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NETWORKED CONTROL SYSTEM

DPMC PRESENTATION

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION


ENGINEERING
Presented By:
Ratish Kumar
Under the Supervision of:
Prof. M.J. Nigam
Dr. Rajiv Kumar
Presentation Outline
 Introduction and Motivation
 Review of Literature
 Leading Research Problems
 Validation framework (supporting tools required)
 Work Plan for 2nd Semester
 References

December 18, 2018 Semester 1: DPMC Presentation 2


Introduction & Motivation
Modern Control System

An open-loop control system


utilizes an actuating device to
control the process directly
without using feedback.

The introduction of feedback


enables us to control a desired
output and can improve accuracy,
but it requires attention to the
issue of stability of response.

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A Big Challenge
to Control over the huge amount of Overflow…!!!!

2.3 Trillion Gallon water wasted

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18, 2018
Intervention of Networked Control System

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“when a traditional feedback control system is closed via a
communication channel, which may be shared with other nodes outside
the control system, then the control system is called an Networked Control
System, NCS”

+
CONTROL SYSTEM
- INTERNET

Networked Control System


“it’s a feedback control system wherein the control loops are closed
through a real-time network”

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Schematics of Networked
Control Systems

7
A S

Actuators
A S
Plant

Sensors
A S

Packet Loss Connectivity Interoperability


Random Delay Communication Network
Quantization
Interference Limited Capacity

C C C C C

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Motivation & Some Benefits

 Easy and low cost installation, wiring, maintenance, configuration

 Distributed Controllers and Plant with low cost distributed sensors and

actuators are all coupled over the same Real Time communications

network

 The distributed nature of elements offers great flexibility of architectures.

 Applicable in a wide variety of fields such as: Remote surgery, mobile

sensor networks, UAV’s, Space tele-operations and Robotics.

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Components of Networked Control Systems

• Sensors are installed to • Controllers are used to give


collect data. command
• Data can be figures or • Energy efficient and less
images, arrays, videos, response time controllers are
etc. preferred.
• Cheap, reliable & energy Information
efficient sensors acquisition
Command
in a
Network

Communic
Control
ation
• Reliability • Optimum Control
• Security Strategies
• Ease of use • Intelligent Control
• Availability Systems
General Approaches to Design NCS
a. Direct Structure
The first approach is direct structure approach in which control signal is set by the central controller
connected over the network. The sensors and actuators are directly connected to the network so as
to provide the sensor feedback to the central controller over the network. The status or the sensor
measurement modify the controlled command of central controller.
b. Hierarchical Structure
The second design approach of the network control
system is hierarchical structure in which the central
controller through network is connected to the
subsystems. These subsystems contain their
individual subsystem controllers.

These controllers
receive the set point
from central controller
and try to satisfy the subsystem
accordingly. The subsystem controller
receives the sensor input and generate
the controlled signal according to the set point
of the central controller. The sensors send the status
or sensor measurement or the feedback through the network to the central
controller. The central controller then send the set point to the subsystem controller to get the desired
output.
Presentation Outline
 Introduction and Motivation
 Review of Literature
 Leading Research Problems
 Validation framework (supporting tools required)
 Work Plan for 2nd Semester
 References

December 18, 2018 Semester 1: DPMC Presentation 13


Review of Literature
Topic/Title of
Sr. No. Author Educed Information
Paper/Book
Networked Control Systems:
1 Fei-Yue, Derong Liu, Springer. This paper described about the basics of NCS
Theory and Applications
Networked Control System:
Rachana A. Gupta, Member, Mo-Yuen The components and various issues regarding NCS
2 Overview and Research
Chow are discussed in the paper
Trends
Networked Control System: A
The application of NCS in various fields and their
3 Brief Survey T.C. Yang
limitations are discussed in the paper.

State Observer design and state space equations are


4 Modern Control Engineering, Katsuhiko Ogata, 5th ed., Prentice Hall.
learned from the book

Farid Golnaraghi and Benjamin C. Kuo, Various stability techniques and parameters are
5 Automatic Control System
9th Ed., J. Wiley. studied from this book

Alberto Bemporad, Mauric Heemels and This book integrate the field of NCS and Internet of
6 Networked Control Systems
Mikael Johansson, Springer. Things and have discussion about the issues

Analysis and Synthesis of Yuanqing Xia, Mengyin Fu and Guo- The cyber-physical system is derived from the NCS,
7
Networked Control Systems Ping Liu, Springer. book discuss the related issues and applications

Survey on Recent Advances in Xian-Ming Zhang, Qing-Long Han and This paper gives a brief survey of NCS and its
8
Networked Control Systems Xinghuo Yu, components

A Framework for the


This paper design the state observer for a MIMO
9 Observer Design for Romain Postoyan and Dragan Nesic
system
Networked Control Systems
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Continued….review of literature

Sr. No. Topic/Title of Paper/Book Author Educed Information

This paper illustrates about the


The Theory and Architecture of Network Lejiang Guo, Yuanmin Tang, Zhou Liu
10 theory and architecture of NCS and
Control System and Wei Xiong,
various design techniques

This paper give a brief information


Control Over Imperfect Networks: Model- Ahmet Onat, Teoman Nakali, Emrah
11 about the quality of network and
Based Predictive Networked Control System Parlakay and Ozan Mutluer,
service for NCS

Data packet dropout and related


Stability of Networked Control Systems with Changhong Wang, Zhi Yuan, Qinghua
12 issues are stabilized using certain
Data Packet Dropouts Li,
techniques are discussed here

This paper emphasize upon the


Fault Detection for Networked Control Zhinjun Li, Dehui Sun, Jingjing Zhen
13 fault observed due to packet
System with Data Packet Dropout and Yuntao Shi,
dropout

This paper describes the role of


Stabilization of Networked Control Systems Huijun Gao, Xiangyu Meng and
14 control prediction generator and
with a New Delay Characterization Tongwen Chen,
network prediction controller

The application of network


Networked Control System: A Model Based
15 Luis A. Montestruque, Panos J. Antsaklis, prediction controller and its related
Approach
effect is observed in this paper
A Model Based Predictive Control
An MPC Approach to Networked Control Wu Jing, Zhang Liqian and Chen
16 design is discussed with simulated
Design Tongwen,
results
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Presentation Outline
 Introduction and Motivation
 Review of Literature
 Leading Research Problems
 Validation Framework (Supporting Tools Required)
 Work Plan for 2nd Semester
 References

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Leading Research Problem in Area of NCS
1. Delay Issues and Packet Dropouts
• Instability of the system due to the network delay
• Data packets not only suffers delay but, even worse, can be lost during transmission “packet dropouts”
2. Bandwidth Issues
• Multi-sensor and controlling multi-actuator systems
• Finite amount of bandwidth available, we want to utilize it optimally and efficiently.
3. Security of Information Network
• Wireless medium is susceptible to easy intercepting
• Unauthorized access and modifications in wireless systems
• Malicious users can intercept and eavesdrop the data in transit via shared and broadcast medium
• Internet security devices that provide traffic filtering, integrity, confidentiality, and authentication.
4. Components Integration and Information Distribution
To perform a particular task requires integration of different modules like
• data acquisition,
• data processing,
• information extraction, and
• actuator control
Networked Predictive Controller

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Networked Predictive Control System
There would be unknown transmission delay…
• Control Prediction Generator : to generated a set of future control
predictions
• Network Delay Compensator : to compensate for unknown
random network delay
The Prediction is generated using State Estimation based on Kalman Filter

𝑥 𝑡 + 1 = 𝐴𝑥 𝑡 + 𝐵𝑢 𝑡 + 𝑤 𝑡
𝑦 𝑡 = 𝐶𝑥 𝑡 + 𝑣 𝑡

Where x(t) Є Rn is the Sate Variable


u(t) Є Rp is the Control Variable
y(t) Є Rm is the Measurement Output
A Є Rn×n is the System Matrix
B Є Rn×p is the Input Matrix
C Є Rm×n is the Measurement Matrix
w(t) Є Rn is the Input Noise
v(t) Є Rm is the Measurement Noise
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Νetwork Induced Delays
Information flow in the control loop is delayed due to
– buffering,
– access contention (the time a node waits until it gets access to the
network),
– computation delay (assume absorbed into {τca (k)} )
– propagation (“transmission”) delays.

– Network-induced delays in NCS appear in the information flow


between (“k” denotes the dependence on the kth sampling period).
A). The sensor and the controller {τsc (k)}, (controller receives
“outdated” information about process behavior)
B). The controller and the actuator {τca (k)}, (control action cannot be
applied “on time” and the controller does not know the exact instance
the calculated control signal will be received by the actuator)

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Νetwork Induced Delays
When a static linear
time invariant
controller is
employed, can lump
the delays τsc (k), τca
(k), into
τk= τsc (k)+τca (k).

Network-induced delays
in NCS between the
sensor and the controller
{τsc (k)}, and between the
controller and the
actuator {τca (k)}, (“k”
denotes
the dependence on the kth
sampling period).
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Tracking Control Design for NCS
The Usual Approach for NCS Analysis & Design:
– design a controller ignoring the network, then
– analyze stability, performance and robustness with respect to the
effects of network-delays and scheduling policy…(usually via the selection
of an appropriate scheduling protocol).
The issue of Tracking Control over Networks has not been adequately met
– very limited published work on NCS Tracking !!!
– the majority of NCS publications concerns regulation , (“design a
controller which brings the output/state to “0” )
– many results on tracking for Time Delayed Systems (TDS) but cannot
be applied “as is” to NCS due to the “Network-centric” nature of
NCS e.g.
■ special nature of delays in NCS
■ the fundamental issue of “Packet Loss/Drops”
■ Scheduling, Quality of Service, Middleware

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Presentation Outline
 Introduction and Motivation
 Review of Literature
 Leading Research Problems
 Validation Framework (Supporting Tools Required)
 Work Plan for 2nd Semester
 References

December 18, 2018 Semester 1: DPMC Presentation 23


Validation Framework (Supporting Tools Required)

1. Mathworks - MATLAB 7.11.1 (r2010b)


2. Toolbox Jitterbug 1.23
3. Toolbox Truetime 2.0
4. NI LAB VIEW acadmic site licence 2010
5. Middleware - Etherware

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Presentation Outline
 Introduction and Motivation
 Review of Literature
 Methodology
 Validation Framework (Supporting Tools Required)
 Leading Research Problems
 Work Plan for 2nd Semester
 References

December 18, 2018 Semester 1: DPMC Presentation 25


Work Plan for 2nd Semester

 Model the basic structure of Networked Control


System.

 Simulation of the NCS model and study about delay,


packet drop and stability issues.

 Learn to program with Jitterbug and Truetime to


simulate the designed model.

 Design of Networked Predictive Control System to


reduce the effect of Packet Drop and Delay Issues.

December 18, 2018 Semester 1: DPMC Presentation 26


Presentation Outline
 Introduction and Motivation
 Review of Literature
 Methodology
 Validation Framework (Supporting Tools Required)
 Leading Research Problems
 Work Plan for 2nd Semester
 References

December 18, 2018 Semester 1: DPMC Presentation 27


References
[1]. Networked Control Systems: Theory and Applications, Fei-Yue, Derong Liu, Springer.
[2]. Rachana A. Gupta, Member, IEEE, Mo-Yuen Chow, Fellow, IEEE, “Networked Control System: Overview and
Research Trends”.
[3]. T.C. Yang, “Networked Control System: A Brief Survey”, IEE Proc. –Control Theory Appl., Vol. 153, No. 4 July
2006.
[4]. Modern Control Engineering, Katsuhiko Ogata, 5th ed., Prentice Hall.
[5]. Automatic Control System by Farid Golnaraghi and Benjamin C. Kuo, 9th Ed., J. Wiley.
[6]. Networked Control Systems by Alberto Bemporad, Mauric Heemels and Mikael Johansson, Springer.
[7]. Analysis and Synthesis of Networked Control Systems by Yuanqing Xia, Mengyin Fu and Guo-Ping Liu, Springer.
[8]. Xian-Ming Zhang, Qing-Long Han and Xinghuo Yu, “Survey on Recent Advances in Networked Control
Systems”, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Informatics, Vol. 12, No. 5, October 2016.
[9]. Romain Postoyan and Dragan Nesic, “A Framework for the Observer Design for Networked Control Systems, IEEE
Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 57, No. 5, May 2012.
[10]. Lejiang Guo, Yuanmin Tang, Zhou Liu and Wei Xiong, “The Theory and Architecture of Network Control
System, 2010Internation Conference on Intelligent Computing and Cognitive Informatics, pp. No. 183-186.
[11]. Ahmet Onat, Teoman Nakali, Emrah Parlakay and Ozan Mutluer, “Control Over Imperfect Networks: Model-
Based Predictive Networked Control System, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronic”, Vol. 58, No. 3, March 2011.
[12]. Changhong Wang, Zhi Yuan, Qinghua Li, “Stability of Networked Control Systems with Data Packet Dropouts”,
ICIEA 2009, 978-1-4244-2800-7/09, IEEE 2009
[13]. Zhinjun Li, Dehui Sun, Jingjing Zhen and Yuntao Shi, “Fault Detection for Networked Control System with Data
Packet Dropout”, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Automation and Logistics Shenyang, China, pp. No.
613-616, August 2009.
[14]. Huijun Gao, Xiangyu Meng and Tongwen Chen, “Stabilization of Networked Control Systems with a New Delay
Characterization”, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 53, No. 9, October 2008.
[15]Luis A. Montestruque, Panos J. Antsaklis, “Networked Control System: A Model Based Approach”, Proc. Of the 12th
IEEE Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, Kusadasi, Turkey, June 6-9, 2004.
[16]. Wu Jing, Zhang Liqian and Chen Tongwen, “An MPC Approach to Networked Control Design”, Proceedings of
the 26th Chinese Control Conference, July 26-31, 2007, Zhangjiajie, Hunan, China.
Thankyou..!!

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