An optical fiber is a thin, flexible, transparent fiber that acts as a waveguide, or "light pipe", to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber.

Why Optical?
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Bandwidth Low cost ($0.30/yard) Extremely low error rate (10-12 vs. 10-6 for copper Low signal attenuation Low power requirement More secure

Multi Mode Optical Fiber Single Mode Optical Fiber: Used to transmit one signal per fiber (Single Mode generally are used for in telephones and cable tv applications) SingleMode Optical Fiber produce as 8 / 125 and 9 / 125 ( Core / Cladding diameter Microns) .Single Mode Optical Fiber 2.Types of Optical Fiber There are two basic types of fiber: 1.

lan applications) MultiMode Optical Fiber produce as 50 / 125 and 62.5 / 125 ( Core / Cladding diameter Microns) .Multi Mode Optical Fiber: Used to transmit many signals per fiber (Multi Mode generally are used for in computer networks.

The light rays follow like sinus signal.Step Index 2.Graded Index STEP-INDEX: The light rays to travel at many different angles within the Multi Mode Step Index fiber.Types of fiber optic cable of index 1. . The light rays follow straight lines within the single mode step index fiber GRADED INDEX: The light rays no longer follow staight lines.

Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) 3.Plastic Coated Silica Fiber(PCSF) OPTICAL LOSS: The term optical loss describes the difference Between the amount of light sent in to transmitting end of a fiber optic cabel and the amount of light that succesfully makes it use to the cabels receiving end .Glass Optical Fiber (GOF) 2.Types of Fiber Optic Cabels of structure 1.


PDH (Plesichronous Digital Hierarchy): PDH is a popular technology is widely used in the networks of Telecom in order to transport huge amount of data over the digital equipment for the transpotation like Microwave radio or Fiber Optic Systems.There are two types of data transmissions. PDH (Plesichronous Digital Hierarchy) 2. The PDH works in a state when the various differnt parts of the network are clearly synchronised. Digital data transmission In digital data transmission there are two types 1. SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) 1.They are: 1. Analog data transmission and 2. .

in each speech transmission. But as the technology has improved with the passing of time.The PDH helps in proper transmission of the data that generally runs at the similar rate but allows some slight variation in the speed than the nominal rate. For instance. which has the capability of transmitting the data at much higher rates as compared to the PDH system. The basic transfer rate of the data is 2048 kilobits per second. the normal rate breaks into different thirty channels of 64 kilobits per second along with two different 64 kilobits per second in order to perform the tasks of synchronization and signaling. The typical rate of transmitting the data over the fiber optic systems is 565 Mbit/sec in order to transport the data in the long distance. now the telecommunication companies have replaced the PDH equipment with that of the SDH equipment. .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) originates from Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) in the US. the weaknesses that made it less demanded includes: .Non availability of world standard on the digital formats. . networking is not possible -Management is very inflexible in PDH.No optical interfaces world standard and without an optical level. .Restricted management capacity. . Although the PDH proved to be a breakthrough in the field of digital transmission. SDH was developed.The weaknesses that PDH faced paved way for the introduction and use of the SDH systems. So.

These Transmission Systems consist of large bandwidth highways that form the backbone to the network. SDH has the capability of transfering the data at higher rates depends on Synchronous Transport Module (STM) shown below : STM-1 -----.32 Mbps STM-64----. resilient and flexible.08 Mbps STM-16----.155.520 Mbps STM-2 -----.Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Introduction: The Transmission System is traditionally seen as the link between main WAN switching centres. They typically serve many customers each with their own requirements so the systems have to be reliable.2488.9953.622.28 Mbps .

optical interfaces .reduced networking cost due to the transversal compatibility .cost effective and easy traffic cross connection capacity and add and drop facility . Some of the most common advantages enjoyed by the usage of SDH include: .But if we compare the PDH system with that of the SDH system.forward and backward compatibility .world standard digital format . the latter one has a large number of advantages.capability of powerful management .

708 .Synchronous Multiplexing structure. -Existing PDH can interface into SDH. -Network Management is easier to perform (G774 and G784). G. -Network topologies are more flexible.SDH Bit Rates G.707 .The SDH Network Node Interface. There are three G transmission series recommendations that are very important: G.-Different interfaces or different bandwidths can connect (G708. -The optical interface is standard (G957). -There is flexibility for growth.709 . . G781).

.It includes capabilities for bandwidth on demand and is also mad up of multiples of E1. . STM-4 (622Mb/ is 4 x STM-1 and STM-16 (2.5Gb/s) is 4 x STM-4. STM-1 (155Mb/s) is 63 x E1.

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