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You are on page 1of 7

Instructions to candidates

2. Calculators, log tables and other aids are not permitted.

3. The question paper carries 80 marks, broken up into four

questions of 20 marks each. Each question has three

parts. If you solve all three parts correctly, you get 20

marks for that question. Otherwise, you get 5 marks for

each part that you solve correctly.

4. Attempt all questions. There are no optional questions.

5. There is a separate Answer Sheet. To get full credit, you

must write the final answer in the space provided on the

Answer Sheet.

6. Write only your final answers on the Answer Sheet. Do

not use the Answer Sheet for rough work. Submit all

rough work on separate sheets.

7. Make sure you fill out your contact details on the Answer

Sheet as completely and accurately as possible. We will

use this information to contact you in case you qualify

for the second round.

Zonal Informatics Olympiad, 2012

Questions

1. You have a bag with some black balls and some white balls. You put your hand into

the bag and pull out a pair of balls.

(a) If both balls are black, you throw away one and return one to the bag.

(b) If both balls are white, you throw them both away.

(c) If the balls are of different colours, you throw away the black ball and return the

white ball to the bag.

You can keep doing this so long as there are at least two balls left in the bag. The

process stops when the bag is empty or has only a single ball left.

For instance, suppose we start with 2 black balls and 2 white balls. The various ways

the game can evolve are described below.

{2 black, 2 white}

Pick 1 black, 1 white

Pick 2 white

Pick 2 black

Pick 2 white

{0 black, 0 white}

Suppose you start with a given number of black and white balls, play the game and

you end up with a single ball in the bag. Let N denote the number of times you pulled

out pairs of balls. We are interested in answering the following questions.

• What are the minimum and maximum values for N for which you end with a

single ball in the bag?

• Is the last ball remaining in the bag always white, always black or of either colour?

1

In the example worked out above, if we end up with a single ball in the bag, it must

be black. Also, the minimum and maximum values of N are both 2. Note that we are

not interested in the value of N in situations where the bag becomes empty.

Compute the minimum and maximum values of N as well as the possibilities for the

colour of the last ball for each of the following initial contents of the bag.

(a) 17 black balls, 23 white balls (b) 42 black balls, 32 white balls

(c) 111 black balls, 99 white balls

2. A toy set contains blocks showing the numbers from 1 to 9. There are plenty of blocks

showing each number and blocks showing the same number are indistinguishable. We

want to examine the number of different ways of arranging the blocks in a sequence so

that the displayed numbers add up to a fixed sum.

For example, suppose the sum is 4. There are 8 different arrangements:

1 1 11

1 1 2

1 2 1

1 3

2 1 1

2 2

3 1

4

The rows are arranged in dictionary order (that is, as they would appear if they were

listed in dictionary).

In each of the cases below, you are given the desired sum S and a number K. You have

to write down the K th line when all arrangements that add up to S are written down

as described above. For instance, if S is 4 and K is 5, the answer is 2 1 1. Remember

that S may be large, but the numbers on the blocks are only from 1 to 9.

3. You are given a grid of cells. Each cell has a positive integer written on it. You can

move from a cell x to a cell y if x and y are in the same row or same column, and the

number in y is strictly smaller than the number in x. You want to colour some cells

red so that:

• Every cell can be reached by starting at a red cell and following a sequence of

zero or more moves as defined above.

• The number of red cells is as small as possible.

2

• The number of red cells.

• The smallest number appearing amongst all red cells.

For example, suppose the grid is as follows:

2 2 3

2 1 2

3 2 2

It is sufficient to colour the two cells labelled 3, and one cannot do better than this.

In this case, the number of red cells is 2 and the smallest number appearing amongst

all red cells is 3.

(a) 55 25 49 40 55 3 55 (b) 50 98 54 6 34 94 63 52 39

33 32 26 59 41 40 55 62 46 75 28 65 18 37 18 97

31 23 41 58 59 14 33 13 80 33 69 93 78 19 40 13

9 19 9 40 4 40 40 94 10 88 43 61 72 94 94 94

55 54 55 46 52 39 41 41 79 82 27 71 62 57 67 34

10 41 7 47 5 30 54 8 93 2 12 93 52 91 86 93

40 22 31 36 7 40 28 94 79 64 43 32 94 42 91 9

21 40 41 59 14 36 31 25 73 29 31 19 70 58 12 11

(c) 50 54 6 34 78 63 52 39 41 46

75 28 65 18 37 18 13 80 33 69

78 19 40 13 10 43 61 72 13 46

56 41 79 82 27 71 62 57 67 81

8 71 2 12 52 81 1 79 64 81

32 41 9 25 73 29 31 19 41 58

12 11 41 66 63 14 39 71 38 16

71 43 70 27 78 71 76 37 57 12

77 50 41 81 31 38 24 25 24 81

4. A shop gets its supplies in cartons, each with a unique serial number. These cartons

are stored in a cupboard with many shelves. The shelves are arranged from top to

bottom. In each shelf, cartons are arranged from left to right.

The shop assistant uses a strange system to store cartons on the shelves. When a

carton numbered K arrives in the shop, he places it according to the following rules.

(a) If K is bigger than the serial numbers of all the cartons on the top shelf, he adds

K at the right end of the top shelf.

3

(b) Otherwise, he finds the carton with the smallest serial number bigger than K in

the top shelf. Suppose this carton has number L. He replaces carton L by carton

K and inserts carton L into the second shelf using the same pair of rules.

In other words, if L is bigger than all the serial numbers in the second shelf, carton

L is added at the right end of the second shelf.

Otherwise, it displaces carton M, where M is the smallest serial number on the

second shelf that is bigger than L. Carton M is then inserted into the third self

using the same pair of rules, and so on.

There are always enough empty shelves with adequate free space on each shelf to

complete this process.

Separately, he records in his notebook the order in which positions get filled in the

shelves.

Here is an example to illustrate the method. Suppose six cartons numbered 32, 43,

21, 65, 54 and 11 arrive in that order. Then, the arrangement of the cartons on the

shelves and the record in the notebook after each item arrives is as follows.

32 arrives 32 1

43 arrives 32 43 1 2

21 arrives, 21 43 1 2

bumps 32 to second shelf 32 3

21 43 65 1 2 4

65 arrives

32 3

54 arrives, 21 43 54 1 2 4

bumps 65 to second shelf 32 65 3 5

11 arrives, 11 43 54 1 2 4

bumps 21 to second shelf, 21 65 3 5

which bumps 32 to third shelf 32 6

Remember that the notebook records the order in which the positions on the shelves

are occupied. Thus, the entry 5 in the final notebook after all six items have arrived

indicates that the second position in the second shelf became occupied when the fifth

carton arrived, even though the actual carton in that position, 65, was the fourth

carton to arrive, not the fifth.

4

The manager of the shop has a problem. From the arrangement of cartons on the

shelves and the record in the notebook, he must figure out the order in which the

cartons originally arrived, so that old stocks don’t accumulate. For instance, from the

final pair of entries in the table above, he should recover the fact that the original

sequence of cartons was 32, 43, 21, 65, 54, 11.

Each case below describes the contents of the shelves and the corresponding entries in

the notebook after a sequence of cartons has arrived. You have to calculate and write

down the original sequence in which the cartons arrived.

8 11 86 1 3 5

12 95 2 7

(a)

22 4

47 6

6 34 52 66 1 4 5 6

39 63 2 8

(b)

50 98 3 9

54 7

8 22 47 78 1 3 6 7

11 33 86 2 4 8

(c) 12 95 5 11

28 9

40 10

5

Zonal Informatics Olympiad, 2012: Answer sheet

School:

Examination Centre:

Email address:

Write only your final answers in the space provided. Write all rough work on separate sheets.

Question 1

Colour of last ball

Min N Max N

(Black/White/Either)

(a)

(b)

(c)

Question 2 Question 3

Number of Smallest number

K th row of arrangements adding up to S

red cells among red cells

(a) (a)

(b) (b)

(c) (c)

Question 4

Original sequence in which cartons arrived at the shop

(a)

(b)

(c)

For official use only. Do not write below this line.

1. a b c 2. a b c

3. a b c 4. a b c Total

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