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Finish Carpentry

Tool Box
1. Panel grade
2. Span rating - top number represents the spacing of rafters. Rafters

must 48” or less to use this plywood. 24 is the spacing of floor joist.

Spacing of the joist must be 24” or less to use this plywood.

4. Bond classification
Exterior – can remain outside without being covered.
Exposure 1 – can remain uncover for several months
Exposure 2 – used inside
5. Mill thickness
6. Mill number
7. Product standard
8. APA’s performance rated panel standard
9. Performance Category SIZE

Titebond, a major woodworking glue, comes in three types.

Titebond I Original interior 3000 psi strength

Titebond II Premium Exterior 3750 psi strength

Titebond III Ultimate Exterior 4000 psi strength

Screw Drivers

Screw Sizes
Screw sizes are designated by a number that indicates the diameter and the
length of the screw in inches (Table 10-2). The smallest diameter screw is 0,
and the largest commonly available is 24. For bench work, the most useful
sizes are 4 through 12. Of those sizes, 6, 8, and 10 are probably used more
than any others.

Head Types
Screws have one of three basic types of head: flathead, roundhead, and
panhead (Illus. 10-5). Flathead screws are meant to be countersunk flush or
below the wood surface. You must countersink the hole before driving the
screws (Illus. 10-6 and 10-7). The bugle head screw is a modern variation of
the basic flathead screw. It is designed to pull down flush with the surface
without being countersunk beforehand.

Screwdriver Types
Screws are commonly available with recesses in their heads to fit the
following three types of screwdriver: straight blade, Phillips, and square
(Illus. 10-8). Screws that take a straight-blade screwdriver are often called
slotted-head screws. This is the oldest type of screw. Slotted-head screws
work fine when you are driving screws by hand, but they are hard to use
with a power screwdriver.

The Phillips-head screw has a cross-shaped recess in its head. This type is
much easier to drive with a power screwdriver because the bit doesn’t
jump off the screw head as easily. Phillips-head screws have become
increasingly popular as more and more people use power screwdrivers.

The square-head screw has a square recess in its head. Although it is not as
widely available as the Phillips-head screw, it is increasingly popular among
wood- workers because it offers an even better grip for the screwdriver bit.
There are several other types of screwdriver designs, but at present they
are mostly used in industrial applications.

Thread Types
The traditional wood screw thread pattern is an old design that was based
mostly on the limitations of thread-cutting machinery of a century ago. It has two
disadvantages. First, it requires a two-step pilot hole, one size for the threaded
portion and a slightly larger size hole for the shank. Second, the threads are fairly
shallow, so the screw’s holding power is limited.

Sheet-metal screws have deeper and sharper threads, so many woodworkers

use them, but a new type of wood screw is quickly becoming very popular. The
case-hardened, extruded-thread wood screw has threads that are very deep and
sharp (Illus. 10-9). They cut through wood easily and offer a lot of holding power.
The shank of the screw is the same size as the root diameter of the threaded
portion, so a single-diameter pilot hole can be used. These screws were originally
developed for attaching drywall in building construction, so they are often called
drywall screws, but new types developed specifically for cabinetmaking are now
available. Originally, these screws were only available in a black finish, but now
they are available in several types of plated finishes as well. You can drive these
screws into softwood and plywood without drilling a pilot hole. For hardwoods, a
pilot hole is still recommended.

Video – This Old House

Video – This Old House
Wood Filler
Video – This old House