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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 1, Issue 1, October-2010 1


Alamelumangai.N, Dr. DeviShree.J

Abstract— Speckle noise is an inherent property of medical ultrasound imaging, and it generally tends to reduce the image
resolution and contrast, thereby reducing the diagnostic value of this imaging modality. The adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference
system (ANFIS) is an effective tool that can be applied to induce rules from observations. In this paper, the ultrasound image
restoration contaminated with speckle noise is investigated in nonlinear passage dynamics of order 2. This paper uses the pi-
shaped MF and other parameters include the training epochs, the number of MFs for each input, the optimization method, the
type of output MFs, and the over-fitting problem, are investigated. For comparison with the proposed technique, this paper
simulates the adaptive mean, weighted mean and median filters, etc. It is observed that the quality in terms of mean square
error (MSE) of the proposed method is multiple times better for speckle noise than that derived using any other conventional
filtering techniques.

Keywords— Speckle Noise reduction, Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, Digital Image Processing, Ultrasound images.


U ltrasound images are corrupted by noise due to a

noisy channel or faulty image acquisition device.
Speckle noise is a phenomenon that accompanies all
method explores the use of adaptive network-based fuzzy
inference systems for use in noise cancellation.

coherent imaging modalities in which images are pro-

duced by interfering echoes of a transmitted waveform
that emanate from heterogeneities of the studied objects. With the applications and development of soft compu-
The superposition of acoustical echoes coming with ran- ting, more and more methods of fuzzy and neural net-
dom phases and amplitudes tends to produce an intricate works have been developed to solve the problems at the
interference pattern, known as speckle noise that scales practical level. Recently, adaptive systems based on neur-
from zero to a maximum 255, depending on whether the al networks [7, 11] or fuzzy theory [2, 14, 18] with data-
interference is destructive or constructive. Much re- driven adjustable parameters have emerged as attractive
search has been done on removing noise. alternatives.
The aim of this paper is to suppress the noise while pre- For noise reduction in images, Kwan [12] presented seven
serving the integrity of the edges and details of images. fuzzy filters. They are the Gaussian fuzzy filter with me-
For example, mean filtering [6] is a linear technique to dian center, the symmetrical triangular fuzzy filter with
remove random Gaussian noise. However, while it re- median center, the asymmetrical triangular fuzzy filter
moves the noise, it also removes too much detail and with median center, the Gaussian fuzzy filter with mov-
edge sharpness in image processing. Median filtering [6] ing average center, the symmetrical triangular fuzzy filter
is a nonlinear technique that is known for its effectiveness with moving average center, the asymmetrical triangular
in removing noise, especially impulse noise, while pre- fuzzy filter with moving average center, and the decreas-
serving edge sharpness in image processing [1, 15, 17]. ing weight fuzzy filter with moving average center. Every
However the coherent nature of ultrasound images re- fuzzy filter uses a weighted membership function (MF)
sults in images with speckle noise that reduces it’s utility on an image in a sub-image window to determine the
in diagnosis and complicates image processing tasks. center pixel. It is difficult to control the size of window
The proposed noise reduction with adaptive neuro-fuzzy width because a small window width is appropriate for a
inference system (ANFIS) is inspired by Widrow and low level of noise and a large one is appropriate for a
Glover’s [20] adaptive noise cancellation model for 1-D high level of noise.
signals, in which the objective is to filter out noise by Kalaykov and Tolt [10] proposed a filter for reducing
identifying a nonlinear model between a measurable mixed noise in images. The filter evaluates fuzzy similari-
noise source and the corresponding immeasurable inter- ties between pixels in a local sub-image processing win-
ference while removing noise in 1-D signals with Jang’s dow.
ANFIS. In ANFIS, neural networks exploit their struc- Fotopoulos et al. [5] described the design and evaluation
tures with abundant theorems and efficient numerical of three fuzzy color filters: multichannel fuzzy filter
training algorithms while fuzzy systems can directly en- (MFF), multichannel filter based on local histogram val-
code structured knowledge. The combination between ues (HMF), and fuzzy color filter using relative entropy
fuzzy systems and neural networks generates an adaptive (RELF), based on a specific local image model. The fuzzy
system in that the neural networks embed in an overall variables are extracted from the estimation of the local
fuzzy architecture, generating and distribution. The results of RELF are degraded a little by
refining fuzzy rules from training data. The proposed the presence of impulse noise, and MFF is less efficient

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