee may be provided with a notice from the employer and
be ordered to serve out the notice period at home. This practice is called
'garden leave' and is frequently applied to prevent employees, who have
a certain status and access to confidential information or customers, from
working as competitors for a period of time. During the gardening leave
period the employee's access to such information or customers is either
restricted or denied. The employee is entitled to normal pay during garden
leave .
. ... . . . ..... . .. ... ... . . .. . . . . , ., ........ , ............. , ....... .

.... .. . ... .. ... ... ... .. ... .. ... . ... . . . . . . . .. .. ... . .... .. . . . .. ..
.. ...................
" .................................... .
'"

... ... ...... . ... .. .. . .. .... ......................... ...... .


" "

...... ..... . .. ... ..... ...... .. .. . . . .. . . .......... ... '" '" '" " "

......................... ........ "..... . ....... ..... . .


'" " '"

. ... ... '" ..................................... ' " ....... .. .


'"

.... ......... ' " ................. .. .............


" '" .. . " '" '"

.... . .... ' " ....................... ...... ' " ..... " " ...... " "

..................... " ....... ..... .... '"..... " " " " " '" '"

............ ...... " ....... ..


'" ...................... .'" " '"

'" .............. " .. " .................. .. . ........ "


'" '" '"

....... .................. ' " ' " ....... "


" " ... " ' " ......... "

........... ' " ' " .......................... ' " . '" " .......... .
.. .. " ...... " .................... " '" " .............. ..... .. .

58
rIll. Translate into English.
source: Gazeta Prawna 165, 2007 of 2- Augu.st 2007 ft·,· 6)

., ejm uchwalil nowelizacj~ kodeksu • raq dotycZC!~ zatru~ienia


. formie telepracy. [... J Zatrudnierue . . rmie e epracy b~dzle [... ]
'wiadczone poza siedzib,! pracodawcy 1 za _ moO! prz~tu do tarczonego
pracownikowi. [...1
_ owelizacja kodeksu zaklada, ie niew~Tai:enie przez pracm nika zgody
na wykonywanie telepraey nie moze bye przyczyn'l wypov"iedzenia
umowy 0 prac~. Zobowi'lzuje takie pracoda·wcow do rownego traktowania
telepracownika z innymi pracownikami w zakresie nawi,!zania
i rozwi,!zania stosunku praey, warunk6w zatrudnienia, awansowania oraz
dost~pu do szkolenia w celu podnoszenia kwalifikacji zawodowych:l

.......... ' " ......... " .. ... " " .. ...... .. ....... . .... .
'" " "

.. . . . " " . . ........ " . " . . " . "" . ' " ..... . ..... " .. ' " , .. .
'" "

... . . . . . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. ' " . ... ... " " ' " . .. .. . ' " . . " " . .
" ' "

.. . . . . . . ' " ..... . . .


" " ' " . . . . .. ' " . ..... . . . ' " . . .. ... .. .
" " "

... . . .. .. . ' " . ... . " ... .. .. . . .. .. . " . . . ... . ' " . .. ... . ." '" " "

.. . . ..... . .. ... . . . .. . . . .... . . .. . ... . . .. .. . . . .. ...


" " ' " '" " ' "

.. . . . .. . . . ... . . .. . .. ' " ' " .. " . '" " ... . ' " .. . ... . '" ...... . '"

..... . ... .. " ... .. " . ... .. . . .. .. ....... . .. . ... . ..... .. . . .


'" ' "

.. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . " .... . . . . ... . ' " .. .... .. . . . . .. .


" "

. . . . ... . . .. . .. . . .. " . " . . ' " " . . ... " .. . .... . ... .
'" " " '" " "

....... . . . . . . . .... . ..... . . . . .. ... .. ... ... . ..... ' " ..


'" " " " "

. ...... . . . . . . . . .. . . ...... . . . .. .. .. .. .. ........ " ... ' "


" " " '"

. . . . .. . '" . .. . . ..... . .. .. . ' " " .. . . .. .. .. . . . . . .. " . " .. . . . " '"

. .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . ' " ' " ....... . . .. . . ' " ' " . ' " " . " ' " ..
" " ' "

...' " ' " " . . ... . . . .. . .. ' " . . ..


" " . . " .. .. " . ' " . " " " " " ' "

. ' " " ' " .... . . ' " ... .. .... .. . ' " " . . " . . ' " .. . .. . .. . . .. . " " "

. . .. . . . ' " . " " . . ' " ' " ' " . . . . .. .. ... . . . . ... . . . . . ... . .. .
" " '"

· " . ........ . ' " . . . . ..... . .... . .. .. . . . .. . ... . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .


· . . . ....... . .. ... . . . .. . .... .. . . ... ..... .. . . . .. . .... . .. . . " .. '"

· ... .... . .. . .. . .... .. .. . .. . .... . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . ..... . ... . . "


" "

......... . . . ..... " ' " .. .. . . .. .. . .. . .. .. . . .. . ... . .. .. ...... . . "

. .... . . .. .. .... .... .. .... . .. . . .. . . .. .. . .... . .. . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . .


IX. Topics for discussion:

1. Possibilities of employment for young people in Poland.


2. To what extent do "open borders" to the EU countries solve the problem
of unemployment in Poland?

60
7. Intellectual Property Law

Find words or phrases in the text which mean:

wlasnosc intelektualna -
wlasnosc przemyslowa -

prawo autorskie -
prawa pokrewne -
dzielo literackie -
patent -

znak handlowy -
wzor przemyslowy -
firma, nazwa handlowa -
wzor uzytkowy -
oznaczenie geograficzne -
zwalczanie nieuczciwej konkurencji -
rzemioslo artystyczne, sztuka stosowana -
rzemioslo -
przyznac prawo -

zloiyc podanie -
Swiatowa Organizacja Wlasnoki Intelektualnej -
chroniona nazwa pochodzenia -
chronione oznaczenie geograficzne -

gwarantowana tradycyjna specjalnosc -

Intellectual Property (IP) refers to creations of the mind. It is divided


into two categories: Industrial Property and Copyright. Rights related
to copyright refer to performing artists, producers of phonograms and
broadcasters.

Due to the intensive economic growth in the 19th century, there appeared
a need to establish international rules of the exchange of goods and
services. They were:

• The Paris Convention of 1883 for the Protection ofIndustrial Property,


(the Stockholm Act of 1967 was ratified by Poland in 1975) .
• The Berne Convention of 1886 for the Protection of Literary and
Artistic Works.

The two Conventions as well as many international agreements or treaties


deriving from the Conventions cover the areas of:
Intellectual Prop
Industrial Property
Paris Convention of 1883 '~,,"UA.l of 1886
• patents,
• trade marks, • lee - ""'-';....... "-~ -'I- - rmon ,
• industrial designs, e ..
• utility models, • drama ' - - ;::a,;: works,

• trade names, • choreogra hi- \ 'orks,


• geographical indication , • cinemato~ . \ 'orks,
• repression of unfair competi- • drawing, painting, architecture,
tion. sculpture, etc.,
• photographic works,
• applied arts,
• illustrations, maps, plans,
sketches,
• 3-D works relative to geography,
topography, architecture
or science,
• alterations of a literary or
artistic work (e.g. translations).

The next stage in the process of forming a unified jurisdiction within this
scope was the foundation in 1967 of the World Intellectual Property
Organisation (WIPO), which is an agency of the United Nations
Organisation (UNO). WIPO's headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland.

In Poland, all rights resulting from IP law are granted by the Patent Office
of the Republic of Poland (or Polish Patent Office - PPO), established
in 1918.

A patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention. To be patentable,


the invention must meet certain requirements. It must:
1. be of practical use,
2. possess an element of nO\'elt:~
3. show an inventi\'e step,
4. its subject matter must be accepted as patentable under law.
A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the pa-
tent. The protection is granted for a limited period counted from the date
of filing of the application with the PPO. In Poland it is 20 years. A pro-
tected invention cannot be commercially made, used, distributed or sold
without the inventor's consent.

A utility model is of technical nature and it is similar to a patent. There-


fore, it is sometimes referred to as a "petty patent", "innovation patent",
"minor patent" or "small patent". It may be granted when a patent for
innovation is refused. The term of the right of protection for a utility
model is 10 years.

Trade marles are distinctive signs used to recognise different producers


or providers of goods or services. Following the PPO' s Basic Information
on Legal Protection of Trade Marks, "any sign capable of being represented
graphically may be considered as trade mark (in particular: words,
deSigns, ornaments, combinations of colours, the three-dimentional shape
of goods or of their packaging, as well as melodies or other acoustic
signals), provided that such signs are capable of distinguishing the goods
of one undertaking from those of other undertakings:'

Industrial designs are ornamental aspects of articles, applied to products


of industry and handicraft. They are of an aesthetic nature and do not
protect the items to which they are applied. Industrial designs may not
be contrary to public order or morality. The term of a right in registration
is granted for 25 years.

Geographical indications (GIs) are signs used on agricultural or grocery


products having a specific geographical origin and qualities relating
to their place of origin. They usually consist of the name of the place of
origin of the goods. In 1992, the European Union implemented systems
on the protection of foodstuffs known as:

• PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) which describes items


produced, processed and prepared in a given geographical area by the
means of a recognised know-how, e.g. bryndza podhalanska,

64
@ 44

• PGI (Protected Geographical Indication, -here a geographical


reference mu t appear in at leas one 0 - the tage of production,
processing or preparation, e.g. mi6d 'TZO-O\ T z Borow Dolno-
sl,!skich,

• TGS (Traditional peciality Guaranteed) \ ·hich highlight the


traditional character of the article, e.g. taropol ki mi6d pitny.

I. Answer the questions.

1. Which version of the Paris Convention is binding in Poland?


2. Which rights protect sculptors?
3. What are the foundations of the contracts for the protection
of intellectual achievements of artists and inventors?

4. Since when has intellectual property been legally protected in Poland?


5. Does an invention have to be useful in industry to be patentable?
6. Is the term of protection of a patent and a petty patent the same?
7. Can a word be recognised as a trade mark?
8. Is a patent granted for a longer period of tiIne than the right protecting
industrial designs?
9. Which of the following names are protected: Polish Cherry, Cham-
paigne, Ketchup, Camembert, Hamburger?
10. What do the following acronyms stand for: WIPO, IP, GI, PPO, TSG,
UNO, PGI, PDO?

II. Below you can see an excerpt from the Paris Convention of 1883,
article 4bis, Patents: Independence of Patents Obtained for the Same
Invention in Different Countries. Some words are missing. Complete
the text using the words or phrases from the list below:

nullity, foregoing provision, duration, benefit of, applied for, forfeiture,


independent of, in existence, equal to, comes into.
(1) Patents .................................. in the various coun-
tries of the Union by nationals of countries of the Union shall
be ............. ... ............ patents obtained for the same invention
in other countries, whether members of the Union or not.
(2) The ......................... is to be understood in an unrestrict-
ed sense, in particular, in the sense that patents applied for during the
period of priority are independent, both as regards the grounds for
.................................. and .................................., and
as regards their normal .................................. .
(3) The provision shall apply to all patents existing at the time when
it .................................. effect.
(4) Similarly, it shall apply, in the case of the accession of new countries,
to patents .................................. on either side at the time
of accession.
(5) Patents obtained with the .................................. prio-
rity shall, in the various countries of the Union, have a duration
.................................. that which they would have, had they been
applied for or granted without the benefit of priority.

III. Write short definitions or give synonyms of the following words:


nullity, forfeiture, provision, duration, priority.

(1) ..................... ... ............................... .... .

(2) ......................................... . ............. . . .. .

(3) ............. ....................................... .. . . .. . .

(4) ....... ... ................... . ..... .. .. ......... .... ....... .

(5) ........................................................... .

66
IV. Complete the missing prepositions in the home page information
on the activity and the establishment of the PPO.

The Patent Office of the Republic of Poland was established ........... .


28 December, 1918.
Poland already entered ............ the Paris Convention ............ the
Protection ............ Industrial Property on 10 ovember 1919, joining
international cooperation ............ this field. The first registration
of a trade mark took place on 11 April, 1924, and the first patent was
granted on 24 April, 1924.
The Polish Patent Office performs its basic tasks ............ the scope of:
. h ts ............protection for industrial property subjects
• gran f mg ng

• providing access ............ industrial property publications and the


information they contain
as well as

• co-creating and popularizing rules of industrial property protection.

Basic tasks of the Polish Patent Office ............ regard ..... .... . .. the
granting proceedings and maintenance of legal protection are performed
according ............:

• national legislation regarding applications filed directly . .. ......... the


Patent Office;
• international agreements:
o for patent and utility model applications filed ....... ... . . the Patent
Cooperation Treaty (PCT),
o for patent applications filed under the European Patent Convention,
o for trade mark applications filed under the Madrid Agreement
Concerning the International Registration ............ Marks and the
Protocol .. . ...... ... that Agreement.
V. Drafting documents requires a formal style which may be achieved,
among others, by using passive voice sentences. Put the sentences
below in the passive.

1. Patent offices grant patents to inventors provided they meet all necessary
requirements.

2. The patent holder must express his or her consent for the production
or distribution of the invention.

3. The Member-States of the EU observe the provisions of international


agreements as well as of national legislation.

4. Producers apply industrial designs to their products but the designs


do not protect the items.

5. Paris and Berne Conventions set forth the fundamental regulations


of the international exchange of goods and services .
. ... .. .. .. .. . .. ... .. .. .. ' " ................................... .
. .. ' " ... ...................... ........................... .
" "

VI. Along with a proper style, legal vocabulary is needed to make your
writing professional. Rewrite the sentences using more formal style
and legal language. Use the passive voice as often as possible.

l. They started the Polish Patent Office in 1918 .

. . .. . . ... . ... ..... .. .... ... ... .. ... .... .... .... .. . . . .. .. . . . .. ..
2. An invention can be patented if it has some required features .
. . .. . .. . .... ..... .... .. .. .. . . ... .. .... . ..... .. .. .. . . . . .. . . . . .. .
. .. .. ... . .. .. .... .. .. .. ... .. . ... .. . . .. ...... ..... .. .. . .... .
" "

68
3_ Because people trade a lot they Deed orne
.............. .. ...... e .................. 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

•• 0 ........................ •• .... •• .. •• ........ •••• .................. . -_ ...................... ..

-.c_ The person \.,rho invented ometbing m - q~i! -0 e -bution


of the ne\',' thing .
. . . . .. . . . .. .. .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. . .

........ . . ........ ...... .......................................... .... .... . ............................................ . .

5. They give the right of protection for 25 years .


....... . .......... . . . .............. .... ........... .... ............ .......... ........ .... . . ...... .................. . .
...... . . . ...... ................ ........... ...... .... ........ .. ...... ...... .... . . . .... . .... .... . .. ...... .... .... .... .

VII. The following excerpt comes from the page of the UK Intellectual
Property Office (http://www.iPo_gov.ukIcrime/crime-whatis.htm) and
deals with IP crimes. Translate it into Polish. Use a good dictionary.

Counterfeiting relates to wilful trade mark infringement, while piracy


relates to wilful copyright infringement.

Examples of counterfeiting could be:


• fake replica of football shirts,
• trainers,
• clothing and so OD.

Examples of piracy could be:


• fake Digital Versatile Discs (DVDs),
• fake Compact Discs (CDs),
• unauthorised downloading of music from the Internet and so on.

Intellectual property (IP) provides protection for people's inventions


and creations and has four main areas: patents, trade marks, copyright
(and related rights), and designs. Unauthorised use of someone's IP can
be dassiiied as IP crime and may lead to prosecution .

.. . ........... .. .. ...... ... .. .... .. ... . .. .. .. .. ............... .


...............................................................
· ............................................................. .
· ................................. , ......................... , ..
· ............................................................. .
· ............................................................. .
.. .. ... ... . .. ... ... .. .. ... .. .. .. ... . ... . . .. .. ... . . . . . . ........ .
.... .. . ... .. .. .. ... .. .. .. ... .. .. . . . . .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. ... ..
.... . . . .. ... ... . . .. . .... .. ... . . ... .. ... . .. ... ... .. . . . . ... ..... .
.... .. ...... .... .... .... .. ... .. .. ... ... .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . ....... .

VIII. Translate the application form for a geografical indication


(below) into English. Use a good dictionary.

Miejsce na piecz<ltk~ l r ....................... .


zg!aszaj<lcego
Data zg! ................... .

(wypelnia Urz<ld Patentowy)


Znak ................ .

URZ4D PATENTOWY
RZECZYPOSPOLITEJ POLSKIEJ
00-950 WARSZAWA,
al. NiepodlegloSci 188/192
skr. poczt. 203

70
PODA~·IE
o udzielenie prawa z rejestracji na oznacz:enie geograficzne

1. ZGLASZAJ1).CY ............... i~c~I~~;'~'~;;";a~ .............. .

umer statystyczny zglaszaj,!cego

wg systemu REGO ... ...... ............. .......... .. ...................


2. PELNOMOC ITK .............................. .. ...... . ........ .
I nu'" '0 i iml~ oraz a<ires pelnomocnika)

3. Oznaczenie geograficzne i sposoby uiywania tego oznaczenia W obracie

................... .. .......................................................

4. Wykaz towar6w, dla kt6rych oznaczenie geograficzne jest przeznacwne:

5. Wykaz przedsi<;biorc6w, kt6rzy uiywajq lub b<;d,! uzywac oznaczenia


geograficznego - jeieli zawiera nie wi<:cej niZ 5 pozycji:

............................................................................

6. Dow6d ochrony oznaczenia w kraju pochodzenia: ... ..... .. . ......... .


........................................................................ .

Inne oswiadczenia lub wnioski

• ••••••••••• ••• ••••••••••••••••• ••• ••••••••••• • •••••••• ••• •••••••••• • • 0 •••••

SPIS ZAL1).CZONYCH DOKUMENTOW:


1. Opis okreslaj'!cy szczeg6lne cechy lub wlasciwosci towar6w, w dw6ch
egzemplarzach
.......... ........................ '" . .. ............... " . " .. .
........... .... " . . ........ '" '" ........................ . .... .
2. Dokladny opis granic terenu oraz mapa terenu wraz z objasnieniami,
w dwoch egzemplarzach
.. , ., .... , .. , ........... , ... , .. , .. , ........................... .
... . , ., ., .... , ... , ., ..... , ..... , ............. , .. . ............. .

3. Dokument potwierdzaj,!cy podstaw~ prawa


.................... , ..... , ......... ...... .. , ........... , ..... .
. .. .. . . ... . . ... . .. .. .... ............................. , ...... .
, ,

4. Dokument pelnomocnictwa
...............................................................
. .. . .. . . . .... . ............ .................................. .
, ,

Osoba upowazniona do odbioru korespondencji: .. ... .... .. .. ......... .

.................... , dnia .................... .


(podpis osoby dzialaj,!cej w imieniu zgIaszaj,!cego z podaniem pelnionej funkcji lub podpis pelnomocnikal

IX. Topics for discussion:

1. Plagiarism in scientific works or at school.


2. Copycat products on the Polish market.
8. The Polish Judicial System

Find words or phrases in the text which mean:

s~dy powszeehne _
s,!d rejonowy _
s,!d okr~gowy _
s,!d gospodarczy _
s,!d grodzki -
s,!d ds. maloletnich _

drobne przestt;pstwa _

nadzwyczajne srodki odwolawcze _


prawomoena deeyzja _
uchylic decyzj~ _

utrzymac deeyzjt; w moey-


naniesc poprawki _
niezawisly _

wOjew6dzki s,!d administracyjny _


Naczelny S,!d Administracyjny_
post~POwanie rozpoznawcze _
pozwolenie na budow~ -
nakaz podatkowy -

zasada instancyjnosci -
kadencja wygasa-

Najwyzsza Izba Kontroli -


Narodowy Bank Polski -

The Polish judicial system consists of:


• common courts of law
• administrative courts
• military courts

In the common courts system the lowest in:-a.:: ;:;e court is a district court
which handles criminal, civil, family, land an . ?roperty, labour, social
security and commercial cases. Unlike in the _.:..nglo-Saxon system, civil
and criminal cases are tried in the same COUfi- ut there are only separate
divisions. In most district courts there are m -.:ipal divisions also known
as municipal courts handling petty offenc~:_ n the district courts there
are also Commercial Law Divisions of the _"a"':onal Court Register and the
Commercial Law Divisions of the Pledg~ :' cgIStry. There are 319 district
courts in our country (as recorded on To, . " _ ) .

Regional courts handle more serious .:riminal, civil, labour, social


security and commercial cases. ami - en they are treated as the first
instance court (the principle of m:~.::e refers to the situation when the
decision of the lower instance court can be appealed against to the court
of higher instance). \"Then they handle appeals against the decisions of the
district courts, they function as the second instance court. There are 45
regional courts in Poland. They can uphold the appealed decision, revoke
the decision or remand the case for re-examination by the court of the
first instance.

Courts of appeal handle appeals against the decisions of the regional


courts and there are 11 such courts in Poland.
The Supreme Court in \\Tarsaw acts as the cassation court, i.e. it deals
with extraordinary means of appeal which the procedures prO\ide for.
It administers justice together \ :ith common, admini trative and military
courts. It does not try new cases but examine if the deci ions of regional
courts comply with the lav·...
As Poland is a member of the European Lnion, above our jurisdiction
there is the European Court of Justice. It is entitled to interpret national
legislation in the light of ED law.
Judges pass judgments and decision on behalf of the Republic of Poland.
Some of them cannot be appealed against and they are final and binding
and have to be executed. In every democratic country, the citizens have
the right to a fair trial. This means that everybody is equal before the
law and the court procedure is reliable. Judges should be impartial and
independent.

Administrative courts are of t\\'O instances: Provincial Administrative


Courts and the Supreme Administrative Court in \\"arsaw. They control
public administration if its decisions are in accordance with the la\v.
Administrative courts can uphold, revoke or amend the appealed
administrative act. The appealed decisions mainly concern: building
permits, tax injunctions, parking regulations or hearing of complaints
about lack of action by administrative bodies. The Similarity between
administrative and judicial proceedings is that in both cases we have at least
two stages: hearing of evidence and the examination of the case including
making a decision about the applicable norms (the decision on the
application of the law is of an individual nature). However, administrative
proceedings differ from civil court proceedings because they are not of
a contradictory nature. Moreover, the administration enforces the policy
of the state while the civil courts protect private interests.

Military courts handle cases in which military employees and soldiers


are involved. There are military provincial and garrison courts.
While the courts' role is to adjudicate, there also exists a separate
branch of the judicial power which remains out ide this system. The
Constitutional Tribunal and the Tribunal of State are its elements.
The Constitutional Tribunal is an independent body of the judiciary
whose role is to decide about the constitutionality of the issued laws. It is
composed of 15 judges each of whom is appointed by the Seym, Senate
and the President for a term of 9 years. If the term of an individual judge
expires a new one is appointed in his place. The President and the Vice-
President of the Tribunal are appointed by the President of the Republic
of Poland. The judges must refrain from political activity or any other
duties that cannot be combined with their work for the Constitutional
Tribunal.
The role of the Tribunal of State is to adjudicate on the constitutional
liability of the people holding the highest offices in Poland: the President
of the Republic of Poland, Prime Minister, members of the government,
the President of the Supreme Chamber of Control, the President of the
National Bank of Poland, the heads of central administrative offices,
etc. The penalties stipulated for them are: removal from public office,
deprivation of their privileges, distinctions, titles, etc.

I. Answer the questions:

1. What is the name of the lowest instance court in the common courts
system in Poland?
2. In what situations can we treat the regional court as the first instance
court and when as the second instance court?
3. What is cassation?
4. Does the Supreme Court handle new cases?
5. What are the similarities between administrative and civil court
proceedings?
6. What kind of administrative decisions are appealed against?

II. Match the words with their definitions:

1. district court. . . . . . . . . . .. a/ the initial stage of the court proceedings


2. municipal court. . . . . . . .. bl extraordinary means of appeal
3. cassation................ cl refer the decision to re-examination
4. case examination. . . . . .. d/ a division or a separate court within
a provincial court

76
5. uphold (a decision) ..... el the second stage of proceedings
6. impartial................ fl objective
7. amend (a decision) ..... gl the lo·es;: U! tance court in the Polish
j UdiCl 51-rem
8. revoke (a decision) ...... hi the ! ·Oil when the appealed decision
rem;:; i,.- .~ .coree
9. comply with............. if a rle - -~dsion
is passed in the case
10. hearing of evidence. ... j/ be ir -:- ~i2nce with something

III. Fill in the gaps

The Supreme Court

The- _..~'= The Military


1
Admirus ~.c= C Provincial Courts

The Regional Courts 3 4

IV. Make the collocations

1. handle a:
2. hear -~ation
3. revoke

t enforce
5. remand

6. tr)'
V. Complete the sentences using the following words:
common, divisions, petty offences, uphold, permit, injunctions,
evidence.

1. Municipal courts deal with ............................................. such


as speeding.
2. The regional courts can, among other things, ................................ .
the appealed decision.
3. The ....................................... courts have both criminal and civil
divisions.
4. I did not get the building ........................... so I appealed against
this administrative decision.
S. I am a witness in this case so I have to give ............................. .
about what I saw.
6. A businessman was surprised when he got a tax ................... . .

VI. Complete the sentences with the proper name of the court.

1. Claims of a lesser value will be . an eO. in a .......................... .

2. More serious matters are tried . .-- ........ ... ....... ... .. ................... .

3. The soldier's case, who left • ~ \\ithout permission, was


referred to ........................ ..... . _
4. The highest court of appeal · -=--LLU.~ters justice is .........
.............................. .
S. The lower instance court in ~-_ - - '2.Gministrative court system
is ........................ .

VII. Translate.

1. S,!dy ~rodzkie zajrnuj,! si~ drO TIpni przest~pstwami i mog~ bye ty1ko
wydZlalem W sqdzie rejonowym.
I •••• " I •• I •••••••• , •••• I' •••••••••• ••••• ••••••••••••••••••••••

.... ........................................................ . . .
78
2. Pomimo protestu mieszkanc6w s'ld administracyjny utrzymal
w mocy pozv.:olenie na budow~ centrum handlowego .
........................................... . .................. .
.............................................................. .

3. Niezawistosc s'ldu to jedna z podstawowych zasad demokracji .


.............................................................. .
.... ...................................... .................... .

4. Po apelacji decyzja s'ldu okr~gowego zostala uchylona .


.............................................................. .
.... ................. .. ...... .. ........... .............. ..... . .

5. S'ld jest na etapie post~powania rozpoznawczego .


................................... ... .. ...................... .

VIII. Fill in the gaps with the following words. There are two words
too many:

principle, against, appeals, function, play, from, instance, remand,


handle, treated

Regional courts (1) ............... more serious criminal, civil, labour,


social security and commercial cases and then they are (2) .............. .
as the first instance court Ithe (3) ............... of instance refers to the
situation when the decision of the lower (4) ... ...... ...... court can be
appealed (5) ... ............ to the court of higher instance/. When they
handle the (6) ............... against the decisions of the district courts,
they (7) ............... as the second instance court. There are 45 regio-
nal courts in Poland. They can uphold the appealed decision, revoke the
decision or (8) ............... the case to re-examination by the court of the
first instance.

79
IX. Litigation is for rich people who have time to spend in courts.
An average citizen cannot afford to claim his rights and as a result
a high fee to the advocates. Do you agree "ith this statement?

X. The administrative courts should be trieter in the cases when


there is a lack of action by administram-e bodies. There is too much
bureaucracy in offices and it takes age to e.~. get a building permit.

Xl. Could you describe some famous ~erred to the Tribunal


of State and the Constitutional Tribunal?
1

9. Criminal (Penal) Law

Find words or phrases in the text which mean:

okolicznosci tagodZ<1ce -
wykroczenie -
recydywista -
przest~pstwa -
zab6jstwo -
zamach stanu -
wszcz~cie lub prowadzenie wojny napastniczej -
rozb6j -
sprawstwo -
wina-
podzeganie -
pomocnictwo -
pokrzywdzony -
wsp6lnik -

przejaidika dla przyjemnosci -


wsp61sprawstwo -
ponosic odpowiedzialnosc -
domniemanie nie\,innoSci -
obrona konieczna -
ograniczona poczytalnosc -
obostrzenie -
wystt;pek -
zbrodnia -
mniejsze zlo -
zlagodzenie -

Public criminal (penal) law includes:

~
al the substantive
1 ~
bl the criminal lawthe executive
cl
criminal law procedure criminal law

al The substantive criminal law regulates acts which are offences, the
system of punishment connected with committing them and security
measures which are applied because of breaching criminal law.
bl The criminal law procedure shows what rules state authorities should
follow in criminal procedures.
cl The executive criminal law defines what the procedures of executing
punishment are. Penitentiary law concentrates on the procedure
of imprisonment.

Except for public criminal (penal) law, there is also criminal fiscal law
dealing with acts connected with violation of the financial interest of the
State Treasury, military criminal law which applies to the people involved
in active military service.
Only those persons who reached the age of 17 are criminally liable on the
same footing as adults, as a rule. So the term juvenile delinquency refers
to the people under 17.
Polish criminal (penal) law is standardized by codes. They are: the Penal
Code, the Code of Penal Proceedings, Punishment Execution Code, Petty

82
Offences ' Code, the Code on Procedures in Petty Offence and the Penal
Fiscal Code.
The basic principle of Polish criminal law is: " nullum crimen, nulla poena
sine lege" which means: there is no crime or sanction of a penalty without
an applicable law. That is why the Penal Code stipulates: Only a person
who has committed an act prohibited by a statute in force at the moment
of committing thereof is subject to criminal responsibility. Polish law
defines an offence as an act committed by a man, prohibited by the
law under the threat of penalty by the applicable law. The act is defined
as a legal fact depending on human will which can be either an action
or omission. Insanity or diminished capacity, i.e. when the perpetrator
is unable to control his conduct or recognize the nature of his action,
is also the reason for applying a mitigation of the penalty.
As far as involvement in committing a crime is concerned, we have:
• perpetration,
• co-perpetration,
• abetting,
• aiding.

According to article 18 § 1 of the Penal Code perpetration takes place


when an act prohibited by law is committed by the perpetrator himself,
e.g. he makes the plan, takes possession of somebody else's property,
breaks into somebody's house (this crime is described in the Penal Code,
article 279).

Co-perpetration exists when at least two people commit a prohibited act


in co-operation. Aiding and abetting take place when there is no direct
involvement of the perpetrator. He is either encouraged by an abettor
or helped by an aider.
Aiding can be committed either actively e.g. by providing the perpetrator
with the necessary tools or by negligence, i.e. when a person has a duty
not to let the other one commit a prohibited act but by his passive attitude
enables him to do so.
Taking into account the grayity of a crime we divide them into:
• Felonies,
• Misdemeanours.
83
Felonies are intentional acts punishable by deprivation of liberty for
up to three years or more while misdemeanours are subject to a fine
exceeding 30 daily fine units or limitation of liberty.
The Code also defines different kinds of homicide taking into account
the offender's mental attitude, the fact if the murder was committed with
particular cruelty, rape, robbery, using a fire arm. etc. Euthanasia (mercy
killing) is treated as a lesser form of homicide.

The basic principle of criminal proceedings..:; bis in idem" (not twice


about the same). This means that a perpetrator - - be tried twice for
the same act. One exception that the Penal COCe 7 -:des for in article
114 § 1 is the situation when the judicial decision ...: made abroad and
it does not exclude the possibility of trying the ...... --ore a Polish court.
However, there are some restrictions: article 11-,: _ -.he Penal Code
does not apply if the execution of the senten.: -e place in the
territory of Poland or the judicial decision m ade - -oncerns a crime
the perpetrator of which was transferred to Po'
The principle of the presumption of inno : <.he constitutio-
nal principles. It means that anyone whose;" - - ?royed by a final
judgement is regarded as innocent. Guilt can ~ ::-':' 0 ?eople who have
reached the age ofresponsibility, have a properu-'>O--';'-'.............;G.J.~-Ultus and are able
to recognize that their act was illegal. An ' - -or (such a person
who does not understand what he is dOin= ~_ state of mind)
is not regarded as guilty.
An error can also exclude a person's cull-.........~... at ion when there
is an inconsistency between what the:'"'-.~"...,.... ..... , and what the
situation really is.

I. Decide if the sentences below false. Correct the false


ones.

1. Substantive criminal law ~ "' rocedures of executing


punishment.
2. Juvenile delinquency is connected \·,rith violation of law by people who
are under 18.
3. There is no exception in the Polish law for the rule "ne bis in idem':
84
II. Answer the questions which follow the description of each case.

Cases:
The perpetrator started to scratch, with a screwdriver, a car which stopped
at a red light. When the \\Tonged driver jumped out of the car another
perpetrator co-operating with his accomplice got into the car and drove
away. He was stopped after a short while. Both of them claimed that it was
only "joy riding".

Which article of the Penal Code would you use to solve the case?

Jan G. persuaded Katarzyna B. who was under the influence of alcohol


to drive his car. She did so but was driving with excessive speed and caused
an accident defined in article 177 § 2 of the Penal Code.

Are they both responsible? For what offence?

III. Make the collocations:

1. deprivation ..... . al measures


2. preparatory ..... . bl of statutory punishment
3. lodging ..... . cl motives
4. mitigation ..... . dl public rights
5. sociaL .... . el proceedings
6. preventive ... . . . f! imprisonment
7. life ..... . gl objectives
8. punitive ..... . hi an indictment
9. perpetrator's ..... . il noxiousness
10. threshold ..... . j/ circumstances

Sentencing
All the above principles should be applied by judges, but they have
some freedom while making decisions. They should take into account
the influence of circumstances on the perpetrator's behaviour
(e.g. the mitigating circumstances), the perpetrator's motives, the way
of committing the offence. The judge can also decide about applying
penal measures instead. This happens, among other things, in the case
of the young age of an offender, his behaviour manifesting the will
to redress the damage or exceeding the limits of necessary defence. Judges
should also take into account the principle of priority in the system of
penalties: if it is possible, a fine or penalty of restricted liberty should
be imposed first, and then imprisonment.

According to the Code, the penalties are put in the order of their gravity:
a fine, restriction of liberty, deprivation of liberty for a fixed term. There
is no place for the death penalty in the Penal Code. The new Code of 1997
abolished this penalty although according to public opinion polls most
people were in favour of it. If the death penalty had had to be decided
in a referendum, the supporters of the penalty would have won. The level
of social noxiousness is also important while deciding about punishment.
Judges should not forget about achieving preventive and educational
objectives with reference to the guilty person.

Important sentencing principles are those concerning human dignity.


They are included in article 3 and come from articles 30, 40 and 41
of the Constitution as well as the international conventions (e.g. article
5 of the European Convention on Human Rights). So every punishment
is considered a lesser evil imposed with hope of bringing good results.
This means that a more lenient punishment is sufficient if it is to bring
a positive outcome. Another principle is equality of justice. This means that
if two people have committed a crime in similar circumstances and their
acts cause the same amount of social noxiousness and their culpability
is similar, they should be treated in a similar way.

However, the court may decide about aggravation of a penalty (i.e. the
sentence may exceed the statutory penalty) if it is multiple recidivism
(relapse into crime - article 64 § 2), the crime was committed in an
organised group (article 65 § 1) or a series of crimes was committed
(article 91 § 1).
In the Penal Code we have a division into punishments and punitive
measures. Punishments embrace fines, restriction of liberty, imprison-

86
ment, life imprisonment. Punitive measures are of p,vo kinds: they
either accompany punishments or are u ed in tead of them. Examples of
punitive measure are: deprivation of public rights, interdiction to occupy
specified posts or conduct specified economic acthity.
The Penal Code also define certain security measure that can be applied
by the judges. The perpetrator can be placed in a p ychiatric " ard if he
was insane while committing the act.

The criminal trial embraces

1. preparatory proceedings when evidence is collected

2. lodging an indictment by the prosecutor

3. hearing before the court, which is finalized by a judgment

4. if the party does not agree with the sentence then we have the
appeal stage

5. executory proceedings in which different institutions are involved:


penitentiary court, tax office, a tax collector

6. the cassation stage in which the Supreme Court is involved

The new 1997 Penal Code often quoted in the above text is comparable
with similar documents in Western Europe. It replaced the previous Code
from the communist times with a new liberal and humanitarian one.

IV. Decide if the sentences below are true or false. Correct the false
ones.

1. "Vhile applying the punishment, judges should choose the hardest


sentence to deter others from committing a crime.

87
2. An ordinary perpetration takes place when someone else makes the
plan to commit a crime.
3. The new 1997 Penal Code is a modern one.

V. Fill in the gaps using prepositions:

1. to charge somebody .... ........... ... something


2. to bring a case ....... ................. . somebody.
3. to sentence somebody .......... ..... something
4. to fine somebody ...... ............... something.
5. to charge somebody .... .............. theft.

VI. Find the opposites.

l. innocent ..... .
2. convict .... ..
3. civil .... .. c .::ed person
4. perpetrator ..... .
5. interdiction ..... .
6. confess .... ..
7. prosecution ..... . g/ a.:~ -

8. imprison ..... .

VII. The text contains examp pw..........,>J..LI.uent (fine) and crimes


(assassination). Using your 0 lain the meaning of the
following: imprisonment, fin parole, life sentence,
grievous bodily harm, blackmail ary, theft, forgery, rape,
perjury, drunk driving .

. . . . . . . . . . . , ........... .......................... .................... .


. , ......... .. ... ............ ............. .............. . ...... .
...... ... .... ................. ........... ..................... .
...... .......... .... ....... ... .................. .............. .
.... ......................... ............. .............. . ..... .

88
...............................................................
...... ........................................ .... ..... .... .. ..
... . ..... ..................... ............. .... .... . ..... .... . . ..

VIII. This is a translation of an article from the Penal Code: \\Thoever


in connection with discharging a public function accepts a material
profit or personal gain or a promise thereof in return for conduct
violating the law, shall be subject to a penalty of deprivation of liberty
for a term between 1 year and 10 years.

Using the words / phrases from the above text, translate the following
paragraphs of articles 230 and 228:
Kto udziela lub obiecuje udzielic konySci majqtkowej lub osobistej
osobie pelniqcej funkcj~ publicznq w zwiqzku z petnieniem tej funkcji,
podlega kane pozbawienia wolnosci od 6 miesi~cy do lat 8.
Jeieli sprawca czynu okreSlonego w § 1 dziala, aby sklonic osob~ peini'lC<!
funkcj~ publiczn'1 do naruszenia przepis6w prawa albo udziela korzysci
takiej osobie za naruszenie przepisow prawa, podlega kane pozbawienia
wolnoSci od 1 roku do 10 lat.
.................................. .......... " ............... .
"

... . .. ... . .. .. . ... ... ...... . . . . . . . .. .......... . .. . . ... . ....... .


.... ... ......... ......... .. . ... . . .. . . ... ... .... .. ... . .. .. . . .. ..
... .. . . . ' . ' " ....................... ... .. . ...... ' " ....... .
" "

. ..... .............. .. ...... ... .. ... . ' " . .. ... ........ .... "
" "

......... .. ' " . . . ........ ........... ..... .. ............. .


" " "

......... . . .. . . . .... ' "


" " " . .... .. . ... ....... ' " ....... ' " .
"

..... . ..... ......... .. . ... . . .. . ... .. ' " .. .. . . .... . ' " ... .
" " "

IX. Translate into Polish:

Whoever causes grave detriment to the health in such a way that:


1. a human being is deprived of sight, hearing, speech or the ability
to procreate, or

89
2. inflicts on another person a serious crippling injury, an incurable
disease or protracted illness, an illness endangering life, a permanent
mental illness, a permanent total or substantia! incapacity to work
in an occupation, or a permanent serious bodily disfigurement or
deformation shall be subject to the penalty of the e.?riYation of liberty
for a term of between 1 year and 10 years .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... .. .. ... . . . . . . . . . . .

X. What is your opinion hould it be


revived?

XI. What does the new Penal Code say about the . tion when
a perpetrator of an offence is a recidivist. Is the alty for an
accomplice also aggravated?

90
10. Administrative Law

Find words or phrases in the text which mean:

tworzenie prawa -
orzekanie -
wprowadzanie w iycie -

prawo, przywilej -
prawo laski -
mianowac s~dziego -
organy pomocnicze -
wojew6dztwo -
woj ewoda -
powiat -
starosta -
gmina -
-ojt -
-ej mik wOjewodzki -

_ dministrative law is one of the most difficult branches of law to


.3.efine and it is connected with the activities of administrative agencies
91
of government whose tasks among others are rulemaking, adjudication,
or the enforcement of a specific regulatory agenda.
It is also one of the most complex branches of law because it is constantly
evolving especially lately when Polish law has had to be adapted to EU
regulations. The necessity to modernise it also arises from the changing
relationship between the state and the citizen and from the constant
need to find the solutions to new social problems connected with e.g.
health care, education or the social \\'elfare system.

On the top of this system we haye the central administration which


is divided into political-governmental and administrative-executive
components. The latter one includes the bodies of central administration.
The former one consists of the Council of Ministers, other ministers,
the Prime Minister and the chairmen of certain committees whose rank
is comparable to that of ministers and. finally, the President of the Republic
of Poland.

The status of the President is dellnoc - e Constitution as the


representative of the Republic of Po e guardian of the
observance of this most important docum-"'"'- ected in a universal,
equal, secret and direct ballot.

Presidential prerogatives are as follow :


• he appoints judges,
• he grants clemency to convicted p
• he may exercise the power to veto parJ!ia:lllCm:r~Ib:il or sign them
to be law,
• he can even dissolve the Seym dissolution
of the Senate.
So his position is quite different ITO ~strative
authorities.
The Prime Minister's legal position '
• presiding over the Council of - esents and
is responsible for its activities,
• supervising and co-ordinating each mi.nister'- rk.
He is assisted by Deputy Prime ~1inisters who e duties are specified
by the Prime Minister. The new 1997 Constitution like other modern
constitutions defines the Council of :\linisters as an executive power.

Composition of the Council of Ministers:


• Prime Minister,
• ministers,
• special government plenipotentiaries responsible for implemen-
tation of specific tasks and the governors on the regional level.

The Council's role is:


• to conduct domestic and foreign policy (on condition that these
tasks are not statutorily assigned to other state bodies),
• to decide about important public affairs, administration and the
economy,
• to supervise all the elements of pubic administration and
is superior to them.
The ministers belonging to the Council of Ministers can be of two
categories: either ministers responsible for one of thirty two departments
whose scope of duties is outlined in the 1997 Governmental Administration
Act, or ministers appointed to perform specific tasks, so called "ministers
without portfolio".
"Central Offices" are also the components of central administration
to which different agencies belong. They have different functions such
as licensing, supervising or protection but they are treated as autonomous
administrative bodies. They report either to one of the ministers or directly
to the Prime Minister. Some of them also play an advisory role as auxiliary
bodies.

The territorial local government structure is divided into three levels:


• regions,
• districts,
• communes.
The first one combines governmental and local administration and its
role is to supervise the economic and social development in the region.
So local governments at the regional level are more concentrated on
promoting their regions and intern ational co-operation. This direction
of activity is in accordance \\ith the provisions of the 1997 European
Local Government Charter adapted by the Council of Europe. The
regional authorities provide enices whose scale and cost exceed the
capabilities of a district (e.g. higher education). The third direction of
activity is connected with emironmental protection. All important
decisions at this level are made by the o -called "semi-parliament':
In 1999, an administrative reform was conducted whose basic assumption
was that there is a governmental administrative apparatus, where the
general policy is established, an' :ocal government where it is
implemented.
The local government system \\ithi.a - e state structure deals with
the matters of local importance, sohin;:: - "problems of residents, enter-
prises, organisations, etc. So the local :: -emment's tasks also embrace
providing basic services to the citize - - -" ::ealth care, social welfare,
education. Parallel to this there is also -- ~ ~ ernment administration.
The governor appointed by the Prime - - ~r represents the Council
of Ministers in the region and the S ta~ - ry. He also supervises units
of the local government and acts as ~ _ ~ e body in the case when
citizens do not agree with the adminis ecisions. He should also act
as a guarantor of the proper functio -- 5 : - e tate and internal security.
He supervises all actions in a state 0: ~ 5=- ". e.g. flood. The governor
should resign from his office when tl:e C .:::..:. of Ministers changes.
The governor is assisted by the in- ~ - ~ administration whose task
is to perform the statutory dutie c: -- _ " responsible for the region's
affairs.
Apart from the integrated a' -- - - n inside the government
administration, there is also a no --...,-.:.. - administration which is not
organisationally linked to the goy-
fire service commanders).
Communes and districts are !!l entrated on everyday matters
and satisfying public needs e.g ~~ - ~:::' .:.cce S to infrastructure).
The executive organs of these - - -~ f:"-e are boards presided over
by, respectively:
• a mayor for a commune
• a district head for a district board.
• a marshal for the board of a region.
The head of a commune or a mayor of a city performs the executive
power in a municipality (rural or urban ).
The Prime Minister and governor control the local government authorities
at three levels. However, their intervention may only take place in the
cases specified by law.

I. Decide if the following sentences are true or false:

1. The Prime Minister belongs to the administrative-executive segment


of the Central Administration.
2. The President of Poland is a dependent authority whose duties are
defined by the Prime Minister.
3. According to the Constitution, the Council of Ministers is equal to the
government.
4. The members of the Council of Ministers can be either heads
of departments or other ministers appOinted to perform speCific tasks.
5. Local government structures serve mainly to meet the needs of local
residents.
6. The governor is an authority which is an element of local government.
7. The executive authorities at three levels are: region, district and
commune.

II. Defining and non-defining relative clauses.

Study these two almost identical sentences differing only in the usage
of commas, at first glance:
1. My brother who is a member of the Council of Ministers has just gone
abroad with a diplomatiC visit.
2. My brother, who is a member of the Council of Ministers, has just gone
abroad with a diplomatic visit.

The difference in meaning between them is as follows: the first sentence


suggests that I have more than one brother and the one who is a member
of the Council of Ministers has just gone abroad (defining clause). The
meaning of the second sentence is that my only brother, about whom

95
we have extra information that he is a member of the Council
of Ministers, has gone abroad.

Find the relative clauses in the text and decide if they are defining
or non-defining.
· .................................................... ' " " .. .
"

· .................. ......................................... .
"

... .. .. .. . .. .... .. .. .. . .... .........


" " ..'" ...... . .
'" " " '"

· ............... ....." " ............ ... ..... ........ .


'" " " "

· ......................................... .................. .
"

· .... ...................................... .............. .


" '"

· .................... " ...................... ............. . .


'"

... . ................................... ................ . ' "


" "

.................. ....................................... . .. .
"

... .. ... . . .. .. , ........................................... . ... .


· ........................................................ . . . . . .

III. Word formation

Fill in the gaps:

Noun Verb Adjective

application
decide
modernization
divide
select
define
dissolve
supervise
appoint
implementation

Qfi
IV. Whose duties are the following, the President's, the Prime Minister's
or the governor's?

1. - to grant clemency to convicted persons.


2. - supervising the ministers' work.
3. - dissolving the Seym.
4. - presiding over the Council of Ministers.
5. - to represent the State Treasury in the region.
6. - is appointed by the Prime Minister.

V. Fill in the gaps with the proper words

divided, consists, give, of, provide, districts, cities, preside, with,


promoting, representing, local, government, one, supervise,
commune.

The local government structure is (1 ) ............. into three levels:


regions, (2) ........................ and (3) .... ... ....... . ... The first
(4) ......... combines government and local administration and its
role is to (5) ......... economic and social development in the region.
So (6) ......... at the regional level is more concentrated on (7) ........... .
their region and international co-operation. This direction of activity
is in accordance (8) ......... the provisions of the 1997 European Local
Government Charter adopted by the Council of Europe. The regional
authorities (9) ......... such services whose scale and cost exceed the
capabilities of a district (e.g. higher education).

VI. Explain the difference between the following concepts:

l. Political-government component of administration l administratiy~­


executive component

..... ................... '" . '" . " . '" " .. " . . ....... " . " " . "

.. ..'" " '"...... .


'" " '" " '" " .. " .... " ........ " '" '" . "
2. government administrative apparatus I local government
...............................................................
.............................................................. .

3. dissolution of the Seym/convening of the Seym


.......... . .. . .... .. ...... .................. ...................
.............................................................. .

VII. Match the elements of the two columns:

1. adapt. ... . al of the committee


2. changing ..... . bl ballot
3. chairman ..... . cl to regulation
4. secret ..... . dl judges
5. appoint ..... . el relationship
6. grant ..... . fl over the Council
7. preside ..... . gl for the activity
8. responsible ..... . hi policy
9. conduct. .... . il importance
10. local ..... . jl clemency

VIII. The second conditional is used when you are talking about an
imaginary situation (if something were different than it is). Write three
sentences for each imaginary situation:

1. If I were the Prime Minister of Poland ...... ....... . ............ .

2. If I were a councillor in my town ............................... .

3. If I were the governor of my region ............................. .

IX. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions: on, in, into, of, to, with, by.

The governor is assisted (1) ............... the integrated administration


whose task is (2) ............... perform statutory duties (3) ............. .. the

98
body responsible (4) ............... the region's affairs. Apart (5) ........... .
integrated administration inside the governmental administration there
is also non-integrated administration which is not organisationally
linked (6) ............... the governor but partly dependent (7) .............. .
him (e.g. fire service commanders). Communes and districts are more
concentrated (8) ............... everyday matters and satisfying public
needs (e.g. residents' access to infrastructure).

x. Corruption (bribery) is one of the most common crimes committed


by civil servants. Translate the part of the Polish Penal Code dealing
with the problem:

Kto POWO~Uj'lc si~ na swoje wplywy w instytucji panstwowej lub


samorz~dzle terytorialn}1TI, podejmuje si~ posrednictwa w zalatwieniu
sprawy w zamian za korzysc maj'ltkow'l lub jej obietnic~, podlega karze
pozbav·,rienia wolnoSci do lat 3 .
.................... .
.................................... ..... .
.................................................. .
........... .
................................... . .......................... .
.............................................. .
........ ....... .
..................................... .
........................ .
............................ . ........ .
........................ .
................................ .
............................. .

XI·b L:al government and the government administration overlap


eac 0 er, employ too many people and cost the taxp
Do you agree? ayers too much.

99
11. Key

1. Legal professions

I. IF 2F 3T 4F 5T

II.

1. advocate/legal adviser, 2. notary public, 3. advocate, 4. police,S. in-


-house counsel

III.

exercise power -sprawowac wladz<:


settle disputes - rozstrzygac spory
administer justice - wymierzac sprawiedliwosc
act on behalf of a client - dzialac w imieniu klienta
present indictment - przedstawic akt oskarzenia

IV.

1. on / o f! on /of
2. from / by / of / of
3. of / from / to
4. in / in / to
5. in / of! of

V. 1b 2a 3c 4c Sa

lnn
VI.
1. Constitution, 2. Roman, 3. Community, 4. commercial,S. employment

VII.

to make a copy of a document - to draft a document

to make necessary arrangements before an event - to conduct preparatory


proceedings

to describe/determine something in a document - to set forth in a


document

to act according to the constitution - to be subject to the constitution /


to comply with the constitution

to give advice on legal matters - to provide legal advice

VIII.

the principle of impartiality - a rule based on freedom from bias or


favouritism; fairness

the equality of treatment - treating all citizens the Sarrle by an organisation


of interest

a legal person - a juristic person, an artificial entity through ""hich the


law allows a group of natural persons to act as if it were a single individual
for certain purposes

a natural person - a human being

a person of public trust - a person whose profession entails the society' s


trust or faith that he is capable

2. Elements of Logics

I. IF 2F 3T 4T SF
II. Ie 2d 3a 4b 5e 6g 7h 8j 9i lOf

101
III.
1. In spite of the fact that the witne - 00.- an oath to tell the truth, the jury
did not believe him.
2. Although the judge was cominced 0: --e .:riminal's innocence,
he hesitated if he could acquit him.
3. Despite the parties' concluding a cont:r'aC" e ne of them decided
to withdraw from the contract later.
4. Despite the court's ordering him to uting the product
in Poland, Mr Kowalski continued to '0-
5. In spite of the fact that the judge kn~ ~ -- _ --- es' jargon, he had
problems with understanding the ,..itn

IV.
1. testify
2. conclusion
3. prosecution
4. object
5. accept

v.
When concluding a contract, the pe L-J.~""'" :Lies is necessary.

According to the Polish Civil Code. ea ~rt:;::s .:anexpress the


permission for the terms and conditions .:a:=it::t - ~ only by means
of words.
A lawyer should get acquainted "i' - ditions of the
contract.

There appeared certain misunderstan~ '- =-


odding the head does not mean" - ~ rures.

3. Civil Law

1. IT 2T 3 F - some of them 5 F - lex


retro non agit

, ",..,
II.
Civil Code - a compilation of laws designed to deal with the basic areas
of private law

statutory law - written law laid down by legislature


commercial law - mercantile (business) law, a branch of the law which
governs business and commerce

decedent - a person who has died

inheritance - passing on property, titles, etc. upon the death of an


individual

III.

verb person abstract noun


inherit heir inheritance
succeed successor succession
regulate I - regulation
decease I; decedent decease
refer - reference

v.
l. The Constitution. 2. By way of a statute. 3. Justification and executive
orders. 4. The President. 5. Two or more. 6. Yes. 7. In the Journal of Laws.
8. Yes. 9. The President, Council of Ministers, Prime Minister, ministers,
National Broadcasting Council. 10. In the Constitution.

VI. 1 by 2 of 3 to 40n 5 of 6 by 7 upon 8 of 9 of

VII. Ib 2a 3c 4a Sb

VIII.

1. set. forth - stipulate, 2. statute - act, 3. procedure


4 tt 1 - proceedings,
. wn en aw - statutory law,S. succession - inheritance
IX.

1. All citizens have the right to vote pro\ided they are of age.
2. Statues may be passed independently 5 • J ed to a condition that they
do not breach the Constitution.
3. International agreements are a source 0: la ,. "ith a proviso that they
are ratified.
4. A regulation may not be issued by the _~ - i1a.I Broadcasting Council
unless a law authorises the body to it p_ ~mon.
5. If all necessary proceedings are cOInp_c - 2. law is signed by the
President.

X.
to decide what the citizens may do - to reg: -~ .:rtizens' rights

to bring a document to an institutio~ - .= e a document with


an institution; to table/submit/lodge a doc ~ institution

to break what the Constitution says in ar.i reachlinfringe the


provisions of article 31 of the Constitution

the companies that signed a contract - the? ..:. contract


to let the Prime Minister issue a regulati 2!!lllorise the Prime
Minister to promulgate a regulation

4. Entrepreneurs

I.
1. Civil law - a natural or legal person or _ LOo..<:...........-_.'"'-,: rate organisational
unit with legal capacity conducting e-~ -: ~:ti\ity on its own
behalf.
Public law - the above plus partners in partLeTShIps.
2. In the ational Court Register.
3. Enterprise.
4. Different forms of economic concentration..
5. A cartel and its specific forms , i.e. a syndi -a-e and a poll.

104
'"} (3) exercise
. solely (5) holding
II. 0) owns SlOO- -:%
-
(6) engages

III. lon 2 of 3 in -1 on :; to 6by 7 after 8 \\ith

IV.

1. conduct (run) economic activity a business I an enterprise


2. agree on the terms of a contract / market activity / production limits
3. exercise control I a function I power
4. control shares I the management board I a manager's performance
5. hold shares I a meeting I a decision

V. enterprise, risks, referred, takes, venture, O\\Tn ,

business, create, service, opportunities

VI. 1 behalf 2 trade name 3 consent 4 discharge 5 parent


company

5. Contracts

I. IF 2T 3F

II.

1. to
2. into
3. to
4. between
5. of
6. in / of
7. from
8 . on
III.

1. The Seller should transfer the Property to the Buyer by 20th October
2007.
2. The terms described in this agreement are as follows.
3. Each party has to follow the terms of this agreement.
4. By this the Parties have to perform the services with due diligence.
5. The Licensor has to keep from transferring his rights to the third
party.

IV. 1d 2g 3a 4c 5e 6h 7f 8b

V. IF 2T 3F

VI. un un il in il dis dis un

IX. Hire purchase contract

The contract concluded between Mr X residing in Krakow at the address:


010-543 Krakow, ul. Dluga 5 holder of the Identity Document AGH
132879 issued by the Mayor of the city of Krakow and Mr Y ........... .

§ 1. The Vendor declares that he is the owner of the motorcycle, make


WFM, the engine number 34289, registration number BXC 24573.
§ 2. The Vendor declares that the Object of sale is free of legal defects.
§ 3. The price of the Object is 20.000 Polish zlotys (namely ...... ) and shall
be paid in the following manner:
al on the day of signing the contract the Purchaser shall pay the
Vendor the sum of 8000 Polish zlotys (namely ......... )
bl The remaining part of the price shall be paid in 6 equal installments
of2000 Polish zlotys (namely .................................... ).
§lO. The contract has been drawn up in 2 copies ...................... ..

x. Ib 2a 3a 4b 5c 6a 7b 8a

106
-; a 9 lOd
I. Ib

:; Code 6 out
Il. 1 v,'Titing

Ill. 1 duty . linary


2 di. sap 3 mm'or ~ disrru'ssal
-j:
-1 suspend

IV. 1 of 2 with 3 outside 4 to :, for

V. Ic 2a 3a -1b Sa

VI. 1 started 2 before 3 act according to 4 changed 5 as the


Employer wishes

7. IP law

1.

1. The Stockholm Act.


2. Copyright, rights related to copyright.
3. Berne Convention, Paris Convention.
4. 1918
5. Yes, it must be of practical use.
6. No - 20 years for a patent, 10 years for a petty patent.
7. Yes.
8. No - a patent for 20 years, industrial designs for 25 years.
9. Polish Cherry, Champaigne, Camembert.
10. World Industrial Property Organization, Intellectual Property, Geo-
graphical Indications, Polish Patent Office, Traditional Speciality
Guaranteed, United Kations Organisation, Protected Geographical
Indications, Protected Designation of Origin.

1 f\'7
II.

(1) applied for, independent of


(2) foregoing provision, nullity, forfeiture, duration
(3) comes into
(4) in existence
(5) benefit of, equal to

III. nullity - the state of non-existence

forfeiture - losing or surrendering SOffic- -;.


provision - a short part of a legal enactr:!e-<- r agreement
duration - the period of time during F"' - - : ~ethin g continues
prjorHy - superior rank; preceding som "-.::- d.:".c

IV.
The Patent Office of the Republic of Pol -- tablished on December
28, 1918.
Poland already entered into the Paris f r·--.. . . .
-ion for the Protection
of Industrial Property on lOth Nove~ _ _ 'oining international
cooperation in this field. The first regis - - - - a trade mark took place
on 11 th April, 1924, and the first patent .,..,-- - on 24th April, 1924.
The Polish Patent Office performs its bas~
• granting rights of protection for ind """,,,,~orn.- subjects

• providing access to industrial property? ... - and the information


they contain

as weD as

• co-creating and popularizing rules 0; -- - property protection.

Basic tasks of the Polish Patent Office i th regard to the granting


proceedings and maintenance oflegal pro- :non are performed according
to:
• national legislation regarding applications filed directly with the Patent
Office;
• international agreements:
o for patent and <y in: - iiled under the Patent
Cooperation ~.reary (PCT).
o for paten a. _Ii -0 - - eci. !.IDdcr -' e European Pa:em Com-ention,
o for trade marl- a? lications iiled under the _ iadrid Agreement
Concerning the In ernational Registradon of .\larks and the Protocol
to that Agreement.

v.
1. Patents are granted to inYentors provided all necessary requirements
are met.
2. The patent holder ' s consent is required for the production or distribu-
tion of the invention.
3. The provisions of international agreements as ,,-ell as of nationallegisla-
tion are observed by the ;\lember-States of the EF
4. Industrial designs are applied to products but the items are not pro-
tected by the designs.
5. The fundamental regulations of the international exchange of goods
and services were set forth by the Paris and Berne Com-entions.

VI.

l. The Polish Patent Office was established in 1918.


2. An invention may be granted a patent/ is patentable provided certain
requirements are met.
3. Due to the intensive exchange of goods, certain commercial regulations
are needed/ required.
4. An invention may not be distributed without the inventor's consent.
5. The right of protection is granted for 25 years.

8. The Polish Judicial System

I.

1. District Court
2. First instance court - when a more serious case is tric:d for the tinc
time, second instance - when they handle appeals from the decisions
of the district courts.
3. Extraordinary means of appeal.
4. No, it doesn't.
5. In both of them here are at least two stages: hearing of evidence and
the case examination.
6. They are mainly building permit, tax injunction or complaints
about lack of action by administrative bodies.

II. Ig 2d 3b 4e 5h 6f 7c 8i 9j lOa

III.

1. The Court of Appeal


2. District court
3. Provincial Administrative Court
4. Garrison court

IV. lc 2 f 3a 4e 5b 6d

V.
1. petty offences
2. uphold
3. common
4. permit
5. evidence
6. injunction

VI.
1. District court
2. Regional court
3. Military court
4. Supreme Administrative Court
5. Provincial Administrative Court

VII.
1. The municipal courts handle petty offences and can be only a division
in a district court.
110
-:",3 ~ court issued
2. Despite the inhabmm
· • ,
?W:es:.
-
~- ~
the buildinu pe.rmi:t for a biu .illo~ pina cell er.
3. The indep:ndence of the conn is one of the basic principles
of democracy.
4. After the appeal the decision of the district court was revoked.
5. The court is on the stage ofhearmg of e\idence.

VIII.

1. handle 2. treated 3. principle 4. instance 5. against 6. appeal 7. function


8. remand.

9. Criminal (Penal) Law


I. IF 2T 3F

III. Id 2e 3h 4j Si 6a 7f 8g 9c lOb

IV. IF 2F 3T

V. I with 2 against 3 to 4 for 5 before

VI. Id 2g 3a 4c Se 6h 7f 8b

VIII.

Whoever grants or promises to grant a material benefit or personal gain


to a person discharging a public function shall be the subject to the penalty
of deprivation of liberty from 6 months to 8 years.
If the perpetrator of the act defined in § 1 behaves in such a way that
he wants to conduce the person performing a public function to breach
the la"W' or grants such a person lTl.aterial benefit for breaching the law
is the subject of deprivation of liberty from 1 year to 10 years.

IX.

Kto powoduje ci~ uszczerbek na zdrowiu w postaci:


1) pozbawienia czlowieka wzroku, sluchu, mowy, zdolnoSci plodzenia
lub
1. 2) powoduje u innej 0 oby ci~e kalectwo, citrzkC} nieuleczalnC} lub
dlugotrwalC} chorob~, cnorob~ realnie zagraiajC}c,! iyciu, trwal,!
chorob~ psychiczn'!, calko\\it,! lub znaczn'! niezdolnosc do pracy
w zawodzie lub trwale, istotne zeszpecenie lub znieksztakenie ciata,
podlega karze pozba"ienia wolnosci od roku do lat 10.

10. Administrative Law

I. IF 2F 3F 4T :>T 6F 7T

III.

apply applicable, apt' -CG.


decision decisive
modernize modernized
division divided
selection selective
definition define
dissolution dissolved
supervision supervised
appointment appointed
implement implemente .

IV.
The President's - l,3
The governor's - 5,6

V. 1 divided 2 districts 3 commune 4 one 5 supervise


6 local government 7 promoting with 9 prOVide

VII. lc 2e 3a 4b :>d 6j 7f 8g 9h 10i

IX. 1 by 2 to 3 of 4 for :> from 6 to 7 on 8 on

1 1 '"I
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