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PRONOUNS AND DETERMINERS

Subject pronouns Object pronouns


I me
you you
he/she/it him/her/it
we us
you you
they them

Possessive determiners Possessive pronouns


my mine
your yours
his/her/its his/hers/its
our ours
your yours
their theirs

Reflexive pronouns
myself
yourself
himself/herself/itself
ourselves
yourselves
themselves

Examples
Subject pronouns Object pronouns
I know Tom. Tom knows me.
You know Tom. Tom knows you.
He/she knows Tom. Tom knows him/her.
We know Tom. Tom knows us.
You know Tom. Tom knows you.
They know Tom. Tom knows them.

Possessive determiners Possessive pronouns


It’s my car. It’s mine.
It’s your car. It’s yours.
It’s his/her car. It’s his/hers.
It’s our car. It’s ours.
It’s your car. It’s yours.
It’s their car. It’s theirs.

Reflexive pronouns
I looked at myself.
You looked at yourself.
He/she looked at himself/herself.
We looked at ourselves.
You looked at yourselves.
They looked at themselves.
UNIDAD 1 – PRESENT CONTINUOUS

APARTADO 1A + APÉNDICE 6 – la fórmula y la ortografía

Frases afirmativas: sujeto + AM/IS/ARE + verbo con ING


(am=’m; is=’s; are=’re)
I am driving. He/she/it is eating. We/you/they are working.

Frases negativas: sujeto +’M NOT/ ISN’T/AREN’T + verbo con ING


I’m not driving. He/she/it’s not eating. We/you/they’re not working.

Preguntas: AM/IS/ARE + sujeto + verbo con ING?


Is he/she/it eating? Are you/they working?

Cuando el verbo se termina en una consonante + ‘-y’, NO convertimos


la ‘-y’ en ‘-i’:
hurry → hurrying study → studying try →trying apply → applying

Cuando el verbo se termina en ‘-ie’, convertimos ‘-ie’ en ‘-y’:


die → dying lie → lying tie → tying

Cuando el verbo se termina en ‘-e’, lo quitamos:


hope → hoping smile → smiling dance → dancing confuse → confusing
EXEPCIÓN: be → being
PERO: cuando el verbo se termina en ‘-ee’, NO lo quitamos:
see → seeing agree → agreeing

Cuando el verbo tiene solo una sílaba y se termina en una vocal + una
consonante, duplicamos la consonante.
stop → stopping plan → planning rub → rubbing
PERO: boil → boiling, need → needing, explain → explaining
(porque antes de la consonante tenemos dos vocales)

Cuando el verbo tiene más de una sílaba y se termina en una vocal +


una consonate, duplicamos la consonante solamente si el acento cae a
la última sílaba:
prefer → preferring permit → permitting regret → regretting begin → beginning
PERO: cuando el accento no cae a la última sílaba:
visit → visiting happen → happening remember → remembering

Cuando el verbo se termina en ‘-l’, duplicamos la ‘-l’ pero solo en el


inglés británico:
travel → travelling cancel → cancelling
APARTADO 1B, 1C, 1D – el uso de Present Continuous

 para hablar sobre algo que está pasando en el momento en el que


estamos hablando; la acción aún no se ha terminado (now, right now,
at the moment, at present) = una acción en curso
Please don’t make so much noise. I’m trying to work.
Where’s Mark? He’s having a shower!

 para hablar de algo que está sucediendo en la actualidad pero no


necesariamente en el momento en el que estamos hablando; la acción
aún no se ha terminado (today, tonight, this week/month/year…,
nowadays, these days, currently, lately)
I’m reading a really good book.
Kate wants to go to Italy, so she’s learning Italian.
Some friends of mine are building their own house.

 para hablar de los cambios que están sucediendo ahora (get, change,
become, increase, rise, fall, grow, improve, begin, start)
Is your English getting better?
The population of the world is increasing very fast.
At first I didn’t like my job, but I’m beginning to enjoy it now.
UNIDAD 2 – PRESENT SIMPLE

APARTADO 2A y 2C + APÉNDICE 6 – la fórmula


y la ortografía

Frases afirmativas: sujeto+infinitivo o infinitivo con “-s/-es” (3ª pers.)


I/you/we/they work in a hospital. He/she/it works in a hospital.

Frases negativas: sujeto+DO NOT/DOES NOT (3ª persona) + infinitivo


(do not = don’t; does not = doesn’t)
I/you/we/they don’t work in a hospital. He/she/it doesn’t work in a hospital.

Preguntas: DO/DOES (3ª persona) + sujeto + infinitivo?


Do you work in a hospital? Does he work in a hospital?
What do you do?

Cuando el verbo se termina en ‘-s’/‘-ss’/‘-sh’/‘ch’/‘-x’, añadimos ‘-es’:


match → matches search → searches wash → washes miss → misses
TAMBIÉN: do → does go → goes

Cuando el verbo se termina en una consonate + ‘-y’, convertimos la


‘-y’ en ‘-ies’:
hurry → hurries study → studies apply → applies try → tries
PERO: cuando se termina en ‘-ay’/‘-ey’/‘-oy’/‘-uy’, NO lo convertimos
y añadimos solo ‘-s’: play → plays buy → buys enjoy → enjoys

APARTADO 2B, 2D y Unidad 19 – el uso de Present Simple

 para hablar de horarios y cosas que se repiten, que suceden


habitualmente, rutinas
I usually go away at weekends.
The café opens at 7.30 in the morning.

 para hablar de la frequencia de hacer cosas (con los adverbios de


frequencia: always, usually, often, generally, sometimes, rarely,
seldom, hardly ever, never y otras expresiones de tiempo: every
day/week/month/year..., once/twice, three/four times a week..., in
the mornings/evenings/afternoons, at night, on Mondays/Tuesdays…)
I work out at the gym three times a week.
I get up at 8 o’clock every morning.
How often do you go to the dentist?

 para hablar de generalidades o hechos científicos


The earth goes round the sun.
Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. / Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius.
Nurses look after patients in hospital.
 para eventos programados en el futuro próximo (horarios de
transporte público, cines, teatros, eventos...)
My train leaves at 11:30, so I need to be at the station by 11:15.
What time does the film start this evening?
It’s Wednesday tomorrow. ≠ Tomorrow is Wednesday.
What time do you finish work tomorrow?
UNIDAD 3 – las diferencias entre Present Continuous
y Present Simple (parte 1)
APARTADO 3A – las diferencias básicas

The population of the world is increasing very fast.


Every day the population of the world increases by about 200,000 people.

I’m living with some friends until I find a place of my own.


My parents live in London. They have lived there all their lives.

“You’re working hard today.” “Yes, I have a lot to do.”


Joe isn’t lazy. He works hard most of the time.

APARTADO 3B – Present Simple y Present Continuous


con los adverbios de frequencia

Para hablar de algo que no nos gusta, que nos molesta, para criticar malas
costumbres usamos PRESENT CONTINUOUS, aunque en la frase aparezcan
adverbios de frequencia como por ejemplo always, usually, never etc.

I always have a cup of tea after lunch. (hábito, costumbre-Present Simple)


I’ve lost my phone again. I’m always losing things. (mala costumbre-Present
Continuous)

He always plays computer games at weekends. It’s his way of relaxing.


(hábito, costumbre-Present Simple)
He is always playing computer games. He should do something more active.
(mala costumbre-Present Continuous)
UNIDAD 4 – las diferencias entre Present Continuous
y Present Simple (parte 2)
 no se suele usar los tiempos continuos con:
- los siguientes verbos aunque se refieran a una acción que está
pasando en el momento en el que estamos hablando: I agree…/
I apologise…/ I advise…/ I insist…/ I promise…/ I refuse.../
I suggest…
I promise I won’t be late.
I suggest that you…

- los STATIVE VERBS (verbos estáticos o verbos que describen un


estado):
1. verbos de percepción: hear, see, smell, taste
2. verbos que expresan gustos, emociones y necesidades: adore,
care, detest, dislike, envy, forgive, fear, hate, like, want, mind,
need, prefer
I’m hungry. I want something to eat.
3. verbos de opinión o de saber algo: believe, understand, realise,
suppose, seem, remember, know, mean
Do you understand what I mean?
Anna doesn’t seem happy at the moment.
4. verbos de posesión: belong, contain, consist, own, possess, fit
It belongs to me.

pero:

 THINK – creer, tener opinión


I think Mary is Canadian, but I’m not sure.
What do you think of my plan?
THINK – pensar en, considerar
I’m thinking about what happened.
He is thinking of giving up her job.

 SEE – ver
Do you see that man over there? = Can you see…?
I see them coming towards us.
SEE – visitar, tener una cita
She’s seeing her doctor today.

 SMELL – tener cierto olor, oler mal


This room smells. Let’s open a window.
These flowers smell nice.
SMELL – oler
Why are you smelling the food? Has it gone off?
 TASTE – tener cierto sabor
This soup tastes delicious.
TASTE – probar
She’s tasting the soup to check if it has enough salt.

 LOOK – parecer
You look well today. = You’re looking well today.

 FEEL – sentirse
How do you feel now? = How are you feeling now?
I usually feel tired in the morning. (cosas habituales!!!)

 HURT – doler
My leg hurts me. = My leg is hurting me.

 BE – ser, estar
He never thinks about other people. He is very selfish.
BE – comportarse, actuar en el momento en el que hablamos
I can’t understand why he’s being so selfish. He isn’t usually like that.
UNIDAD 5 – Past Simple
APARTADO 5B y 5C + APÉNDICE 6 – la fórmula y la ortografía

1. Frases afirmativas:
 sujeto + verbos irregulares
Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music.
I went to the cinema three times last week.
 sujeto + verbos regulares con “-ED”
I work in a travel agency now. Before that I worked in a department store.
I invited them to the party, but they decided not to come.

2. Frases negativas: sujeto + DID NOT (didn’t) + INFINITIVO


They didn’t invite us to the party, so we didn’t go.
I didn’t do anything.

3. Preguntas: DID + sujeto + INFINITIVO?


Did you go out last night? What did you do at the weekend?

Cuando el verbo tiene solo una sílaba y se termina en una vocal + una
consonante, duplicamos la consonante.
The police stopped me on my way home last night.
I planned everything very well.
PERO: boil → boiled, need → needed, explain → explained (porque
antes de la consonante tenemos dos vocales)

Cuando el verbo tiene más de una sílaba y se termina en una vocal +


una consonate, duplicamos la consonante solamente si el acento cae a
la última sílaba:
prefer → preferred, permit → permitted, regret → regretted
PERO: visit → visited happen → happened remember → remembered

Cuando el verbo se termina en ‘-l’, duplicamos la ‘-l’ pero solo en el


inglés británico:
travel → travelled cancel → cancelled

Cuando el verbo se termina en una consonate + ‘-y’, convertimos la


‘-y’ en ‘-i’:
Laura passed her exam because she studied very hard.
apply → applied try → tried
PERO: cuando se termina en ‘-ay- / ‘-ey’ / ‘-oy’ / ‘-uy’, NO lo
convertimos y añadimos solo ‘-ed’ play → played enjoy → enjoyed
EXEPCIONES: pay → paid lay → laid say → said

Cuando el verbo se termina en ‘-e’, añadimos solamente ‘-d’:


hope → hoped, smile → smiled, dance → danced, confuse → confused
APARTADO 5D – verbo BE en Past Simple

I / he / she / it → WAS and WASN’T


we / you / they → WERE and WEREN’T

I was angry because they were late.


I wasn’t happy because they weren’t able to come.
Was the weather good?
Were you tired?

el uso de Past Simple

 para hablar de una acción concreta que comenzó y acabó en el pasado


(last year, last month, last week, yesterday, last night, two days ago)
The police stopped me on my way home last night.
What did you do at the weekend?
 para una serie de acciones en el pasado (cuando pasaron una tras otra)
I invited them to our party, but they decided not to come.
He studied for an hour, worked all afternoon and didn’t return home until 10.
 para acciones repetidas o habituales en el pasado
I always travelled to Spain for holiday when I was young.
I played the guitar when I was a child.
 para hablar de generalidades en el pasado
The Aztec lived in Mexico.
UNIDAD 6 – Past Continuous

APARTADO 6A – la fórmula de Past Continuous

1.Frases afirmativas: sujeto + WAS / WERE + verbo con ING


I was doing my homework at 6pm. They were playing tennis at 10am.

2. Frases negativas: sujeto + WASN’T / WEREN’T + verbo con ING


I wasn’t doing my homework at 6pm. They weren’t playing tennis at 10am.

3. Preguntas: WAS / WERE + sujeto + verbo con ING?


Was she doing her homework at 6pm? Were you playing tennis at 10am?

APARTADO 6B, 6C y 6D– el uso de Past Continuous

 para hablar sobre acciones en un tiempo específico en el pasado –


cuando estabamos en el medio de una acción, porque la accion había
empezado antes de este momento y todavía no se había termindo en
aquel momento (this time last year/last month/last week, at...o’clock
last night)
This time last year I was living in Brazil.
What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night?
I waved to Helen, but she wasn’t looking.

 para una acción larga expresada en Past Continuous, que ya en el


pasado fue interrumpida por otra acción expresada en Past Simple
(when, while)
Kate arrived while we were having dinner. = When Kate arrived, we were having
dinner.≠ When Kate arrived, we had dinner.
I was walking home when I met Dan.≠ I walked home after the party last night.
I was walking along the road when I saw Dan. So I stopped, and we had a chat.
PERO: Si hablamos de una acción que pasa detrás de la otra, usamos en las
dos partes de la frase Past Simple.
UNIDAD 7 y 8 – Present Perfect
APARTADO 7A – la fórmula

Frases afirmativas: sujeto + HAVE / HAS + PARTICIPIO


(have=’ve / has=’s)
I have finished my homework. He has lost his key.
Frases negativas: sujeto + HAVEN’T / HASN’T + PARTICIPIO
I haven’t finished my homework. He hasn’t lost his key.
Preguntas: HAVE / HAS + sujeto + PARTICIPIO?
Have you finished your homework? Has he lost his key?

APARTADO 7B y la UNIDAD 8 – el uso

 para hablar de situaciones que acaban de suceder, para dar noticas


Oh! I’ve cut my finger!
The road is closed. There’s been an accident.
Police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery.

 para hablar de situaciones que han empezado en el pasado pero


tienen consecuencias o resultados en el presente o para describir
cambios ocurridos recientemente (RECENTLY, IN THE LAST FEW
DAYS, FOR A LONG TIME, TODAY, THIS
EVENING/MONTH/YEAR..., SINCE, FOR)

I’ve lost my key. I don’t know where it is.


Sally is not here. She has gone out.
I can’t find my bag. Have you seen it?
His English has improved a lot this year.
I’m hungry. I haven’t eaten anything since breakfast.

 para describir experiencias (EVER, NEVER, BEFORE, IT’S THE


FIRST/SECOND/THIRD TIME…, ONCE/TWICE/ THREE
TIMES/MANY TIMES…)
I’ve never been to China. / I’ve been to China twice.
Have you ever eaten caviar?
‘Have you read “Hamlet”?’ ‘No, I haven’t read any of Shakespeare’s plays.’
It’s the first time he has driven a car. He has never driven a car before.

APARTADO 7C – have been to ≠ have gone to

 have gone to – ha ido y todavía no ha vuelto (está ahí ahora mismo o


está viajando a este lugar)
James is on holiday. He has gone to Italy.
have been to – ha ido y ha vuelto y puede ser que vaya otra vez
James is back home now. He has been to Italy.
have been in – llevar viviendo cierto tiempo en algún a lado
James lives in Italy. He has been in Italy for two years.
APARTADO 7D – just, already, yet

 para hablar de situaciones que acaban de suceder o que todavía no


han sucedido y estamos esperando que sucedan usamos los siguientes
adverbios:
- JUST (hace poco, acabo de… en frases afirmativas y preguntas):
‘Are you hungry?’ ‘ No, I’ve just had lunch.’
Hello! Have you just arrived?
- ALREADY (“ya” en frases afirmativas y preguntas)
‘Don’t forget to pay your electricity bill.’ ‘I’ve already paid.’
Have you already paid your electricity bill?
- YET (“aún” en frases negativas o “ya” en preguntas):
Has it stopped raining yet?
I’ve already written the email, but I haven’t sent it yet.
- STILL (“todavía” en frases negativas)
Our team still hasn’t won the championship.

APARTADO 7E – American English

 en American English es más común usar Past Simple en lugar de


Present Perfect
‘Is Sally here?’ ‘No, she has gone out.’ = ‘No, she went out.’
‘Are you hungry?’ ‘No, I have just had lunch.’ = ‘No, I just had lunch.’
UNIDAD 9 – Present Perfect Continuous
La fórmula

Frases afirmativas: sujeto + HAVE / HAS + BEEN + verbo con ING


(have=’ve / has=’s)
The ground is wet. It has been raining.

Frases negativas: sujeto + HAVEN’T/HASN’T + BEEN + verbo con ING


Chris hasn’t been feeling well recently.

Preguntas: HAVE / HAS + sujeto + BEEN + verbo con ING?


You’re out of breath. Have you been running?
How long has he been learning English?

APARTADO 9A y 9B – el uso

 para hablar de situaciones que han empezado en el pasado y duran


todavía en el presente o que acaban de terminar. Nos referimos a algo
que hemos estado haciendo durante un periodo de tiempo.
Paul is very tired. He has been working very hard.
Where have you been? I have been looking for you for the last half hour.
 para hablar de situaciones que han succedido por primera vez en el
pasado y siguen repitiendose hasta ahora (for, since)
Silvia is a very good tennis player. She’s been playing since she was eight.
Every morning they meet in the same café. They’ve been going there for
years.

APARTADO 9C – la diferencia entre Present Continuous y


Present Perfect Continuous

Don’t disturb me now. I’m working. ≠ I’ve been working hard.


Now I’m going to have a break.
We need an umbrella. It’s raining. ≠ The ground is wet. It’s been
raining.
Hurry up! We’re waiting. ≠ We’ve been waiting for an hour.
UNIDAD 10 – las diferencias entre Present Perfect
Continuous y Present Perfect

APARTADO 10A y 10B

 P.P.Cont.: no importa si la acción se ha terminado ya o no. Nos interesa la


actividad en sí misma.
P.P.: la acción se ha terminado y lo que nos interesa es el resultado, no la
acción en sí misma
There’s paint on Kate’s clothes. She has been painting her bedroom.
Her bedroom was green. Now it’s yellow. She has painted her room.

Joe has been eating too much recently. He is going to put on weight.
Somebody has eaten all the chocolates. The box is empty.

APARTADO 10C

 P.P. Cont.: responde a la pregunta “HOW LONG?” (cuanto tiempo)


P.P.: responde a las preguntas “HOW MUCH?”, “HOW MANY?” ,
“HOW MANY TIMES?” (cuanto, cuantas veces)
They’ve been playing tennis since 2 o’clock .≠ They’ve played tennis
three times this week.
How long have you been reading that book? ≠ How much of that book
have you read?

APARTADO 10D

 hay verbos que no podemos usar en Present Perfect Continuous ( son


los mismos que aparecen en la unidad 4)
I’ve known about the problem for a long time.
How long have you had that camera?

EXCEPTIONS: Se puede usar ’want’ y ‘mean’ en Pr. Perf. Cont.


I’ve been meaning to phone Jane, but I keep forgetting.
UNIDAD 11 – How long... (la diferencia entre Present
Simple/Present Continuous y Present Perfect/Present
Perfect Continuous)
APARTADO 11A y 11B – Pr.Simple vs. Pr.Perfect
y Pr.Cont. vs. Pr.Perfect Cont.

Present Simple usamos para hablar de situaciones generales en el presente.


They are married. He is in hospital.
Do you know each other well? Do you have a car?
Present Perfect usamos para hablar de situaciones que han empezado en el
pasado pero continuan hasta ahora (con los verbos que NO pueden llevar -ING)
They have been married for 20 years.
He has been in hospital since Monday.
Have you known each other for a long time?
How long have you had the car?

Present Continuous usamos para hablar de situaciones que están sucediendo


ahora mismo.
She’s waiting for somebody. (‘s = is)
I can’t pick up the phone. I’m driving right now.
Present Perfect Continuous usamos para hablar de situacion que han empezado
en el pasado pero continuan hasta ahora (con los verbos que pueden llevar –ING)
She’s been waiting all morning. (‘s = has)
I’ve been driving since I was 17.

APARTADO 11C – verbos ‘live’ y ‘work’

Se puede usar Present Perfect y Present Perfect Continuous con los verbos
‘live’ and ‘work’
Julia has been living / has lived here for a long time.
How long have you been working / have you worked here?
pero cuando en la frase aparece el adverbio ‘always’, usamos siempre
Present Perfect:
I’ve always lived in the country.

APARTADO 11D – ‘since’ y ‘for’ con Present Perfect en


frases negativas

I haven’t seen Tom since Monday. = Monday was the last time I saw him
Sarah hasn’t phoned for ages. = the last time she phoned was ages ago
UNIDAD 12 – FOR y SINCE / WHEN… y HOW LONG…?
APARTADO 12A

 DURANTE = FOR + periodos del tiempo (minutes, hours, days, weeks,


months, years, ages, a long time…)
I’ve been waiting for two hours.
I haven’t seen Tom for three days.
Sally has been working here for six months.

DESDE = SINCE + los comienzos de los periodos de tiempo (8 o’clock,


lunchtime, Monday, April, Christmas, we arrived, I got up…)
I’ve been waiting since 8 o’clock.
I haven’t seen Tom here since Sunday.
Sally has been working here since May.

 se puede omitir FOR en frases afirmativas


They’ve been married (for) ten years.
se puede sustituir FOR por IN en frases negativas
They haven’t had a holiday in/for ten years.
no usamos FOR con ALL
I’ve lived here all my life.

APARTADO 12B – When…? / How long…?

CUANDO = WHEN + Past Simple


WHEN did it start raining? It started raining an hour ago / at 1 o’clock.
WHEN did they first meet? They first met a long time ago / when they were at school.

DESDE CUANDO/CUANTO TIEMPO = HOW LONG + Present Perfect o


Present Perfect Continuous
HOW LONG has it been raining? It’s been raining for an hour / since 1 o’clock.
HOW LONG have they known each other? They have known each other for a long
time / since they were at school.

APARTADO 12C – It’s… / It’s been…

IT’S BEEN (=it has been) + periodo de + since + PAST SIMPLE


IT’S (=it is) tiempo

It’s/It’s been two years since I last saw her.


It’s/It’s been ages since we went to the cinema.
How long is it since Mrs Hill died? / How long has it been since Mrs Hill died?
UNIDAD 13 – las diferencias entre Past Simple
y Present Perfect
APARTADO 13A

Usamos Present Perfect para describir situaciones que acaban de succeder y


siguen igual.
Tom has lost his key. He can’t find it. ≠ Tom lost his key but now he has found it.
They’ve gone away. They’ll be back on Friday. ≠ They went away, but I think
they’re back at home now.
It has stopped raining now, so we don’t need the umbrella. ≠ It stopped raining for a
while, but now it’s raining again.

APARTADO 13B

Usamos Past Simple para situaciones que sucedieron en el pasado.


Did you know that somebody has invented a new type of a washing machine?
Who invented the telephone?
Sally has had a baby. It’s a very healthy boy.
Sally had a son but he died when he was 2.

APARTADO 13C

Usamos Present Perfect cuando hablamos de una información nueva. Pero


cuando seguimos hablando de la misma situación por ejemplo para dar más
detalles, usamos Past Simple.

A: Ow! I’ve burnt myself.


B: How did you do that?
A: I picked up a hot dish.

A: Look! Somebody has spilt something on the sofa.


B: Well, it wasn’t me. I didn’t do it.
UNIDAD 14 – las diferencias entre Past Simple
y Present Perfect

APARTADO 14A y 14B

Usamos Present Perfect para hablar de los periodos de tiempo que todavía no
se han terminado (esta semana, este mes, este año...) .
Usamos Past Simple para hablar de los periodos de tiempo que se refieren al
pasado, que se terminaron (ayer, la semana pasada, el mes pasado)

Did you eat a lot of sweets when you were a child?


WHEN did your friends arrive?
WHAT TIME did you finish work?

It hasn’t rained THIS WEEK. ≠ It didn’t rain LAST WEEK.


Have you seen Anna this morning? ≠ Did you see Anna this morning?
Jack lives in Los Angeles. He has lived there for seven years. ≠ Jack lived in New York for ten
years. Now he lives in Los Angeles.
It’s been a really good holiday. I’ve enjoyed it. ≠ It was a really good holiday. I enjoyed it.
UNIDAD 15 – Past Perfect
APARTADO 15A – la fórmula y el uso

Frases afirmativas: sujeto + HAD (d’=had) + PARTICIPIO


When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul had gone home.

Frases negativas: sujeto + HADN’T + PARTICIPIO


The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. He hadn’t flown
before.

Preguntas: HAD + sujeto + PARTICIPIO?


Had he gone home before Sarah arrived?

EL USO:
 para referirnos a una acción que comenzó en el pasado y que es
anterior a otra acción también en el pasado. La acción que ocurrió
primero es en pasado perfecto y la que sigue en pasado simple.
(BEFORE, BY THE TIME)
When we got home last night, we found that somebody had broken into the flat.
Karen didn’t want to go to the cinema with us because she’d seen the movie before.
By the time we got to the cinema, the film had already started.

APARTADO 15 B – la diferencia entre Present Perfect


y Past Perfect

Who is that woman? I’ve seen her before, but I can’t remember where. ≠
Who was that woman? I’d seen her before, but I couldn’t remember where.

We aren’t hungry. We’ve had lunch. ≠ We weren’t hungry. We’d had lunch.

The house is dirty. They haven’t cleaned it for weeks. ≠ The house was dirty.
They hadn’t cleaned it for weeks.

APARTADO 15 C – la diferencia entre Past Simple


y Past Perfect

A: Was Tom there when you arrived?


B: Yes, but he left soon afterwards. ≠ No, he had already left.
UNIDAD 16 – Past Perfect Continuous
APARTADO 16A – la fórmula

Frases afirmativas: sujeto + HAD (‘d=had) + been + verbo ING


The ground was very wet. It had been raining.

Frases negativas: sujeto + HADN’T + been + verbo ING


When I went to Madrid a few years ago, I stayed with a friend of mine. She
hadn’t been living there very long, but she knew the city very well.

Preguntas: HAD + sujeto + been + verbo ING?


The ground was very wet. Had it been raining?

APARTADO 16B – el uso

 para hablar de situaciones que emezaron en el pasado y duraron


cierto tiempo hasta que fueron interrumpidos por otra acción en el
pasado. El pasado perfecto continuo se utiliza para la acción en el
proceso y el pasado simple para la acción que interrumpe la acción en
proceso.
We’d been playing tennis for about half an hour when it started to rain.

APARTADO 16C – la diferencia entre Present P.Cont.


y Past P.Cont.

Past Perfect Continuous se utiliza para demostrar causa y efecto de


una acción continúa en el pasado. Y Present Perfect Continuous
usamos para demostrar causa y efecto de una acción continúa en el
presente.
James was out of breath. He had been running
≠ James is out of breath. He has been running.
At last the bus came. I’d been waiting for 20 minutes. ≠ I hope the bus comes
soon. I’ve been waiting for 20 minutes.

APARTADO 16D – la diferencia entre Past Continuous


y Past Perfect Continuous
It wasn’t raining when we went out. The sun was shining. But it had been
raining, so the ground was wet.
Katherine was sitting in an armchair resting. She was tired because she’d
been working very hard.

APARTADO 16E – know and like no se usa en Past Perf.Cont.


We were good friends. We had known each other for years.
I was surprised when Lisa cut her hair. She’d had long hair since I first met
her.
UNIDAD 17 – HAVE and HAVE GOT
APARTADO 17A – HAVE and HAVE GOT sin “-ing”

1. HAVE = HAVE GOT (no hay ninguna diferencia en el significado)


2. HAVE y HAVE GOT + posesión, relaciones, enfermedades,
They have/have got a new car. (posesión)
Our house has/has got a small garden. (posesión)
Lisa has/has got two brothers. (relaciones)
I have/have got a headache. (enfermedades)
3. El pasado de HAVE y HAVE GOT es el mismo: HAD (no HAD GOT!!!)
Lisa had long hair when she was a child.
4. En estos casos mencionados arriba NO se puede usar forma
continua del verbo!!! (having)

APARTADO 17B – preguntas y frases negativas

Preguntas y frases negativas en el presente:


1. Do/Does + sujeto + have ...? Do you have any questions?
Sujeto + don’t/doesn’t have … I don’t have any questions.
2. Have/Has + sujeto + got ...? Have you got any questions?
Sujeto + haven’t/hasn’t got … I haven’t got any questions.
3. Have/Has + sujeto ...? Have you any questions? (poco usada)
Sujeto + haven’t ... I haven’t any questions. (poco usada)

Preguntas y frases negativas en el pasado:


Did + sujeto + have ...? Did you have a car when you were living in Paris?
Sujeto + didn’t have … I didn’t have my phone, so I couldn’t call you.
Question Tags: Sujeto + didn´t have, did + sujeto. Lisa didn´t have long hair,
did she?
Sujeto + had, didn´t + sujeto. Lisa had long hair, didn’t she?

APARTADO 17C – expresiones con HAVE

- have breakfast/lunch/dinner/a cup of coffee/something to eat


- have a bath/shower/a swim/a break/a rest/a party/a holiday
- have an accident/an experience/a dream
- have a look
- have a chat/a conversation/a discussion with somebody
- have trouble/ difficulty/fun/a good time
- have a baby
Con estas expresiones:
- podemos usar solamente HAVE, nunca HAVE GOT
Sometimes I have a sandwich for my lunch.
I’ve got/I have some sandwiches. Would you like one?
- podemos usar las formas continuas de los verbos
I’m having a shower at the moment.
- en las preguntas y en las frases negativas usamos DO/DOES
(presente) y DID (pasado)
I don’t usually have a big breakfast.
What time does Chris have lunch?
Did you have trouble finding a place to live?
BE/GET USED TO/USED TO (UNITS 18, 36, 61)
1. WAS / WERE USED TO + verbo con ING – estar acostumbrado a algo o
a hacer algo en el pasado (Unidad 61)

EXAMPLE: When I went to England for the first time, I wasn’t used to
driving on the left.

2. AM / IS / ARE USED TO + verbo con ING – estar acostumbrado a algo o


a hacer algo en el presente (Unidad 61)

EXAMPLE: After 3 years in England, I am used to driving on the left.

3. GET USED TO + verbo con ING – acostumbrarse a algo o a hacer algo

EXAMPLE: Finally I got used to driving on the left.

4. USED TO + infinitivo – soler hacer algo pero hablando SOLO del


pasado (Unidades 18 y 61)

EXAMPLE (frases afirmativas) :


- I used to drive to work every day, but these days I usually go by bike.
- I used to live in the country, but now I live in a big town.

EXAMPLE (frases negativas):


- I didn’t use to eat a lot of sweets when I was a child.
- I didn’t use to like him.

EXAMPLE (preguntas):
- Did you use to eat a lot of sweets when you were a child?
- Did she use to have long hair when she was a child?

5. WOULD + infinitive – soler hacer algo hablando SOLO del pasado,


pero nunca con “stative verbs” (Unidad 36, apartado C)

EXAMPLE:
I used to visit my grandma every day when I lived in Cambridge. = I would
visit my grandma every day when I lived in Cambridge.
I used to live in Paris. = I would live in Paris.

Stative verbs (los verbos estáticos / los verbos de estado) → son verbos que describen
estados permanentes, situaciones, condiciones (no se refieren a acciones) y por eso
no se usan en su forma continua
- Verbos que describen gustos, preferencias, o emociones: adore, detest, dislike,
enjoy, forgive, hate, like, dislike, love
- Verbos relacionados con la percepción y los sentidos: feel, hear, see, smell, taste,
sound, recognise
- Verbos que describen estados mentales como opinión, duda, acuerdo o
desacuerdo: agree, believe, suppose, understand, think, doubt, concern, seem, guess
- Verbos relacionados con la posesión o la pertenecia: have, possess, belong, own
UNIDAD 19 – Present Tenses for the Future
APARTADO 19A – Present Continuous for the future

1. Present Continuous - lo usamos para hablar de algo que está


decidido que se hará en el futuro próximo - la agenda, nuestros
planes para el futuro, pero solamente cuando ya lo tenemos todo
organizado y sabemos exactamente cuando van a realizarse
(TODAY, TOMORROW, THIS WEEK, NEXT WEEK, ON MONDAY
AFTERNOON, ON FRIDAY, AT 5PM TOMORROW)
(mirar el ejemplo del libro en el marco blanco con la foto del móvil)

What are you doing on Saturday evening?


‘What time is Katherine arriving tomorrow?’ ‘ Half past ten. I’m meeting her at
the station.‘
I’m not working tomorrow, so we can go out somewhere.
Are you working next week?
Steve isn’t playing football next Saturday. He’s hurt his leg.

2. En estas frases podemos sustituir Present Continuous por:


be+ going to+ infinitivo pero es más natural usar el Present
Continuous.

3. Present Continuous lo podemos usar también para hablar de


acciones que están a punto de suceder, ante todo con los verbos de
movimiento (go/come/leave).
I’m tired. I’m going to bed.
“Are you ready?” “Yes, I’m coming.”

APARTADO 19B – Present Simple for the future

Present Simple - lo usamos para hablar de:


 horarios (transporte publico, cines, teatros, eventos...)
My train leaves at 11:30, so I need to be at the station by 11:15.
 programas de la tele o la radio
What time does the film start this evening?
 que día de la semana tenemos el día siguiente
It´s Wednesday tomorrow. Tomorrow is Wednesday.
 para hablar de nuestros planes para el futuro cuando ya lo temenos
todo organizado, sabemos el día o el horario etc.
I start my new job on Monday.
What time do you finish work tomorrow?
Pero cuando hablamos de nuestros asuntos personales, ecuentros, citas con
amigos, es más común usar Present Continuous.
What time are you meeting Ann tomorrow?
UNIDAD 20 – GOING TO
La fórmula

sujeto + AM/ARE/IS + GOING TO + infinitivo

APARTADO 20A y 20C – el uso

 para comunicar las intenciones de hacer algo o las decisiones que


hemos tomado antes y se van a cumplir en el futuro
She is going to buy a new car.
I’m just going to make a quick phone call. Can you wait for me?
I hear Sarah has won some money. What is she going to do with it?

 para hablar de algo que seguramente va a suceder pronto


Look at those black clouds! It’s going to rain.
I feel terrible. I’m going to be sick.

APARTADO 20B – la comparación con Present Continuous


para el futuro

Present Continuous – cuando hablamos de encuentros, citas, puntos en


nuestra agenda, cuando ya lo tenemos todo planeado y organizado y
sabemos cuando va a suceder
What time are you meeting Ann this evening?
I’m leaving tomorrow. I’ve got my plane ticket.

Going To – cuando hablamos de nuestros planes, de algo que hemos


decido hacer, pero todavía no lo hemos organizado o no sabemos
cuando exactamente lo vamos a hacer
“Your shoes are dirty.” “Yes, I know. I’m going to clean them.”
I’ve decided not to stay here any longer. Tomorrow I’m going to look for
somewhere else to stay.

APARTADO 20D – GOING TO en el pasado

sujeto + WAS/WERE + GOING TO + infinitivo

Usamos esta fórmula para hablar de planes, intenciones, situaciones


que iban a suceder en el pasado pero por algunas razones no llegaron
a cumplirse.
We were going to travel by train, but then we decided to go by car instead.
I was just going to cross the road when somebody shouted ‘Stop!’
I thought it was going to rain, but it didn’t.
UNIDAD 21 y 22 – Will/Shall
La fórmula
1. Frases afirmativas: sujeto + WILL (‘LL) + infinitivo
Did you phone Lucy? Oh no, I forgot. I’ll phone her now.
2. Frases negativas: sujeto + WILL NOT (=WON’T) + infinitivo
I can see you’re busy, so I won’t stay long.
3. Preguntas: WILL + sujeto + infinitivo?
Will you please turn the music down?

APARTADOS 21A, 21B y 21C – el uso


APARTADOS 22A, 22B y 22C – el uso

 para comunicar las decisiones que acabamos de tomar en el momento


de hablar
I’ve left the door open, I’ll go and shut it.
‘What would you like to drink?’ ‘I’ll have an orange juice, please.’
Going To o Present Continuous – los usamos para las decisiones
tomadas antes
Will – lo usamos para decisiones tomadas en el momento de hablar

 con la expresión “I think I will…” o “I don’t think I will…”


I feel a bit hungry. I think I’ll have something to eat.
I don’t think I will go out tonight. I’m too tired.

 para:
 ofrecer algo: That bag looks heavy. I’ll help you with it.
 expresar promesas: Thanks for lending me the money. I’ll pay you
back on Friday.
I won’t tell anyone, I promise.
 aceptar hacer algo, mostrar que estamos de acuerdo:
‘Can you give Tim this book?’ ‘ Sure, I’ll give it to him when I see him.
 pedir que alguien haga algo: Will you please turn down the music?

 para decir que alguien se niega a hacer algo


I’ve tried to give her advice, but she won’t listen.
The car won’t start.

 para hablar del futuro, predecirlo, cuando no estamos seguros de lo


que pueda pasar (PROBABLY, PERHAPS, MAYBE, POSSIBLE, SURE,
THINK, DON’T THINK, WONDER, HOPE)
I’ll probably be home late tonight.
Don’t worry about the exam. I’m sure you will pass.
I wonder what will happen.
He won’t pass the exam. He hasn’t studied hard enough.
When will you get your exam results?
Anna looks completely different. You won’t recognise her.
pero con la palabra HOPE se puede usar también Presente Simple (es
más común)
I hope Kate passes the exam. = I hope Kate will pass the exam.
I hope it doesn’t rain tomorrow. = I hope it won’t rain tomorrow.

PROBABLY en las frases negativas:


I will probably not see you again. = I probably won’t see you again.

 para expresar una probabilidad en el momento de hablar


Don’t phone Ann now. She’ll be busy.

APARTADOS 21D y 22D - Shall

 forma afirmativa:SHALL forma negativa: SHALL NOT=SHAN’T


 solo con I y WE (la primera persona singular y plural)
Shall I shut the door? = Do you want me to shut the door?
Will you shut the door? = I want you to shut the door.

 se suele utilizar en preguntas para preguntar por la opinión de


alguien o sugerir algo
I’ve got no money. What shall I do?
Shall we go? We have only 10 minutes left.
“Where shall we have lunch?” “Let’s go to Marino’s.”

 para expresar una probabilidad podemos usar SHALL o WILL,


pero en en inglés hablado normalmente usamos WILL
I shall / will be late this evening.
I shall / will probably go to France in June.
I shan’t / won’t be tomorrow.
UNIDAD 23 – diferencias entre WILL y GOING TO
APARTADO 23A y 23B

 GOING TO - para comunicar las deciciones que hemos tomado antes


pero se van a cumplir en el futuro
WILL – para comunicar las deciciones tomadas en el momento de
hablar
“Anna is in hospital.” “Yes, I know. I’m going to visit her.”
“Anna is in hospital.” “Oh really? I didn’t know. I’ll go and visit her.”

“Let’s have a party.” “That’s a great idea. We’ll invite lots of people.”
Sarah and I have decided to have a party. We’re going to invite lots of
people.

 para predecir situaciones en futuro se puede utilizar ‘going to’ o


Future Simple PERO cuando estamos seguros que algo va a suceder
porque nos lo indica la situación de ahora mismo, usamos GOING TO

o PREDICCIÓN SIN EVIDENCIA → en el inglés hablado, depende si


uno está muy seguro de lo que va a suceder o no:
I think the weather will be nice later = … is going to be nice later.
Those shoes are well-made. They’ll last a long time.= They’re going to
last a long time.

o PREDICCIÓN CON EVIDENCIA → teniendo una evidencia,


normalmente estamos muy seguros de lo que va a suceder:
Look at those black clouds. It’s going to rain. (It will rain.)
UNIDAD 23 – FUTURE CONTINUOUS
and FUTURE PERFECT
APARTADO 24A y 24B – la fórmula de Future Continuous

Frases afirmativas: sujeto + WILL (‘ll) + BE + verbo ING


Half an hour from now, the cinema will be full. Everyone will be watching the film.

Frases negativas: sujeto + WILL NOT (won’t) + BE + verbo ING


This time next week I won’t be working. I’ll be lying on the beach or
swimming in the sea.

Preguntas: WILL + sujeto + BE + verbo ING?


Will you be working this time next week?

APARTADO 24C – el uso de Future Continuous

 para una acción larga que pasará en un momento específico en el


futuro (THIS TIME NEXT week/month/year; AT 10 o’clock
tomorrow/on Monday...; IN 10 years TIME, IN 10 years FROM NOW)
Don’t phone between 7 and 8. We’ll be having dinner.
At 10 o’clock tomorrow, she will be working in her office.
The government will be making a statement about the crisis later today.
Later in the programme, I’ll be talking to the Minister of Education.

APARTADO 24A – la comparación de Future Continuous


con otros tiempos futuros o continuos

Don’t phone between 7 and 8. We’ll be having dinner.


Let’s wait for Liz to arrive and then we’ll have dinner.

At 10 o’clock yesterday, Sally was working in her office.


It’s 10 o’clock now. She is working in her office.
At 10 o’clock tomorrow, she will be working in her office.
APARTADO 24D – la fórmula y el uso de Future Perfect

Frases afirmativas: sujeto + WILL (‘ll) + HAVE + participio


We’re late. The film will have already started by the time we get to the cinema.

Frases negativas: sujeto + WILL NOT (won’t) + HAVE + participio


We have time. The film won’t have started before we get to the cinema.

Preguntas: WILL + sujeto + HAVE + participio?


Will the film have started by the time we get to the cinema?

El uso de Future Perfect:


 para acciones que ya se han terminado antes de otra acción en el
futuro. (BY THE TIME, BEFORE, BY THEN, BY THE END OF...)
Don’t come before 9pm. Come after 9pm. I’ll have finished my homework by then.
We’re late. The film will already have started by the time we get to the cinema.
≠ We were late. The film had already started by the time we got to the cinema.

 para mostrar que algo va a continuar hasta otra acción en el futuro


(aniversarios)
Ted and Amy have been married for 24 years. ≠ Next year they will have
been married for 25 years.
UNIDAD 25 – WHEN and IF
APARTADO 25A

WHEN, WHILE, BEFORE, AFTER, AS SOON AS, UNTIL, TILL – después


de estas palabras nunca se puede usar “will” aunque estamos
hablando del futuro. El tiempo que podemos usar es Present Simple:
We’ll go out WHEN it stops raining.
WHEN you are in London again, come and see us.
What do you want to be WHEN you grow up?
I’ll probably go back home on Sunday. BEFORE I go, I’d like to visit the museum.
Wait here UNTIL/TILL I come back.

APARTADO 25B

Después de las palabras mencionadas en el apartado 25A podemos


usar también Present Perfect. Lo usamos cuando hablamos de dos
acciones, de las cuales una tiene que terminarse antes de que empiece
la otra.
Can I borrow the book WHEN you’ve finished it?
Don’t say anything while Ian is here. Wait UNTIL he has gone.
WHEN I’ve phoned Kate, we can have dinner. ≠ WHEN I phone Kate, I’ll ask
her about the party.

PERO en muchos casos (ante todo en el inglés hablado) es posible usar


Present Simple o Present Perfect en las mismas frases después de las
palabras mencionadas en el apartado 25A:
I’ll come AS SOON AS I finish. = I’ll come AS SOON AS I have finished.
You’ll feel better AFTER you have/have had something to eat.

APARTADO 25C – IF

Después de IF tampoco podemos usar “will”:


It’s raining hard. We’ll get wet IF we go out.
I’ll be angry IF it happens again.
Hurry up! IF we don’t hurry, we’ll be late.

APARTADO 25C – IF and WHEN

WHEN – para cosas seguras


IF – para posibilidades

I’m going out later. WHEN I go out, I’ll get some bread.
I might go out later. IF I go out, I’ll get some bread.
Don’t worry if I’m late tonight. (when I’m late)
UNIDAD 26 – CAN, COULD, BE ABLE TO
APARTADO 26A – can / cannot

CAN ≠ CANNOT (CAN’T) + infinitivo – poder (tener permiso, ser capaz),


saber, ser posible, ser capaz de
We can see the lake from our hotel.
“I don’t have a pen.” “You can use mine.”
I can play the piano.
I’m afraid I can’t come to the party on Friday.

APARTADO 26B – be able to

CAN = BE ABLE TO (‘can’ suele ser la palabra más usada)


We are able to see the lake from our hotel.

El verbo ‘can’ tiene solamente dos formas: can (presente) y could (pasado).
Por eso a veces es obligatorio usar ‘be able to’ en vez de ‘can’ .
 CON OTROS TIEMPOS → I haven’t been able to sleep recently.
(haven’t been could)
I used to be able to play the piano, but I can’t anymore. (used to can)
 CON OTROS MODALES →
Tom might be able to come tomorrow. (might can)
Applicants for the job must be able to speak two foreign languages. (must be can)

APARTADO 26C y 26D - could

COULD ≠ COULD NOT (COULDN’T)


1. COULD → el pasado de ‘can’ (PAST SIMPLE) pero solamente hablando
de capacidades generales. Cuando queremos decir que alguien hizo
algo en una situación especifica, en vez de usar ‘could’, ponemos
‘WAS/WERE ABLE TO’ o ‘MANAGED TO’. (lograr)
The fire spread through the building very quickly, but fortunately everybody
was able/ managed to escape.
Jack was an excellent tennis player when he was younger. He could beat anybody.
Jack and Andy played a match yesterday. Andy played well, but Jack managed to beat him.

2. COULDN’T → se puede usarlo en los dos casos (capacidades generales y


situaciones especificas)
Andy played well, but he couldn’t beat Jack.

3. COULD + see, hear, smell, taste, feel, remember, understand


As soon as I walked into the room, I could smell gas.
I was sitting at the back of the theatre and I couldn’t hear very well.
UNIDAD 27 – COULD and COULD HAVE
APARTADO 27A

COULD + infinitivo– el pasado de ‘can’


Listen. I can hear something! → I listened. I could hear something.
COULD + infinitivo – para sugerencias (podría)
‘What shall we do tonight?’ ‘We could go to the cinema.’
COULD + infinitivo – para acciones posibles ahora o en el futuro (podría)
‘When you go to Paris next month, you could stay with Sarah.’ ‘Yes, I suppose I could.’

En estas frases podríamos usar también ‘can’ cuando haya más probabilidad de que algo pase!!!

APARTADO 27B

COULD + infinitivo – para situaciones irreales:


I’m so tired, I could sleep for a week.

I can stay with Sarah when I go to Paris. (real)


Maybe I could stay with Sarah when I go to Paris. (posible pero menos probable)
This is a wonderful place. I could stay here forever. (irreal)

APARTADO 27C

COULD = MIGHT or MAY – para situaciones posibles ahora o en el futuro


The story could be true, but I don’t think it is. (can be)
I don’t know what time Lisa is coming. She could get here at any time.

The weather can change very quickly in the mountains. (en general)
The weather is nice now, but it could/may/might change. (ahora mismo)

APARTADO 27D

COULD + HAVE + participio – para referirnos al pasado y hablar de algo que


pudo haber pasado, pero no paso (podía / pudo haber)
I’m so tired. I could sleep for a week. ≠ I was so tired, I could have slept for a week.
David was lucky. He could have hurt himself when he fell, but he’s OK.

APARTADO 27E

COULDN’T + infinitivo – para decir que algo no será posible


I couldn’t live in a big city. I’d hate it.
Everything is fine now. Things couldn’t be better.

COULDN’T + HAVE + participio – para decir que algo no pudo haber sido de
otra manera
We had a really good holiday. It couldn’t have been better.
The trip was cancelled last week. Paul couldn’t have gone anyway because he was ill.
UNIDAD 28 – MUST and CAN’T
APARTADO 28A – MUST y CAN’T
para expresar la seguridad

must / can’t + INFINITIVO


must / can’t + BE + verbo ING

MUST – lo usamos cuadno creemos que algo va a pasar (tenemos seguridad)


CAN’T – lo usamos cuando creemos que algo es imposible

You’ve been travelling all day. You must be tired.


‘Joe is a hard worker.’ ‘You must be joking. He doesn’t do anything.’
I’m sure Sally gave me her address. I must have it somewhere.

You’ve just had lunch. You can’t be hungry.


They haven’t lived there for very long. They can’t know many people.

APARTADO 28B – MUST HAVE, CAN’T HAVE


y COULDN’T HAVE para expresar
la seguridad en el pasado

must / can’t / couldn’t + HAVE + participio


must / can’t / couldn’t + HAVE + BEEN + verb ING

‘I’ve lost one of my gloves.’ ‘You must have dropped it somewhere.’


Tom walked into the wall. He can’t/couldn’t have been looking where he was going.
UNIDAD 29 – MAY and MIGHT parte 1
APARTADO 29A – MAY y MIGHT para expresar
posibilidades en en presente o futuro

Forma afirmativa: may = might


Forma negativa: may not = might not (mightn’t)
El uso - para expresar sugerencias sobre situaciones posibles ahora o en el
futuro (poder, ser possible) = COULD del apartado 27C)

may be
sujeto (not) be + verbo ING
might infinitivo

may / might + be: It may / might be true. (= perhaps/it’s possible that it is true)
may / might + be + verbo ING: He may / might be having lunch. (= perhaps/it’s
possible that he is having lunch)
may / might + infinitivo: Ask Ann. She may / might know. (perhaps/it’s possible
that she knows)

APARTADO 29B – MAY HAVE y MIGHT HAVE para expresar


posibilidades en el pasado

may been
sujeto (not) have been + verbo ING
might participio

may / might + have + participio: He may/ might have been asleep when you
phoned. (perhaps/it’s possible that she was asleep)
She wasn’t at the meeting yesterday. She may/might not have known about it.
(perhaps/it’s possible that she didn’t know)
may / might + have + been + ing: David was in such a bad mood yesterday. He
may not have been feeling well. (perhaps/it’s possible that he wasn’t feeling well)

APARTADO 29C – la comparación con COULD y COULDN’T

COULD o COULD HAVE (forma afirmativa) – se puede usar en las mismas


frases que MAY y MIGHT para expresar
posibilidades en el presente o en el pasado
It’s a strange story, but it may / might / could be true. (it’s possible)
I could / may / might have left your phone at work. (it was possible)

COULDN’T y COULDN’T HAVE (forma negativa) – no significa lo mismo que


MAY NOT o MIGHT NOT
Sarah couldn’t have got my message. Otherwise she would have replied. (it’s not
possible that she got my message)
I wonder why Sarah hasn’t replied to my message. I suppose she might not have got
it. (it’s possible that she didn’t get it, perhaps she did, perhaps she didn’t)
UNIDAD 30 – MAY and MIGHT parte 2
APARTADO 30A – MAY y MIGHT comparado con WILL

I’ll be late this evening. (seguro)


I may / might be late this evening. (posible)

Take an umbrella with you. It may/might rain later. = Perhaps it will rain later.
She isn’t feeling well. Amy may/might not go out tonight. = Perhaps she will not go
out tonight.

APARTADO 30B – MAY y MIGHT para expresar


posibilidades y MIGHT para situaciones irreales

MAY / MIGHT: para situaciones posibles ahora o en el futuro:


I may/might go to Ireland.
Jane may/might be able to help you.

solo MIGHT: para situaciones irreales:


If they paid me better, I might work harder. (may work)

APARTADO 30C – la diferencia entre MAY/MIGHT BE +


verbo ING y futuro con -ING

Future Continuous – para hablar de algo que va a succeder en el futuro en un


momento concreto:
Don’t phone me at 8:30. I’ll be watching football on television.
Present Continuous para el futuro – para hablar de nuestros planes para el
futuro:
I’m going to Ireland in July.
MAY/MIGHT + be + verbo ING - para hablar de posibilidades ahora o en el
futuro en un momento concreto:
Don’t phone me at 8:30. I may/might be watching football on television.

APARTADO 30D – MIGHT AS WELL

MIGHT AS WELL + infinitivo – para hablar de posibles alternativas, para


ofrecer la mejor opción (podría también)
- “What shall we do? Shall we walk?”
- “We might as well. It’s a nice day and I don’t want to wait here.

Buses are so expensive these days, you might as well get a taxi.
UNIDAD 31 – HAVE TO and MUST
APARTADO 31A – HAVE TO para obligaciones externas (tener que)

Forma afirmativa (Present Simple): HAVE TO / HAS TO + infinitivo


You can’t turn right here. You have to turn left.
I have to wear glasses for reading.
Forma negativa (Present Simple): DON’T / DOESN’T HAVE TO + infinitivo
Karen doesn’t have to work on Saturdays. (hasn’t to work)
Preguntas (Present Simple): DO/DOES + sujeto + HAVE TO + infinitivo?
What do I have to do to get a new driving license? (does he has to?)

Forma afirmativa (Past Simple): HAD TO + infinitivo


Last week Tina broke her arm and had to go to hospital.
Forma negativa (Past Simple): DIDN’T HAVE TO + infinitivo
I did all my work so I didn’t have to stay any longer.
Preguntas (Past Simple): DID + sujeto + HAVE TO + infinitivo?
Why did you have to leave early?

Forma afirmativa (Present Perfect): HAVE / HAS + HAD TO + infinitivo


Forma negativa (Present Perfect): HAVEN’T/ HASN’T + HAD TO + infinitivo
I haven’t had to go to the doctor for ages.
Preguntas (Present Perfect): HAVE / HAS + sujeto + HAD TO + infinitivo?
Have you had to go to the doctor recently?

Forma afirmativa (futuro): WILL + HAVE TO + infinitivo


They can’t fix my computer, so I’ll have to buy a new one.
BE GOING TO + HAVE TO + infinitivo
They can’t fix my computer, so I’m going to have to buy a new one.
MAY/MIGHT + HAVE TO + infinitivo
Tom may/might have to work late tomorrow.

APARTADO 31B – la diferencia entre HAVE TO y MUST

MUST = HAVE TO – para expresar nuestra opinión sobre algo cuando nos
parece necesario hacerlo o para recomedar algo
I haven’t spoken to Sue for ages. I must/have to phone her. (es necesario)
Mark is a really nice person. You must/have to meet him. (se recomienda)
PERO:
para obligaciones externas no podemos usar MUST –
I have to work from 8:30 to 5:30 every day. (es un hecho, no una opinión nuestra)

MUST – lo usamos para ordenes ecritos, instrucciones o reglas:


Applications for the job must be received by 18 May.
Answer all questions. You must write your answers in ink.

El pasado de ‘must’ y ‘have to’ es el mismo → HAD TO:


We didn’t have much time. We had to hurry
APARTADO 31C – la diferencia entre MUSTN’T
y DON’T HAVE TO

MUSTN’T (prohibiciones) ≠ DON’T HAVE TO (falta de obligaciones)


You must keep this a secret. You mustn’t tell anyone.
You don’t have to tell Tom what happened. I can tell him myself.

APARTADO 31D – HAVE GOT TO

HAVE TO = HAVE GOT TO


I have to work tomorrow. = I’ve got to work tomorrow.
When does Helen have to go? = When has Helen got to go?
Preguntas con HAVE GOT TO: HAVE/HAS + sujeto + GOT TO + infinitivo
UNIDAD 32 – MUST, MUSTN’T, NEEDEN’T

APARTADO 32A y 32B – NEEDN’T and DON’T NEED TO

MUST – para decir que es necesario que se haga algo


MUSTN’T – para decir que está prohibido hacer algo

NEEDN’T (TO) + infinitivo = DON’T/DOESN’T NEED TO + infinitivo:


lo usamos para decir que NO es necesario que se haga algo pero se puede
hacerlo (no hace falta)
We’ve got plenty of time. We don’t need to / needn’t hurry.
Joe can stay here. He doesn’t need to / needn’t come with us.

APARTADO 32C y 32D – la diferencia entre NEEDN’T HAVE y


DIDN’T NEED TO

NEEDN’T HAVE + PARTICIPIO – para decir que alguien hizo algo pero ahora
se sabe que no hacía falta hacerlo
Everything was OK. We needn’t have worried.

DIDN’T NEED TO + infinitivo – para decir que no hacía falta hacer algo
PERO da igual si alguien lo hizo o no
He didn’t need to get up early, so he didn’t.
He didn’t need to get up early, but it was a beautiful morning, so he did.
DIDN’T NEED TO = DIDN’T HAVE TO
UNIDAD 33 – SHOULD parte 1

APARTADO 33A – SHOULD para consejos y opiniones


SHOULD + infinitivo – (debería)
1. para dar consejos diciendo que se debería hacer
You look tired, you should go to bed.
2. para expresar nuestra opinión (se puede ponerlo después de: I think, I
don’t think, Do you think...?)
I think that the government should do more to improve education.

SHOULD NOT = SHOULDN’T + infinitivo – para decir que no se debería hacer


algo, pero sin prohibirlo, solamente dando un consejo:
You shouldn’t believe everything you read in the newspapers.

CUIDADO!!! → ‘Should’ se parece a ‘must’ o ‘have to’, pero no significa lo


mismo. Su significado es menos fuerte, porque con esta palabra solamente
sugerimos o recomendamos algo, no obligamos a nadie que lo haga.
You should apologise.(se recomienda) ≠ You must/have to apologise. (se obliga)

APARTADO 33B – SHOULD para situaciones que no las


esperabamos o situaciones que esperamos que pasen

SHOULD o SHOULDN’T + infinitivo


SHOULD o SHOULDN’T + BE + verbo ING
1. para decir que algo no es/no está como lo esperabamos
Where’s Tina? She should be here any now. (no es normal que todavía no
haya llegado)
The man on the motorbike should be wearing a helmet.

2. para hablar de algo que esperamos que pase pronto; para expresar una
probabilidad bastante segura
Helen has been studying hard for the exam, so she should pass.

APARTADO 33C – SHOULD HAVE para hablar del pasado

SHOULD HAVE + PARTICIPIO / SHOULD HAVE + BEEN + verbo ING


– para decir que no hicimos algo pero hubiese sido lo correcto/lo adecuado
haberlo hecho
You missed a great party. You should have come.

SHOULDN’T HAVE + PARTICIPIO / SHOULDN’T HAVE + BEEN + verb ING


– para decir que hicimos algo, pero no debíamos haberlo hecho
I’m feeling sick. I shouldn’t have eaten so much.
You shouldn’t have been listening to our conversation. It was private.

APARTADO 33D – OUGHT TO


SHOULD = OUGHT TO: She has been studying hard for the exam, so she should /
ought to pass.
UNIDAD 34 – SHOULD parte 2

APARTADO 34A – SHOULD después de ciertos


verbos y expresiones

SHOULD – lo usamos después de estos verbos: insist, recommend, suggest,


demand, propose:
I insisted that he should apologise.
Doctors recommend that everyone should eat plenty of fruit.
I suggested that she should buy a car.
Many people are demanding that something should be done about the problem.

SHOULD – lo usamos también después de estas expresiones:


It’s important / vital / necessary / essential + THAT...
It’s essential that everyone should be here on time.

APARTADO 34B – cuando quitamos SHOULD

PERO
1. también podemos omitir ‘should’ después de estos verbos y
expresiones y dejar el verbo en la forma del infinitivo (sin ‘to’ →
subjuntivo):
It’s essential that everyone be here on time.
I insisted that he apologise.
I suggested that she buy a car.
What do you suggest we do?

2. También podemos conjugar el verbo y ponerlo en Present Simple o


Past Simple:
It’s essential that everyone is here on time. (Present Simple)
I suggested that she bought a car. (Past Simple)

APARTADO 34C – suggest + verbo ING

Después del verbo ‘suggest’ ESTÁ PROHIBIDO usar ‘TO + infinitivo’ pero
podemos usar ‘verbo + ING’:
What do you SUGGEST doing? (What do you suggest us to do?)
What do you SUGGEST we should do?
What do you SUGGEST we do?
What do you SUGGEST we did?

APARTADO 34D – SHOULD con adjetivos

STRANGE / ODD / FUNNY / TYPICAL / NATURAL / INTERESTING /


SURPRISED/ SURPRISING + should
It’s STRANGE that he should be late. He’s usually on time.
I was SURPRISED that he should say such a thing.
APARTADO 34E – if something should happen

IF + something + SHOULD + infinitivo


SHOULD + something + INFINITIVO

Estas dos expresiones las usamos en el primer condicional, para expresar


condiciones pero solamente cuando es poco probable que algo suceda.

We have no jobs at the moment,


 but IF the situation should change, we will contact you. = but IF the situation changes,
 but should the situation change, we will contact you. we will contact you.

APARTADO 34F – ‘I SHOULD’ para aconsejar ‘si fuese...’

I SHOULD/SHOULDN’T – lo usamos para consejos cuando queremos decir


que ‘haría si fuese tú’
“Shall I leave now?” “No, I should wait a bit.” = segundo condicional:
“I’m going out now. Is it cold out?” “Yes, I should wear a coat.” If I were you, I would…
I shouldn’t stay up too late. You have to be up early tomorrow. (I advise you to + infinitivo)
UNIDAD 35 – HAD BETTER, IT’S TIME…
APARTADO 35A – had better

HAD BETTER = I’D BETTER + infinitivo - mejor que …


HAD BETTER NOT = I’D BETTER NOT
Significa: (no) es recomendable hacer algo; si (no) lo haces, habrá
consequencias desagradables, problemas o algún peligro
Aunque el verbo ‘have’ está en el pasado, la expresión se refiere al presente
o al futuro.
‘Shall I take and umbrella?’ ‘Yes, you’d better. It might rain.’
We’d better stop for petrol soon. The tank is almost empty.
I’d better not buy this jacket. It’s too expensive.
You don’t look well You’d better not go out tonight.

APARTADO 35B – la diferencia entre ‘had better’ y ‘should’

HAD BETTER ≈ SHOULD las dos para expresar opiniones o consejos

had better – situaciones especificas; si no seguimos el consejo dado, habrá


consequencias o problemas
The film starts at 8.30. You’d better go now or you’ll be late.= You should go now…

should – situaciones específicas y generales;


It’s a great film. You should go and see it. ≠ You’d better go now…

APARTADO 35C – It’s time…

IT’S TIME… - es la hora de…; debería

IT’S TIME (+FOR alguien/algo) + to + infinitivo


It’s late. It’s time (for us)to go home.

IT’S TIME + sujeto (alguien/algo) + verbo en el pasado (verbos con ‘-ed’ o de


la segunda columna de los verbos irregulares)
It’s late. It’s time we went home.

IT’S ABOUT TIME… - usamos esta expresión para que la crítica parezca más fuerte
It’s about time we went home.
Jack is a great talker. But it’s about time he did something instead of just talking.
UNIDAD 36 – WOULD
APARTADO 36A – ‘would’ y ‘would have’

WOULD + INFINITIVO – para situaciones irreales o deseos en el presente:


I’m not going to invite them to the party. They wouldn’t come anyway.
I would call Lisa, but I don’t have her number.
2nd Conditional: I would call Lisa if I had her number.

WOULD HAVE + PARTICIPIO – para situaciones irreales o deseos en el pasado:


I didn’t invite them to the party. They wouldn’t have come anyway.
I would have called Lisa, but I didn’t have her number.
3rd Conditional: I would have called Lisa if I had had her number.

APARTADO 36B - la diferencia entre ‘WILL’ y ‘WOULD’:

WILL + INFINITIVO
1. para hablar del futuro:
I will call Lisa. Finally I have her number.
I’ll stay a little longer. I’ve got plenty of time.
2. para decir que alguien se niega hacer algo, o que una máquina no
quiere funccionar en el presente:
She is annoyed because her car won’t start.

WOULD + INFINITIVO
1. para hablar de situaciones irreales en el presente
I would call Lisa, but I don’t have her number.(situación irreal)
I’d stay a little longer, but I really have to go now.
2. para hablar del pasado
I promise that I will call Lisa.(ahora) → I promised that I would call Lisa. (el
pasado)
3. para decir que alguien se negó hacer algo, o que una máquina no
quiso funccionar en el pasado:
She was annoyed because her car wouldn’t start.

APARTADO 36C – would = used to

would + infinitivo = used to – soler hacer algo SOLAMENTE en el pasado


pero nunca con “stative verbs”
Whenever Richard was angry, he would walk out of the room.
Whenever Richard was angry, he used to walk out of the room.

I used to visit my grandma every day when I lived in Cambridge. = I would visit my
grandma every day when I lived in Cambridge.
I used to live in Paris. = I would live in Paris.
Stative verbs (los verbos estáticos / los verbos de estado) → son verbos que describen
estados permanentes, situaciones, condiciones (no se refieren a acciones) y por eso
no se usan en su forma continua
- Verbos que describen gustos, preferencias, o emociones: adore, detest, dislike,
enjoy, forgive, hate, like, dislike, love
- Verbos relacionados con la percepción y los sentidos: feel, hear, see, smell, taste,
sound, recognise
- Verbos que describen estados mentales como opinión, duda, acuerdo o
desacuerdo: agree, believe, suppose, understand, think, doubt, concern, seem, guess
- Verbos relacionados con la posesión o la pertenecia: have, possess, belong, own
UNIDAD 37 – CAN / COULD / WOULD en preguntas

APARTADO 37A

1. CAN / COULD / WILL / WOULD – para pedir que alguien haga algo
para nosotros: Can / Could / Will / Would you do me a favour?
Es más común usar CAN y COULD, pero con ‘do you think’ usamos
‘COULD’ (no ´can´!!!): Do you think you could do me a favour?

APARTADO 37B

2. CAN / COULD / MAY – para preguntar por algo, para pedir algo
(+have / get) : Can / Could / May I have these postcards, please?

APARTADO 37C

3. CAN / COULD / MAY – para pedir permiso para hacer algo, significan
lo mismo pero MAY es más formal que las otras palabras:
Hello, can / could / may I speak to Steve, please?
Can / Could / May I use your phone?

DO YOU MIND IF I…? / IS IT ALL RIGHT IF I…? / IS IT OK IF I…?:


Do you mind if I use your phone?
Do you mind if I come in?

APARTADO 37D

4. CAN – para ofrecer hacer algo para alguien:


“Can I get you a cup of tea?” “That would be nice.”
“Can I help you?” “No, it’s all right. I can manage.”

APARTADO 37E

5. WOULD – para ofrecer algo a alguien o invitar a alguien:


Would you like a cup of tea?
Would you like to eat with us tonight?

- para expresar un deseo:


I would like a cup of tea.
I would like to try on this jacket, please.
UNIDADES 38, 39, 40 – CONDITIONALS

1st Conditional : condiciones o situaciones reales


If + Present Simple, will / may / can+ infinitivo
If we go by bus, it will / can / may be cheaper than by train.

IF + sujeto + SHOULD + infinitivo, will + infinitivo


SHOULD + sujeto + INFINITIVO
Lo usamos en el primer condicional, para expresar condiciones pero
solamente cuando es poco probable que algo suceda.
We have no jobs at the moment,
 but IF the situation should change, we will contact you. = but IF the situation
changes,
 but should the situation change, we will contact you. we will contact you.

2nd Conditional : condiciones o situaciones irreales o casi imposibles de


suceder
If + Past Simple, would / might / could + infinitivo
If I was/were you, I wouldn’t buy a new car. (yo que tú…)
What would you do if you won a lot of money?
If there was/were an election tomorrow, who would you vote for?
If they paid me better, I could / might work harder. (may work)

Normalmente WOULD no aparece en la parte de la frase con IF. Pero si


estamos pidiendo que alguien haga algo, es posible usar WOULD juntos con
IF.
I would be grateful IF you would let me know your decision as soon as possible.

COULD = WOULD BE ABLE TO (aparece en la parte sin IF)


COULD = WAS / WERE ABLE TO (aparece en la parte con IF)
She would get a better job if she spoke English.
She could get a better job if she could speak English.
She would be able to get a better job if she was / were able to speak English.

3rd Conditional : situaciones en el pasado


If + Past Perfect, would / might / could + have + participio
If I had known you were in hospital, I would have gone to see you.
If I’d known you were in hospital, I’d have gone to see you.

If the weather hadn’t been so bad,


- we would have gone out.
- we could have gone out. = we would have been able to go out.
- we might have gone out. = perhaps we would have gone out.
COMPARE:
1st: I will call Lisa if she gives me her number.
2nd: I would call Lisa if she gave me her number.
3rd: I would have called Lisa if I had given me her number

COMPARE:
DO you mind if I use your phone? = WOULD you mind if I used your phone?
UNIDAD 41 – WISH

APARTADO 41A – WISH y HOPE para deseos

WISH + persona (a quien) + sustantivo (nunca + THAT + sujeto + verbo) –


desear algo a alguien
I wish her luck / a pleasant stay / all the best / happy birthday…

HOPE + sujeto (quien / que) + verbo + sustantivo - esperar que algo pase
I hope she has luck / a pleasant stay.

APARTADO 41B – WISH para arrepentimientos,


remordimientos, o para lamentar algo

wish + PAST SIMPLE (verbos con ‘ed’ o los verbos de la segunda columna de
los verbos irregulares) – ojalá pero referiendose al presente:
I want to call her. I wish I knew her number.
I wish you didn’t have to go soon. I have so much to tell you.
Do you wish you lived near the sea?

wish + PAST PERFECT (had + participio) – ojalá referiendose al pasado:


I wanted to call her last Saturday. I wish I had known her number.
I wish you hadn’t had to go soon.. I had so much to tell you that day.
It was a stupid thing to say. I wish I hadn’t said that.

APARTADO 41C – WISH con COULD y COULD HAVE

wish + COULD + infinitivo – ojalá pudiera:


I’m sorry I have to go so early. I wish I could stay longer.

wish + COULD HAVE + participio – ojalá hubiera podido:


I’m sorry I had to go so early. I wish I could have stayed longer.

APARTADO 41D – WISH con WOULD

sujeto + wish + OTRO SUJETO (¡no el mismo de la primera parte de la frase!)


+ WOULD + infinitivo – para quejarse de una situación o del
comportamiento de alguien
I wish IT would stop raining.
I wish YOU wouldn’t talk so much in the class.

pero nunca con el verbo ‘BE’ y ‘HAVE’:


I wish Sarah would come.
I wish Sarah was / were here now. (!NO! She would be here.)
I wish Sarah had more time for me. (!NO! She would have more time..)
UNITS 42,43,44 – PASSIVE VOICE
Passive Voice – la usamos para quitarle la importancia al sujeto y
darsela al complemento:
Mi abuelo construyó esta casa.  Esta casa fue construida por mi abuelo.

verbo “BE” en el tiempo adecuado + participio

 Present Simple: am/are/is + participio


We clean the room every day.  The room is cleaned every day.
 Present Continuous: am/are/is + being + participio
We are cleaning the room now.  The room is being cleaned now.
 Past Simple: was/were + participio
We cleaned the room yesterday.  The room was cleaned yesterday.
 Past Continuous: was/were + being + participio
We were cleaning the room when my mum arrived.  The room was
being cleaned when my mum arrived.
 Present Perfect: have/has + been + participio
We have just cleaned the room.  The room has just been cleaned.
 Past Perfect: had + been + participio
We had cleaned the room before my mum arrived.  The room had
been cleaned before my mum arrived.
 Future Simple: will + be + participio
We will clean the room later.  The room will be cleaned later.
 Going to: going to + be + participio
We are going to clean the room tonight.  The room is going to be
cleaned tonight.
 Modales en el presente: modales + be + participio
We must clean the room.  The room must be cleaned.
 Modales en el pasado: modales + have + been + participio
We must have cleaned the room.  The room must have been cleaned.
 Preposiciones y verbos seguidos por otros verbos con la
terminación ‘–ing’ (por ejemplo like, love, enjoy, hate...) :
preposición/verbo + being + participio
I hate people telling me what to do.  I hate being told what to do.
We’re going to the party although noone has invited us. We’re going
to the party without being invited.
Algunas frases pueden tener dos complementos. Los verbos que pueden
tener dos complementos son: ASK, OFFER, PAY, SHOW, TEACH, TELL.
The company offered him a good job. (1. him 2. a good job)
1. He was offered a good job.
2. A good job was offered to him.
Somebody gave the police the information.
1. The police were given the information.
2. The information was given to the police.

BY + personas, instituciones, animales… The door was opened by a burglar.


WITH + objetos The door was opened with a knife.

BE BORN – nacer
Where were you born?
I was born in Chicago.
How many babies are born every day?

VERBOS DE ESTADO VERBOS DE CAMBIO


be married – estar casado get married – casarse
be divorced – estar dicorciado get divorced – divorciarse
be lost – estar perdido get lost – perderse
be dressed – estar vestido get dressed – vestirse
be changed – estar cambiado get changed – cambiarse
UNITS 46 – HAVE SOMETHING DONE
APARTADOS A,B,C

GET / HAVE SOMETHING DONE – lo usamos para decir que alguien


hace / ha hecho / hizo / va a hacer... algo por nosotros (ante todo
cuando hablamos de ir a un especialista)

HAVE en el tiempo Complemento Participio El resto de la


adecuado frase
Lisa has every month.

her hair cut


Lisa is having now.
Lisa had yesterday.
Lisa was having when her
mom called.
Lisa has just had
Lisa had had before she
went to her
stylist.
Lisa will have soon.
Lisa is going to have tomorrow.
Lisa should have Before the
date.
Lisa don’t like having

Lisa has her hair cut every month. → Does Lisa have her hair cut every month?
Lisa is having her hair cut now. → Is Lisa having her hair cut now?

APARTADO D

HAVE SOMETHING DONE – lo usamos también para decir que a


alguien ha pasado algo desagradable
Their bags were stolen. = They had their bags stolen.
His nose was broken. = He had his nose broken in a fight.
Have your bike ever been stolen? = Have you ever had your bike stolen?
UNITS 47,48 – REPORTED SPEECH
1. el uso: para comunicar que ha dicho otra persona

2. Direct Speech (estilo directo): Paul said “I am fine.” / “I am fine,” said Paul.
Reported Speech (estilo indirecto): Paul said (that) he was fine.

3. tiempos verbales:
 Present Simple  Past Simple cuando la situación de la cual
estamos hablando ha cambiado o se ha terminado
He said “I play well.”  He said (that) he played well.
Present Simple  Present Simple cuando la situación sigue
igual (planes, ganas de hacer algo, verdades generales)
Mary said “John is in hospital.”  Mary said (that) John is in hospital.
(si todavía sigue en el hospital).
Mary said “John is in hospital.”  Mary said (that) John was in
hospital. (cuando ya ha salido del hospital)
 Present Continuous  Past Continuous
He said “I am playing well.”  He said (that) he was playing well.
 Past Simple  Past Simple / Past Perfect
He said “I played well.”  He said (that) he played/had played well.
 Past Continuous  Past Perfect Continuous
He said “I was playing well.” He said (that) he had been playing
well.
 Present Perfect  Past Perfect
He said “I have played well.”  He said (that) he had played well.
 Present Perfect Continuous  Past Perfect Continuous
He said “I have been playing well.”  He said (that) he had been
playing well.
 Past Perfect  Past Perfect
He said “I had played well.”  He said (that) he had played well.
 Past Perfect Continuous  Past Perfect Continuous
He said “I had been playing well.”  He said (that) he had been
playing well.
 Future Simple  WOULD
He said “I will play well.”  He said (that) he would play well.
 Going to  WAS going to
He said “I am going to play well.”  He said (that) he was going to
play well.
 Ordenes, peticiones y sugerencias → TO + infinitivo
Ordenes: He told me “Don’t be late!” He told me not to be late.
Peticiones: He asked me “Can you help me?” He asked me to
help him
Sugerencias: He told me “Drink plenty of water.”  He told me to
drink plenty of water.
4. palabras que indican el tiempo:
 tonight, today, this week/month/year...  THAT night, THAT
day, THAT week/month/year…
 now  THEN, AT THAT TIME, AT ONCE, IMMEDIATELY
 yesterday, last night/week/month... THE DAY BEFORE, THE
PREVIOUS night/week/month...
 tomorrow, next week/month...  THE DAY AFTER, THE
FOLLOWING day/week/month, THE NEXT week/month...
 two days/weeks/months ago…  two days/weeks/months...
BEFORE

5. say, tell, ask:


 SAY (+ TO + persona): He said (to me) that Mary was ill.
 TELL + persona: He told me that Mary was ill.
 ASK (+ persona) + IF: He asked (me) if Mary was ill.

ORDENES O PETICIONES:
 TELL + persona + (not) TO + infinitivo:
He told me (not) to close the door.
 ASK + persona + TO + infinitivo:
She asked me to close the door.
UNIDAD 49 – QUESTIONS 1
APARTADO 49A – preguntas en tiempos verbales formados por
dos verbos

question auxiliar sujeto verbo el resto de la


word principal pregunta
Where is Katherine working today?
Where was Katherine working yesterday?
Have you been in London?
Have you been working hard?
Will Tom be here tomorrow?
When is she going to buy the car?
Had the police arrived before the burglers
ran away?

APARTADO 49B – preguntas en tiempos verbales formados por un


verbo; preguntas por el sujeto

question auxiliar sujeto verbo el resto de la


word principal pregunta
Do you live near here?
What time does the film start?
Did you sell your car?
Why did the train stop?

PREGUNTAS POR EL SUJETO → cuando queremos preguntar por el sujeto,


no usamos verbos auxiliaries porque el “question word” actua como el
sujeto de la pregunta
Emma phoned somebody.

Who did Emma phone?

Somebody phoned Emma.

Who phoned Emma?

question word verbo el resto de la pregunta


principal
Who wants to eat?
What happened to you last night?
How many people came to the meeting?
Which bus goes to the centre?
APARTADO 49C – el lugar de las preposiciones

Las preposiciones van al final de todas las preguntas (aparte de las que
empiezan con “whom”).
Who do you want to speak to?
Which job has Tina applied for?
What is the weather like?
Where are you from?

ESTILO FORMAL:
who + el resto de la pregunta + preposición
= preposición + WHOM + el resto de la pregunta
She is speaking about her sister. →WHO is she speaking about?
About WHOM is she speaking?
They are talking to their dad.→ WHO are they talking to?
To WHOM are they talking?

APARTADO 49D – preguntas negativas

Las preguntas negativas sirven:


- para expresar que estamos sorprendidos por algo (mosqueados)
Didn’t you hear the doorbell? I rang it three times!
- para pedir a alguien que confirme lo que estamos diciendo
‘Haven’t we met before?’ ‘Yes, I think we have.’
UNIDAD 50 – QUESTIONS 2
APARTADO 50A – dos preguntas en una

Cuando antes de una pregunta tenemos otra pregunta o una frase


introductoria, el orden de las palabras en la pregunta principal se convierte
en el orden de una frase afirmativa. En el caso de Present Simple y Past
Simple también tenemos que omitir los verbos auxiliares: do / does / did.

Pregunta o frase introductoria Pregunta principal


Do you know ... what time it is?
I don’t know … who those people are.
Do you have any idea … how much it will cost?
Can / Could you tell me … where I can find Louise?
Please explain … what you mean.
I wonder … why she left early.

APARTADO 50B – preguntas en el estilo indirecto

Las preguntas indirectas sirven para decir que ha preguntado otra persona.

Ejemplos:
- pregunta directa:
The police officer asked ”Where are you going?”
- pregunta indirecta:
The police officer asked where we were going.
CAMBIA EL ORDEN DE LAS PALABRAS
(como una frase afirmativa)
…… pronombre + sujeto + verbo en tiempo correspondente
UNIDAD 51 – AUXILIARY VERBS
APARTADO 51A, 51B, 51C – los usos de los verbos auxiliares

VERBOS AUXILIARES: be , do, have, will y los modales.

LOS USAMOS:
- para crear preguntas o frases negativas y también algunos tiempos
verbales
- para responder a algunas preguntas sin repetir palabras usadas en
esas preguntas:
‘Have you locked the door?’ ‘Yes, I have.’ (=Yes, I have locked the door.)
‘Do you like onion?’ ‘No, I don’t.’(=No, I don’t like onions.)
- para no repetir las mismas palabras dos veces:
Gary wasn’t working, but Laura was. (=Laura was working.)
SUPOSICIONES:
I could lend you some money, but I WON’T(= … but I won’t
lend you any money)
ORDENES / CONSEJOS:
Don’t lend her money! → I WON’T (= I won’t lend her any money!)
- para desmentir algo:
‘You are sitting in my place.’ ‘No, I’m not.’ (=I’m not sitting in your place.)
‘You didn’t lock the door before you left.’ ‘Yes, I did.’ (=I locked the door.)
- para mostrar interés en lo que está diciendo alguien o para mostrar
que estamos sorprendidos por algo (Have you?/Is she?/Do they?/...)
‘Lisa isn’t very well today.’ ‘Oh, isn’t she? What’s wrong with her?’
‘James and Tanya are getting married.’ ‘Are they? Really?’
- para decir que a alguien le pasa lo mismo que a otra persona, que
están en la misma situación (+ SO / EITHER / NOR / NEITHER)
cuidado con el orden de la palabras!!!!!!
‘I’m tired.’ ‘So am I.’ (=I’m tired, too.)
Sarah hasn’t got a car and neither has Mark.
‘I never read newspapers.’ ‘Neither / Nor do I.’ (=I never read newspapers
either.)
Neither do I. = Nor do I. = I don’t either.

APARTADO 51D – frases con ‘SO’

I think so. → I don’t think so. Is that woman American?


I expect so. → I don’t expect so. Will you be at home this evening?
I suppose so. → I don’t suppose so. = I suppose not. Do you think she will come?

I hope so. → I hope not.


I guess so. → I guess not.
I’m afraid so. → I’m afraid not. – Lo siento, pero así es. → Lo siento pero no/
Me temo que no...
UNIDAD 52 – QUESTIONS TAGS
APARTADO 52A y 52B – información general

Questions Tags:
- son mini preguntas o preguntas cortas, que ponemos al final de una frase
afirmativa o negativa para convertirla en una pregunta en inglés hablado.
- están formadas por verbos auxiliares
- después de una frase afirmativa ponemos un tag negativo y después de una
frase negativa ponemos un tag afirmativo
- su significado depende de la melodía de la frase. Si diciendolo, bajamos la
melodía, solamente estamos buscando la confirmación. Si diciendolo,
subimos la melodía, hacemos una pregunta y de esta manera esperamos
una respuesta.

Kate will be here soon, won’t she?


Kate won’t be late, will she?
There was a lot of traffic, wasn’t there?
You haven’t eaten yet, have you?
You eat all kind of meat, don’t you?

APARTADO 52D – exepciones

Let’s …, + shall we
Let’s go for a walk, shall we?

Don’t …, + will you


Don’t be late, will you?

I am …, + aren’t I
I am right, aren’t I?

…never…, + auxiliary en forma afirmativa


You have never been in London, have you?
VERBO + verbo ING VERBO + to INFINITIVO
enjoy – disfrutar offer – ofrecerse para hacer algo
mind – importar agree – acordar hacer algo
postpone - aplazar refuse – negarse
avoid - evitar promise – prometer
finish - terminar plan – proponerse hacer algo
consider - considerar arrange – quedar en hacer algo
risk – arriesgarse a hope – esperar
fancy – tener ganas de hacer algo manage – conseguir hacer algo
give up – dejar de hacer algo fail – no conseguir hacer algo
put off - posponer deserve – merecer
suggest - proponer afford – permitirse
keep (on) - seguir tend – tender a hacer
keep alguien - mantener threaten – amenazar con
imagine (alguien) – imaginarse appear - parecer
stop (alguien) – parar seem – parecer
pretend – pretender hacer algo
admit – reconocer VERBO + (a question word)
They admitted stealing / having stolen the
money. → They admitted THAT they had
+ to INFINITIVO
stolen the money.

decide – decidirse
I’ve decided WHERE to go for my
holidays.
deny – negar ask (question word) – preguntar
They denied stealing / having stolen the He asked HOW to get to the bar?
money. → They denied THAT they had
stolen the money.
know – saber
forget – olvidarse de
explain - explicar
learn – aprender a
understand – entender
wonder - preguntarse
show – mostrar
tell – decir
advise – aconsejar
VERBO + (complemento) VERBO + complemento
+to INFINITIVO +to INFINITIVO
want - querer tell – decir
expect – esperar order – ordenar
ask – pedir, preguntar remind – recordar
beg – suplicar warn – advertir, avisar
help – ayudar enable - permitir
mean – tener intención de force – obligar
would like – gustar, querer invite – invitar
would prefer – preferir encourage - animar
persuade = get – convencer
teach - enseñar

VERBO + (to) INFINITIVO VERB + complemento


+ (sin to) INFINITIVO
dare – atreverse a make – obligar, hacer que alguien haga o
I wouldn’t dare to tell him the truth. sienta algo
I wouldn’t dare tell him the truth. I made him promise that he would keep
I daren’t tell him the truth. !!!!!!!!!!!! my secret.
(NUNCA: I daren’t to tell him the truth.) You make me feel so happy.

PASSIVE VOICE:
be made + to verb
They made us wait for two hours. → We
were made to wait for two hours.
help – ayudar let – permitir
Can you help me to move this table? My parents don’t let me go out with my
Can you help me move this table? friends.
Let me help you.

VERBO+ verbo ING sin VERBO + complemento


complemento + to INFINITIVO
advise - aconsejar
I wouldn’t advise staying in that hotel. I wouldn’t advise anybody to stay in that
hotel.
allow – permitir
They don’t allow parking in front of the They don’t allow people to park in front
building. of the building. → People aren’t allowed
to park in front of the building. (pasiva)
verbos + VERBO ING o ‘to’ INFINITIVO (cambia el significado)
VERBO + verbo ING VERBO + to INFINITIVO
stop doing – parar de hacer algo stop to do – parar para hace otra cosa
remember doing – recordar haber hecho remember to do – acordarse de hacer
algo en el pasado algo
I remember locking the door. I must remember to pay the bill.
I remembered to lock the door. (= I
remembered that I had to lock it, and so
I locked it.)
regret doing – arrepentirse de haber hecho regret to say / tell / inform – sentir (=I’m
algo en el pasado sorry)
I now regret telling the truth / saying what I regret to inform you that you haven’t
I said. passed the exam.
go on doing – continuar, seguir go on to do – seguir hablando
He paused for a moment and went on After speaking about Barcelona, he
talking. went on to talk about Valencia.
We can’t go on living in this mess.
try doing – intentar (probar una de las try to do – intentar (esforzarse)
soluciones) I tried to move the table, but it was too
I tried moving the table to the other side of heavy.
the room, but it didn’t look right. I tried to keep my eyes open, but I
It doesn’t work. Try pressing the green couldn’t.
button. Please, try to be quiet.
need doing – necesitar algo need to do – necesitar hacer
My phone needs charging. He needs to work harder.
The room needs cleaning. I need to get more money.
like / love / hate doing – gustar/querer/ like / love / hate to do – gustar/querer/
odiar hablando de cosas que se repiten odiar hablando de cosas que se repiten
I like flying. I hate getting up so early. I like to fly. I hate to get up so early.

- gustar/querer/odiar hablando de cosas


que ya han pasado y se han terminado o
sigen todavía
I like living in Valdemoro.
I hated working there. It was horrible.

like – querer hacer algo porque nos da like – querer hacer algo porque es
placer hacerlo aconsejable hacerlo
I like cleaning the kitchen. I think I can I like to clean the kitchen as often as
call it one of my hobbies. possible, but it’s not my favourite job.
no cambia el significado
begin = start - empezar
continue - continuar
intend – querer, tener la intención de
bother – molestar
prefer - preferir
UNIDADES 53, 54, 55, 56,57, 58 – VERBOS CON –ING y
_TO+INFINITIVO
VERBOS CON –ING

PRESENTE frases afirmativas: verbo + verbo ING I REGRET telling the truth.
PRESENTE frases negativas:
verbo + NOT + verbo ING I REGRET not telling the truth.
PASADO frases afirmativas:
verbo + verbo ING = verbo + HAVING + participio
I REGRET telling the truth. = I REGRET having told the truth.
PASADO frases negativas: verbo + NOT HAVING + participio
I REGRET not having told the truth.
PASIVA: verbo + BEING + participio
I REGRET being told the truth. (I regret they told me the truth)
I ENJOY being told compliments. (I enjoy people telling me compliments.)

VERBOS CON TO+INFINITIVO

PRESENTE frases afirmativas: verbo + to + infinitivo


He SEEMS to lose weight constantly.
PRESENTE frases negativas: verbo + NOT + to + infinitivo
He SEEMS not to lose weight.

PASADO: verbo + to + HAVE + participio He SEEMS to have lost weight.

INFINITIVO CONTINUO: verbo + to + BE + verbo ING


He SEEMS to be losing weight.
UNIT 59 - PREFER / WOULD PREFER / WOULD RATHER

APARTADO A – prefer

PREFER – preferir (en general)


I prefer to live in the country. = I prefer living in the country.

1. I prefer + sustantivo + TO + sustantivo


I prefer this coat TO the coat you were wearing yesterday.
2. I prefer + verbo ing + TO + verbo ing
I prefer driving TO travelling by train.
3. I prefer + to infinitivo + RATHER THAN + infinitivo (si el verbo es el
mismo que en la primera parte de la frase, podemos omitirlo en la
segunda parte)
I prefer to drive RATHER THAN travel by train.
I prefer to travel by car RAHTER THAN by train.

APARTADO B – would prefer

WOULD PREFER (D’ PREFER) – preferiría (en situaciones especificas)


1. I would prefer + sustantivo
I would prefer tea.
2. I would prefer + to infinitivo (+ RATHER THAN + infinitivo)
‘Shall we go by train?’ ‘I’d prefer to drive.’
I’d prefer to drive rather than go by train.
3. Preguntas: Would + sujeto + prefer + sustantivo + OR + sustantivo?
Would you prefer tea or coffee?

APARTADO C – would rather

WOULD RATHER (D’ RATHER) = WOULD PREFER – preferiría


1. I would rather + infinitivo (+THAN + infinitivo)
I’d prefer to drive. = I’d rather drive.
I’d prefer to drive RAHTER THAN go by train. =
I’d rather drive THAN go by train.
2. Preguntas: Would + sujeto + rather + infinitivo?
Would you prefer tea or coffee? = Would you rather have tea or coffee?
3. Negativos: I would rather not +infinitivo
I would rather not go out this evening.

APARTADO D – would rather + alguien

WOULD RATHER + alguien + verbo en pasado simple


I would rather make dinner now. ≠ I would rather YOU made dinner now.
WOULD RATHER + alguien + didn’t + infinitivo
I’d rather you didn’t drive.
UNIT 60 – PREPOSICIONES con VERBOS

APARTADO A y B – preposiciones con verbos ING

Después de todas las preposiciones ponemos siempre el verbo con ING.


Are you INTERESTED IN working for us?
I’m GOOD AT learning languages.
She must be FED UP WITH studying.
Thanks very much FOR inviting me to your party.
How ABOUT meeting for lunch tomorrow?
Why don’t you got out INSTEAD OF sitting at home all the time?
She went to work IN SPITE OF feeling ill.
BEFORE going out, I phoned Sarah. = Before I went out…
What did you do AFTER finishing school? = After you finished…
The burglars got into the house BY breaking a window.
It was a stupid thing to say. I said it WITHOUT thinking.

APARTADO C – TO con infinitivos o verbos ING

Después de ‘TO’ normalmente ponemos infinitivos porque forma parte de


ellos.
We decided TO travel by train.
Would you like TO meet tomorrow?

Pero en algunos casos cuando tratamos ‘TO’ como una preposición


podemos poner también verbo ING.
- look forward to + verbo ING:
Are you looking forward TO going on holiday?
- prefer TO + verbo ING:
I prefer driving TO travelling by train.
UNIT 62 – VERBOS CON PREPOSICIONES

APARTADO A – verbo + preposición + complemento o verbo ING

verbo + preposición + complemento o verbo ING


to talk about – hablar sobre: We’ve been talking about you / going on holiday.
to apologise for – pedir perdon por
to decide on sth. / in favour of sth. – decidirse por algo
to decide against – decidirse contra algo
to dream of – soñar con algo
to feel like – tener ganas de algo
to insist on - obstinarse en hacer algo, insistir
to succeed in – lograr hacer algo
to think about / of – pensar en

verbo + preposición (+alguien) + complemento


to approve of – estar de acuerdo con, aprobar
I don’t approve of (people) killing animals.
to look forward to – tener muchas ganas de algo, esperar algo
We are all looking forward to (you) coming here.

APARTADO B – verbo + complemento + preposición

verbo + complemento + preposición


to accuse sb. of – acusar de
to congratulate sb. on – felicitar a alguien por: We all congratulated Lisa on
winning the first prize.
to excuse sb. for - excusar a alguien por: Excuse me for phoning you so late!
to prevent sb. from – impedir que alguien haga algo
to stop sb. (from) – evitar que alguien haga algo, privar a alguien de
You can’t stop me (from) doing what I want.
to suspect sb. of – sospechar de
to thank sb. for - darle las gracias a alguien por

FRASES AFIRMATIVAS: They accused me of telling lies.


FRASES NEGATIVAS: They accused me of not telling the truth.
PASIVA: I was accused of telling lies.

to apologise (TO sb.) for sth. – pedir perdón a alguien por algo
I apologised (to them) for not keeping their secret.
UNIT 63 – EXPRECIONES CON ING

APARTADO A, B, C, D, E

 IT’S NO USE / IT’S NO GOOD DOING – no sirve de nada hacer algo


It’s no use worrying about it if you can’t change it.
It’s no good trying to persuade me. You won’t succeed.

 THERE’S NO POINT IN DOING – no tiene sentido


There’s no point in having a car if you never use it.

 WHAT’S THE POINT OF DOING – de que sirve, que sentido tiene


What’s the point of having a car if you never use it?

 IT’S (NOT) WORTH – (no) vale la pena, (no) merecer


The film is worth seeing.
It’s not worth taking a taxi because I live only a short walk from here.

 HAVE (NO) TROUBLE / DIFFICULTY / A PROBLEM DOING – tener


problemas para hacer algo
I had no trouble finding a hotel.
Did you have any difficulty getting a visa?
People sometimes have problems reading my writing.

 SPEND / WASTE TIME DOING – pasar el tiempo / perder el tiempo


I spent hours trying to repair my car.
I waste a lot of time doing nothing.

 BE BUSY DOING SOMETHING – estar ocupado haciendo algo


She couldn’t see me because she was too busy doing other things.

 GO SWIMMING (nadar) / SCUBA DIVING (bucear) / FISHING (pescar)


/ SAILING (navegar) / SURFING (surfear) / CAMPING (acampar) /
HIKING (dar una caminata) / SIGHTSEEING (visitar los lugares de
interés) / RIDING (montar a caballo) / SKIING (esquiar) / JOGGING
(corer, hacer footing) / SHOPPING (ir de compras)
How often do you go swimming?
I would like to go fishing.
When was the last time you went shopping?
I’ve never been sailing.
UNIT 64 - TO… / FOR… / SO THAT…
APARTADO A y B – ‘to + infinitivo’
TO + infinitivo – para explicar la intención / el objetivo de hacer algo;
porque existe o porque lo hacemos, para que necesitamos algo
I phoned the restaurant to reserve the table.
We need flour to make bread.
We shouted to warn everybody of the danger.
This letter is to confirm their arrival.
The president has a team of bodyguards to protect him.
She has given me some money to buy her food.
Do you have much work to do?
I need something to open this bottle with.
I get loney if there’s nobody to talk to.
They gave us money to buy food.
I need a few days to think about your proposal.

APARTADO C – diferencia entre ‘for + ING’ y ‘to + infinitivo’


FOR + sustantivo / verbo-ing – para
We stopped for petrol. = We stopped to get petrol.
I had to run for the bus. = I had to run to catch the bus.

FOR + persona + TO + infinitivo


There weren’t any chairs for us to sit on, so we sat on the floor.

- PARA HABLAR DEL USO GENERAL DE ALGO: ‘FOR + verbo ING’


o ‘TO + infinitivo’
We use this brush for washing the dishes / to wash the dishes.
- Pero PARA HABLAR DE LA INTENCIÓN DE HACER ALGO solamente:
‘TO + infinitivo’
I went to the kitchen to wash the dishes.

- PREGUNTAS: para preguntar por el objetivo o el uso “FOR” ponemos al


final de la pregunta:
What is this switch for?
What did you do that for?
“What did you stop for?” “We stopped for the petrol”.

APARTADO D – ‘so that’


SO (THAT) - significa “para que” y lo usamos entre dos frases, cuando la
seguna frase expresa nuestra intención de hacer algo, el objetivo, porque lo
hacemos
SO (THAT) + won’t =don’t / wouldn’t + infinitivo
I need to hurry up so (that) I won’t / don’t be late.
I hurried so (that) I wouldn’t be late.
SO (THAT) + can/ could + infinitivo
She’s learning English so (that) she can study in Canada.
She was learning English so (that) she could study in Canada.
UNIT 65 - ADJETIVOS + TO + INFINITIVO

APARTADO A
adjetivo (+ for + sustantivo) + to +infinitivo
cheap, dangerous, difficult, easy, exciting, expensive, good, hard,
impossible, interesting, nice, safe

EXAMPLES:
It is difficult to understand him. → He is difficult (for me) to understand him.
It was impossible (for me) to answer the questions. → The questions were
impossible (for me) to answer them.
VERBOS CON PREPOSICIONES:
It’s so interesting to talk to Jane. → Jane is interesting to talk to her.

APARTADO B
adjetivo + of + persona + to + infinitivo
careless (imprudente), (in)considerate (des/considerado), generous
(generoso), kind, mean, nice, silly, stupid, unfair (injusto)

EXAMPLES:
It is silly of Jane to give up her work without having a new one.
It is really nice of you to help me.

APARTADO C
adjetivo +to + infinitivo para hablar de nuestras reacciones a ciertas
cosas, los sentimientos que causan
amazed (sorprendido, asombrado) , disappointed (decepcionado),
pleased (contento), relieved (aliviado), sad, sorry (apenado, sentir
que), surprised,

EXAMPLES:
I am surprised to see you here.
I’m sorry to hear that.

APARTADO D
the first / the second / the third / … / the next / the last / the only
(+sustantivo) + to + verb
EXAMPLES:
You are the first to know that I am getting married.
I was the only one to arrive on time.
The next train to arrive is at platform 4 will be the 10:50 to Liverpool.

APARTADO E
sure / certain / likely / bound to happen
EXAMPLES:
She is a very good student. She is bound / sure to pass the exam.
I’m likely to get home late tonight. = She will probably get home late.
UNIT 66 - ADJETIVOS + TO + INFINITIVO
y ADJETIVOS + PREPOSICIONES + ING

APARTADO A – afraid

You are afraid to do something because you are afraid of something


happening as a result

to be afraid to + infinitivo – tener miedo de hacer algo deliberadamente;


entonces si puedo elegir y no hacerlo, no lo hago, porque es peligroso o
porque podría tener consequencias negativas;
This part of town is dangerous. People are afraid to walk here at night.
James was afraid to tell his parents what had happened.

to be afraid of + verbo ING – tener miedo de que pase algo (del efecto,
resultado);
I don’t like dogs. I’m always afraid of being bitten. (to be bitten)
The path was icy, so we walked very carefully We were afraid of falling. (to fall)

APARTADO B – interested

to be interested to + infinitivo (hear/see/read/learn/know/find) – me


interesaría…; se refiere a la reacción a algo
I was interested to hear the news.
I would be interested to know what Mike’s opinion is. He is a very intelligent person.
to be interested in + verbo ING – estar interesado en; se refiere a ganas de
hacer algo
Let me know if you’re interested in joining the club.
I tried to sell my car, but nobody was interested in buying it.

APARTADO C – sorry

to be sorry to + infinitivo
- sentir cuando lamentamos algo o nos da pena
I was sorry to hear that Nicky lost her job.
I’m sorry lo leave but I really have to go now.
- sentir cuando pedimos perdón por algo que estamos haciendo en el
momento de hablar
I’m sorry to phone you so late, but I need to ask you something.

to be sorry for/about + verbo ING – sentir cuando pedimos perdón por algo
que hemos hecho antes
I’m sorry for / about shouting at you yesterday.
= I’m sorry I shouted ate you yesterday.
UNIT 66 – SEE SB DO / DOING

APARTADO A,B, C - see

see + verbo ING / infinitivo (sin ‘to’)

Tom was walking along the street. Suddenly he got into a car and drove away.

I SAW Tom walking along the street.


I SAW Tom get into a car and drive away.

I’ VE never SEEN her dance / her dancing.

Pero en la Pasiva →
to be seen + verbo ING
to be seen + TO + infinitivo
Tom was seen walking along the street.
Tom was seen TO get into a car.

APARTADO D – hear, feel, listen to, smell, find, notice

hear, feel, listen to, smell, find, notice + verbo ING / infinitivo (sin ‘to’)

I didn’t HEAR you come in.


I didn’t HEAR it raining.

Lisa suddenly FELT somebody touch her on her shoulder.


Did you NOTICE anyone go out?
LISTEN to the birds singing.
Can you SMELL something burning?
UNITS 69 – COUNTABLE and UNCOUNTABLE 1
APARTADO 69A y 69B

SUSTANTIVOS CONTABLES SUSTANTIVOS INCONTABLES


SINGULARES PLURALES tienen solo una forma

Nunca pueden Pueden aparecer No llevan articulos A / AN pero pueden


aparecer solos, solos, o pueden llevar el artículo THE y los pronombres
siempre tienen que llevar el artículo posesivos: my / your / his / her / its /
llevar un artículo: THE o un our / your / their
A / AN / THE pronombre I eat rice every day.
o un pronombre posesivo: my / We don’t have water.
posesivo: my / your / his / her / There’s blood on your shirt.
your / his / her / its its / our / your /
/ our / your / their their Para hablar de la cantidad, hay que
añadirles un sustantivo:
I eat a banana every I like bananas. Please, buy a packet of rice and a bottle
day. of water.
There’s a drop of blood on your shirt.

APARTADO 69C

SUSTANTIVOS CONTABLES SUSTANTIVOS INCONTABLES


SINGULARES PLURALES tienen solo una forma

__________ some, any some, any


We listened to some We listened to some music.
songs.
Did you buy any apples? Did you buy any apple juice?

many, a few much, a little


We didn’t buy many We didn’t do much shopping.
things.
I have a few things to do. I have a little work to do.
UNITS 70– COUNTABLE and UNCOUNTABLE 2
APARTADO 70A

SUSTANTIVOS CONTABLES SUSTANTIVOS INCONTABLES


noise – ruido específico, soñido noise – ruido en general
Did you hear a noise just now? I can’t work. There’s too much noise.
paper - periódico paper – papel
I bought a paper to read. I need some paper to write on.
hair - pelo hair - cabello
There’s a hair in my soup. You’ve got very long hair.
room - habitación room - espacio
Stay with us! There’s a spare room. You can’t sit here. There isn’t room.
experience - vivencia experience - experiencia
I had some interesting experiences while They offered me the job because I had a
I was travelling. lot of experience.
time – period, tiempo en concreto time – tiempo en general
Enjoy your trip! Have a good time! I can’t wait. I don’t have time.

Bebidas (coffee / tea / juice / beer / wine…) son normalmente incontables:


I don’t like coffee.
pero si queremos pedir por ejemplo un café, una cerveza etc. se convierten en
contables:
Two coffees and an orange juice, please.

APARTADO 70B

SUSTANTIVOS CONTABLES SUSTANTIVOS INCONTABLES


I’m looking for a job. I’m looking for work.
What a beautiful view! What beautiful scenery!
It’s a nice day today. It’s nice weather today.
We had a lot of bags and cases. We had a lot of baggage/luggage.
These chairs are mine. This furniture is mine.
That’s a good suggestion . That’s good advice.
SUSTANTIVOS INCONTABLES + verbo singular:

The news was very interesting.

accommodation
advice (a piece)
baggage (an item / a piece)
behavior
bread (a loaf / a slice / a piece)
electricity
chaos
damage
furniture (a piece)
information (an item / a piece)
luck
luggage (an item / a piece)
money
music
news (an item / a piece)
permission
progress
rice
sand
scenery
toast (a piece / a round / a slice)
traffic
travel
water
weather
work (a piece)
UNIT 72 - A /AN and THE

A / AN THE
1. cuando hablamos de algo por primera 1. cuando ya hemos mencionado algo antes y
vez: no es primera vez que hablemos de eso
I had a sandwich and an apple for lunch. The sandwich wasn’t very good, but the apple
was nice.

2. cuando hablamos de una persona o una 2. cuando hablamos de una persona o cosa
cosa en general en particular
Tim sat down on a chair. Tim sat down on the chair nearest to the door.
Paula is looking for a job. Did Paula get the job she applied for?

3. en expresiones con la preposición “por” 3. cuando es obvio de quien o de que estamos


- once/twice/three times... a week/month/year hablando, sin mencionarlo antes y sin tener
- 3 hours a day/3 days a week/3 months a year que dar más explicaciones
- £1,50 a kilo Can you turn off the light?
She’s gone to the doctor. / My sister is a
doctor.
I have to go to the bank. / Is there a bank
near here?
UNITS 73,74,75,76 - THE

1. hablando de cosas únicas en el mundo


 the longest river in Europe - el río más largo de Europa
 the capital of Argetina
 on the tenth floor (en la décima planta)
 at the end of this month

the equator, the earth, the moon, the sun, the sky, the sea, the ground,
the world, the universe, the environment, the internet

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!ATENCIÓN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
 IN the sky
 The earth goes around round the sun, and the moon goes round
the earth. (hablando sobre sus características)
Which planet is nearest Earth? (como uno de los planetas en el
espacio, los nombres de otros planetas también sin THE)
 SPACE siempre sin THE cuando hablamos del espacio en el
universo
There are millions of stars in space.
I tried to park my car, but the space was too small.

2. con el adjetivo “SAME” (the same) cuando queremos decir “igual


que” o “el mismo que”:
Your sweater is the same colour as mine.
Your sweater is the same as mine.
Are there keys the same? No, they’re different.

3. the cinema, the theatre – aunque no estamos hablando de un cine o un


teatro en concreto
I go to the cinema a lot, but I haven’t been to the theatre for ages.

4. the radio → I listen to the radio. / I heard it on the radio.


television / TV → I watch television a lot. / I watched it on television.
pero: ‘THE television’ si hablamos de la tele como un aparato → Can
you turn off the television?

5. Con comidas normalmente no usamos THE →


What did you have for breakfast?
We had lunch in a very nice restaurant.
pero: si antes de la comida le ponemos un adjetico para describirla,
tenemos que añadirles un articulo:
We had a very nice lunch.

6. No usamos THE con sustantivos con números (Room 126, Page 29,
question 3, Gate 10 etc.):
Our train leaves from Platform 5.
Do you have these shoes in size 43
7. con los sustantivos: SCHOOL, UNIVERSITY, COLLEGE, HOSPITAL,
CHURCH, PRISON, JAIL, BED
- no usamos THE cuando hablamos de usarlo para lo que han sido
creados:
Ellie is ten years old. Every day she goes to school. She is at school now.
School starts at 9 and finishes at 3.

Ken’s brother is in prison for robbery.


Joe was taken to hospital after the accident and he is still in hospital now.
When I leave school I plan to go to university/to college.
Sally’s father goes to church every Sunday.
I’m going to bed now. Good night. Do you ever have breakfast in bed?
- usamos THE cuando lo tratamos solamente como un edificio y
hablamos de usarlos para otras cosas
Today Ellie’s mother has gone to the school to speak to Ellie’s teacher. She
is at the school now.
Ken went to the prison to visit his brother.
Jane has gone to the hospital to visit Joe.
I went to the university to meet Professor Thomas.
Some workmen went to the church to repair the roof.
I sat down on the bed.

8. no usamos THE con el sustantivos WORK, HOME, SEA:


go to work / be at work / start work / finish work
go home / come home / arrive home / get home / be at home
go to sea / be at sea : Keith works on ships. He’s at sea most of the time.
pero: I’d like to live near the sea. It can be dangerous to swim in the sea.

9. cuando hablamos de cosas o personas en general, no usamos THE:


I’m afraid of dogs.
Doctors are usually paid more.
Do you know anybody who collects stamps?
Crime is a problem in most big cities.
Life has changed a lot in the last thirty years.
My favourite subject was history.
Do you like classical music / Chinese food / fast cars?

pero:
All cars have wheels. ≠ All the cars in this car park belong to this company.
I like working with people. ≠ I like the people I work with.

10. cuando hablamos de algo como el representante de un grupo de


cosas, personas o animals, usamos THE.
I saw a giraffe in the zoo. ≠ The giraffe is the talles of all animals.
The bicycle is an excellent means of transport.
When was the telephone invented?
The dollar is the currency of the United States.
I’d like to have a piano. ≠ I can’t play the piano.
The piano is my favourite instrument.

pero: What do you know about origins of man? (the man = mankind, the
human race)

11. podemos poner THE antes de los adjetivos para poder hablar de
grupos de personas:
the young (los jovenes), the rich (los ricos), the sick (los enfermos), the
injured (los heridos), the disabled (los discapacitados), the dead (los
muertos), the old = the elderly (los mayores) , the homeless (sin techo), the
unemployed (los desempleados)

12. nacionalidades:
- usamos THE con las nacionalidades que se terminan en ‘-ch’ o ‘-
sh’: the French, the Spanish, the English
para hablar de un habitante: a Frenchman, an Englishwoman

- usamos THE con las nacionalidades que se terminan en ‘-ese’:


the Chinese, the Sudanese, the Japanese, y también the Swiss
para hablar de un habitante: a Chinese, a Japanese, a Swiss

- con otras nacionalidades, que se terminan en ‘-an’, normalmente


no usamos THE y les añdimos ‘-s’: Italians, Mexicans, Turks
pero cuando hablamos de un grupo de habitantes en concreto
podemos usar THE:
Italians are very talkative. ≠ The Italians I work with are very talkative.
para hablar de un habitante: an Italian, a Mexican, a Turk
UNITS 77 and 78 – NAMES WITH AND WITHOUT THE
NO USAMOS “THE” CON:
1. nombres de personas: Helen Taylor
PERO usamos “THE” → cuando hablamos de familias:
the Taylors (= the Taylor family)

2. continentes: Africa, America, Europe…

3. paises: France, Germany, Italy


3.1. PERO usamos “THE” → cuando el nombre contiene una de estas
palabras REPUBLIC, KINGDOM, STATES: the Czech Republic,
the Dominican Republic, the United Kingdom, the United States of
America (the USA)
3.2. PERO usamos “THE” → con nombres de paises en plural: the
Netherlands, the Philippines

4. estados: Texas, California

5. islas individuales: Sicily,Tenerife


PERO usamos “THE” con archipielagos: the Canary Islands (=the
Canaries)

6. ciudades: New York, London

7. montañas individuales: (Mount) Everest, (Mount) Etna


PERO usamos “THE” con cordilleras: the Rocky Mountains = the Rockies,
the Alps

8. lagos: Lake Superior

9. títulos de personas + sus nombres: Doctor Johnson, Captain Johnson,


President Johnson, Mr/Mrs Johnson, Uncle Johnson, Saint Catherine, Princess
Catherine, King James…

10. calles, caminos, plazas, parques: Union Street, Queens Road, Broadway,
Fifth Avenue, Hyde Park, Times Square

11. importantes edificios públicos y instituciones que contienen en su


nombre, el nombre de un lugar o una persona→ Manchester Airport,
Harvard University, Victoria Station, Buckingham Palace (PERO the Royal
Palace), Canterbury Cathedral, Edinburgh Castle

12. tiendas, restaurantes, hoteles, bancos que contienen en su nombre, el


nombre de una persona (+ -s o –‘s): McDOnald’s, Joe’s Diner, Harrods
(department store), Barclays (bank), St John’s Church

13. empresas: Fiat, Sony, American Airlines, Yale University Press


USAMOS “THE” CON:

1. oceanos: the Atlantic (Ocean), the Pacific (Ocean), the Indian Ocean

2. mares: the Mediterranean (Sea), the Red Sea

3. canales: the Channel, the Suez Canal

4. rios: the Amazon, the Nile

5. desiertos: the Sahara (Desert), the Gobi Desert

6. puntos cardinales: the north (of Spain), the south, the east, the west
PERO no usamos “THE” → northern Spain, North America, the Middle
East, the Far East

7. hoteles, teatros, cines, museos, galerías y otros edificios que no


contienen en su nombre, el nombre de una persona o un lugar: the
Sheraton (Hotel), the Palace (Theatre), the National Gallery, the Empire State
(Bulding), the White House, the Eiffel Tower, the Acropolis, the Kremlin, the
Pentagon

8. periódicos y organizaciones: the Washington Post, the Sun, the Financial


Times, the European Union, the BBC, the Red Cross
UNIT 79 - SINGULAR and PLURAL

APARTADO 79A
sustantivos plurales que se refieren objetos que tienen dos partes

TROUSERS, JEANS, TIGHTS, SHORTS, PANTS, + plural verb


PYJAMAS, GLASSES, BINOCULARS, SCISSORS

A PAIR OF + ………………………………………… + singular verb:


My trousers are too long.
Those are nice jeans. = That’s a nice pair of jeans.
I need some new glasses. = I need a new pair of glasses.

APARTADO 79B
sustantivos singulares que se terminan en ‘-ics’

ATHLETICS, ECONOMICS, ELECTRONICS, + singular verb


GYMNASTICS, MATHS, PHYSICS, POLITICS
Gymnastics is my favourite sport.

NEWS + singular verb

sustantivos singulares y plurales que se terminan en ‘-s’


(tienen la misma forma)

MEANS medio,medios SERIES serie,series SPECIES especie,especies


a means of transport / many means of transport
a television series / two television series
a species of bird / 200 species of bird

APARTADO 79C
sustantivos que se refieren a grupos de personas y tienen forma
singular pero a veces les sigue verbo singular y otras veces plural

AUDIENCE público, COMMITTEE comité,


COMPANY empresa, FAMILY familia,
FIRM empresa pequeña/bufete, + plural o singular verb
GOVERNMENT gobierno, STAFF personal
TEAM equípo
nombres de empresas o equipos de futbol
The government have / has decided to increase taxes.
Italy are / is playing Brazil next Sunday.
Shell have / has increased the price of petrol.
POLICE +plural verb The police are investigating the crime, but haven’t
arrested anyone yet.
A POLICE OFFICER / A POLICEMAN / A POLICEWOMAN
+ singular verb

APARTADO 79D

A PERSON + singular verb PEOPLE +plural verb


He’s a nice person.
They are nice people.
Many people don’t have enough to eat.

APARTADO 79E
sustantivos que se refieren a cantidades de dinero, periodos de
tiempo o distancias los tratamos como una unidad y utilizamos
con ellos verbo singular

Fifty thousand pounds (=it) was stolenin the robbery.


Three years (=it) is a long time to be without a job.
Two miles isn’t very far to walk.
UNIT 80 - NOUN+NOUN
APARTADO 80A

1. SUSTANTIVO + sustantivo (separados):


a table tennis, a bus driver, a road accident, the city centre
garden vegetables ≠ a vegetable garden

2. VERBO con ING + sustantivo (separados):


a washing machine, a frying pan, a swimming pool

3. SUSTANTIVO + SUSTANTIVO + sustantivo (separados):


If you want to play table tennis, you need a table tennis table.
I waited at the hotel reception desk.
We watched the World Swimming Championships on television.

APARTADO 80B

SUSTANTIVO + sustantivo (juntos) – a veces se puede escribirlas como dos


palabras separadas, pero las reglas son lo explican claramente. Por eso si no
estamos seguros, es mejor escribirlas juntos.
headache, toothpaste, weekend, car park, road sign

APARTADO 80C

a sugar bowl (un cuenco para azúcar) ≠ a bowl of sugar (un cuenco de azúcar,
con azúcar dentro)
a shopping bag (una bolsa para compras) ≠ a bag of shopping (una bolsa de
compras, con productos comprados dentro de ella)

APARTADO 80D

CANTIDAD-SUSTANTIVO + sustantivo (separados):


a six-mile walk, a three-hour journey, a four-week course,

She is 14 years old. = This is a 14-year-old girl.


The course lasted 4 weeks. = Is was a four-week course.

a four-week course = four weeks’ course


a one-week holiday = a week’s holiday
UNIT 81 – “-s” / OF
APARTADO 81A – “-s´” con sustantivos singulares
-‘s (apóstrofo + S): personas y animales, singular
This is my sister’s room. = This room is my sister’s.
Be careful. Don´t step on the cat´s tail.
PERO con grupos de muchas palabras usamos “of”
your friend´s name PERO the name of the woman sitting by the door (NO: the
woman’s name sitting by the door)

APARTADO 81B – “-s” con sustantivos plurales


-s´ (S + apóstrofo): personas y animales, formas plurales terminadas es S
this is my sisters’ room.

-‘s (apóstrofo + S): personas y animales, formas plurales NO terminadas en S


the men´s changing room, a children´s book

-‘s (apóstrofo + S): después de más de un sustantivo


the Carters’ house = Mr and Mrs Carter’s house; Jack and Karen´s wedding
PERO con nombres de personas terminadas en S, ponemos –‘s (apóstrofo + S)
James → James’s cat; Charles’s house

APARTADO 81C – OF
sustantivo + OF + sustantivo: cosas o ideas, singular o plural
the temperature of the water = the water temperature (the water’s temperature!!!)
the name of the book, the owner of the restaurant

OF en expresiones: the beginning of, the end of, the middle of, the top of,
the bottom of, the front of, the back of, the side of

APARTADO 81D – “-s” / OF


Con organizaciones (grupos de personas) y lugares podemos usar las dos
formas: “-s” y “of”
the company´s success = the success of the company
the city´s streets = the streets of the city
the world´s population = the population of the world
Italy´s prime minister = the prime minister of Italy

APARTADO 81E – “-s” para hablar de calendario


–‘s (apóstrofo +S): con sustantivos del tiempo (singular)
yesterday’s newspaper , next week’s meeting , Monday’s match , this evening’s date

-‘s (apóstrofo + S) periodos de tiempo, singular: a week’s holiday


-s’ (S + apóstrofo) periodos de tiempo, plural: three weeks’ holiday = a three-
week holiday
UNIT 82 – PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS
APARTADO 82A

Pronombres reflexivos:
singulares: MYSELF, YOURSELF, HIMSELF, HERSELF, ITSELF
plurales: OURSELVES, YOURSELVES, THEMSELVES

Los usamos cuando el sujeto y el objeto son iguales.


It’s not our fault. You can’t blame US.
It’s our own fault. We should blame OURSELVES.

APARTADO 82B

Nunca usamos los pronombres reflexivos con los siguientes verbos:


FEEL / RELAX / CONCENTRATE / MEET
I feel nervous. I can´t relax.
I must try to concentrate.
What time shall we meet?
Normalmente no usamos los pronombres reflexivos con:
WASH / SHAVE / DRESS (pero si hablamos de niños o personas
enfermas/discapacitadas que tienen cierta dificultad en lavarse, verstirse o
afeitarse, podemos decir “wash oneself, shave onself o dress oneself”)
He got up, washed, shaved and dressed.

APARTADO 82C

OURSELVES / YOURSELVES / THEMSELVES no significa lo mismo que


EACH OTHER o ONE ANOTHER
Kate and Joe stood in front of the mirror and looked at themselves. (a ellos mismos)
Kate and Joe stood in front of the mirror and looked at each other. (uno al otro)

APARTADO 82D

myself – yo solo, yo mismo, sin ayuda de nadie


myslef = by myslef = on my own

I repaired my bike myself.


Let´s paint the house ourselves.
The film itself wasn´t very good, but I loved the music. (en si misma)
I don´t think Lisa will get the job. Lisa herself doesn´t think so. (ella misma)
UNIT 83 – OF MINE, MY OWN
APARTADO 83A – of mine / of yours …

OF + MINE / YOURS / HIS / HERS / OURS / THEIRS / sustantivo+’S


A friend of mine is getting married.– uno de mis amigos
I went on holiday with some friends of mine. – algunos de mis amigos
That woman over there is a friend of my sister´s. – uno de los amigos de mi hermana
It was a good idea of Tom’s.

APARTADO 83B – (of) my own / your own

MY / YOUR / HIS / HER / ITS / OUR / YOUR / THEIR + OWN (+ sustantivo) –


mi / tu / … proprio (para resaltar, para decir que algo partenece a una
persona en concreto)
I would like to have my own room.
Brian usually cuts his own hair.
Why do you want to borrow my car? Why don’t you use your own?

sustantivo + OF + MY/ YOUR/ HIS/ HER/ ITS/ OUR/ YOUR/ THEIR + OWN
I would like to have a room of my own.
He won’t be able to help you with your problems. He has too many problems of his own.

APARTADO 83C – my own / your own

Para resaltar que hacemos algo nosotros mismos, sin que nadie lo hace por
nosotros.
Brian usually cuts his own hair. = He cuts his hair himself.
I’d like to have a garden so that I could grow my own vegetables instead of buying
them from shops.

APARTADO 83D – of mine / of yours …

ON MY / YOUR / HIS / HER / ITS / OUR / THEIR OWN


BY MYSELF / YOURSELF / HIMSELF / HERSELF / ITSELF / OURSELVES /
YOURSELVES / THEMSELVES
I like living on my own / by myself / alone.
Jack was sitting on his own / by himself / alone in the corner of the café.
UNIDAD 84 - THERE and IT

APARTADO 84A – there/it + be

THERE + BE (singular o plural) = HABER


 cuando hablamos de algo por primera vez
 para decir que existe una cosa, un lugar...

There is (‘s) / are (Hay...) → There is a new restaurant in Hill Street. / There
are two new restaurants in Hill Street.
There was / were (Había...) → There was a lot of traffic in the morning.
There has been / have been (Ha habido…) → There has been a big rise in
the cost of living.

IT + BE (singular) = ESTO/A, ESO/A, AQUELLO/A


 cuando hablamos de algo especifico (cosa, lugar, hecho,
situación...)

It’s (is) (Es…/Está..) → We’re the new restaurant right now. It is really good.
It was (Fue…/Estuvo…) → I wasn’t expecting them to come. It was a surprise!
It has been (Ha sido…/Ha estado…)

THERE = AHÍ
When we got to the party, there were already a lot of people. (=at the party)
APARTADO 84B

THERE y los tiempos gramáticos:


 There will be: There will be much to do.
 There is going to be: There is going to be much to do.
 There would be: If people drove more carefully, there wouldn’t be so
many accidents.
 There must be: They live on a busy road. There must be a lot of noise
from the traffic.
 There must have been: I could hear music coming from the house.
There must have been somebody at home.
 There might be: There might be somebody at home.
 There might have been: There might have been somebody at home.
 There should be
 There should have been
 There used to be: There used to be a cinema here, but it closed a few
years ago.
 There is sure to be / There is bound to be / There is likely to be:
There is sure to be a flight to Rome tonight.

APARTADO 84C

IT y los tiempos gramáticos:


 It will be / It would be
 It must be / It must have been
 It might be / It might have been
 It should be / It should have been
 It used to be
 It is sure to be / It is bound to be / It is likely to be

Expresiones con IT
 It’s adjetivo to + infinitivo = es... It’s dangerous to cross the river.
 It takes / doesn’t take me (you/him/her/us/them) long to
+ infinitivo = (no) tardar mucho en hacer algo
 It’s a shame (that)+ una frase = es una pena que…
 It’s (not) worth + verbo ing = (no) vale la pena... (no) es digno de

IT para hablar de distancia y tiempo como periódo o clima:


 It’s stormy = There is a storm.
It’s cloudy = There is a cloud. There are clouds.
 It’s a It’s a long way from ….. to ….. = está lejos de ….. a …..
 It’s 5 days/a month/…since… = han pasado 5 días desde...
 It’s my/your/Mary’s birthday = es mi/tu cumple

What day is it today?


It’s windy today. It’s cold.
It is far from here to the airport.
UNIDAD 85 - SOME and ANY…
APARTADO 85A
SOME / SOMEBODY / SOMEONE / ANY /ANYBODY / ANYONE /
SOMETHING / SOMEWHERE ANYTHING /ANYWHERE
1. frases afirmativas 1. frases negativas:
- que tienen un verbo en forma negativa
I want to eat something. I don´t want anything to eat.
I bought some flowers. - que tienen significado negativo
There’s somebody at the door. I REFUSED to eat anything.
She went out WITHOUT any money.
It’s an easy exam. HARDLY anybody fails.
You’re lazy. You NEVER do anything.
APARTADO 85B
2. solo en algunas preguntas 2. en la mayoría de preguntas
- por personas o cosas cuando sabemos - por personas o cosas cuando no
o pensamos que existen sabemos si existen
Are you waiting for somebody? I can’t find my bag? Has anybody seen it?
Have you read any good books recently?
- ofreciendo algo o pidiendo algo
Would you like something to eat?
Can I have some sugar, please?
APARTADO 85C – cambia el significado de “any”
(mirar apartado 85D)
3.
- después de IF
If anyone has any questions, I’ll be
pleased to answer them.
Let me know if you need anything.
- en frases que tienen significado de
frases con IF (las podríamos convertir
en frases con IF)
I’m sorry for any trouble I’ve caused.
(=if I have caused any trouble)
APARTADO 85D
4. cualquier / cualquiera / lo que sea / en
cualquier parte, sitio / donde sea
You can take any bus. They all go to the
centre.
“Which song shall I sing?” “Any song.”
“Where shall we go?” “Anywhere.”
We forgot to lock the door. Anybody
could have come in.
APARTADO 85E
+ verbo en 3 persona singular PERO + they / them / their
Someone is here to see you.
Someone has forgotten their umbrella.
If anybody wants to leave early, they can.
UNIDAD 86 – NO/NONE/ANY…

APARTADO 86A – no / any / none


NO = not a / not any  ningún/a ANY = ningún/a
+ sustantivo + sustantivo o solo (sin sustantivo
+ verbos en forma afirmativa después pero en una frase – mirar la
There was no bus.(There wasn’t a bus.) siguiente parte).
There were no shops open.(weren’t any) + verbos en forma negativa
She will have no trouble finding a job. There wasn´t a/any bus.
There weren’t any shops open.
Sue won’t have any trouble finding a job.
NONE  nada, ninguno/a ANY
+ SIN sustantivo (solo, sin estar en una + SIN sustantivo (solo, pero tiene que
frase) aparecer en una frase)
-How much luggage do you have? -How much luggage do you have?
-None. -I don´t have any.
NONE OF ANY OF
1. nada de, + sustantivo incontable o
pronombre + verbo singular I haven’t seen any of the films you told
This money is all yours. None of the me about.
money / it is mine.
2. ninguno/a de, + sustantivo plural,
+ verbo plural o singular
None of the shops/ them were / was
open.
APARTADO 86B – nothing / nobody / nowhere
NOBODY/NO(-)ONE → nadie ANYBODY/ANYONE → nadie
NOTHING → nada ANYTHING → nada
NOWHERE → en ninguna parte ANYWHERE → en ninguna parte
NUNCA con verbo negativo!!! con verbo negativo!!!
There’s nobody living there.
We had nothing to eat. There isn’t anybody living there.
I said nothing. We didn’t have anything to eat.
I didn’t say anything.
Estas palabras pueden aparecer en
cualquier parte de la frase: Estas palabras pueden aparecer solo
- al principio como sujeto como comlemento del verbo.
Nobody knows.
- después del verbo como objeto
Jane told nobody about her plans.
- solas, como respuestas a ciertas
preguntas
-“What’s going to happen?”
-“Nothing.”
APARTADO 86C – they / them / their
+ verbo en 3 persona singular PERO + they / them / their
Nobody is perfect, are they?
No-one does what I asked them to do.
Nobody in the class did their homework.
OTROS:
1 2

1. Sue is very secretive. She never tells anyone/anybody anything.


- después del verbo ‘tell’ primero hay que poner la persona.
- al tener en la frase la palabra ‘never’, no podemos utilizar las palabras
que empiezen con ‘no-’ porque crearíamos la DOBLE NEGACIÓN.
(never tells = doesn’t tell)

2. There was a complete silence in the room. No-one/Nobody said anything.


- anyone / anybody/anything no aparecen el principio de la frase (como
sujeto) en sentido negativo (ningún/ninguna)
- cuando ‘No-one’ o ‘Nobody’ aparecen en una frase como sujeto, el
complemento tiene que empezar con ‘any-’ porque no podemos tener
DOBLE NEGACIÓN (dos palabras que empiezen con ‘no-’

3. The exam is very easy. Anybody could pass it.


The exam is very difficult. Nobody could pass it. (Anybody couldn’t pass it.)

- Who passed the exam?


- Nobody. (Anybody.)

- I’m hungry. I want something to eat.


- What would you like to eat?
- I don’t mind. Anything.

‘Anything’, ‘Anyone’, ‘Anybody’ pueden aparecer al principio de una frase


como su sujeto o solas sin estar en una frase (sin estar acompañadas por
otras palabras) cuando significan: ‘cualquier/-a’, ‘el/la que sea’, ‘quien sea’.
UNIDAD 87 - MUCH, MANY, LITTLE, FEW,

CONTABLE PLURAL INCONTABLE


APARTADO 87A
MANY – muchos, muchas MUCH – mucho, mucha
FEW – pocos, pocas LITTLE – poco, poca
I have many friends. I don’t have much time today.
I have few friends here. I have little time today.
A LOT OF / LOTS OF – muchos, muchas, mucho
I have a lot of / lots of friends.
I have a lot of / lots of time today.
PLENTY OF – más que suficiente, de sobra
We’ve got plenty of time.

…………. + TO infinitivo
 plenty + to infinitivo: We’ve got plenty to do
 much + to infinitivo: Did it cost much to fix your phone?
 little + to infinitivo: We´ve got little to do.
 a lot + to infinitivo: It costs a lot to travel.

Una frase + much / little / a lot / lots . He works a lot.


APARTADO 87B
MANY y A LOT OF usamos en MUCH – en preguntas y frases
todas las frases (afirmativas, negativas (en afirmativas NO!!!)
negativas y preguntas) A LOT OF – en todas las frases
I know many/a lot of people. I spent a lot of money.
Do you know many/a lot of people? John works a lot.
I don’t know many/a lot of people. It costs a lot to buy a house.
siempre: Did you spend much/a lot of money?
many+ YEARS/WEEKS/DAYS I didn’t spend much/a lot of money.

PERO:
I love you very much.
I want it so much!
APARTADO 87C y 87D
FEW- pocos/as, no muchos/as, LITTLE – poco/a, no mucho/a,
NO SUFICIENTE NO SUFICIENTE
A FEW – pocos/as, no muchos/as, A LITTLE – poco/a, no mucho/a,
PERO SUFICIENTE PERO SUFICIENTE
She’s lucky. She has few problems. He spoke little English, so it was difficult
She is worried. She has a few problems. to communicate with him.
ONLY + a few He spoke a little English, so we were able
There were only a few houses. to communicate with him.
VERY + few ONLY + a little
Hurry up! We only have a little time.
VERY + little
UNIDAD 88 - ALL, ALL OF / MOST, MOST OF /
NO, NONE OF…

APARTADO 88A – en general


all – todos, todas
some – algunos, algunas
any – algún, alguna, algunos, algunas + SUSTANTIVO
most – la mayoría de all cars, some people
much / many – mucho, mucha, muchos, muchas most tourists
little / few – poco, poca, pocos, pocas
no – ningún, ninguna, ningunos, ningunas
APARTADO 88B – en particular
all, some, any, most,
much / many, + OF + the/this/that/these/those/
little / few, determinantes posesivos (my, your, his,
none her, its, our, their) + SUSTANTIVO
half – la mitad de all of the cars, some of the people

EXEPCIONES:
ALL y HALF + OF (pero OF no es obligatorio) all the cars = all of the cars
half this money = half of this money

DIFERENCIA ENTRE EL APARTADO 88A y 88B:


ALL, MOST etc. + SUSTANTIVO (general)
ALL (OF), HALF (OF), MOST OF etc. + the/this... + SUSTANTIVO
(específico, después puede venir una descripción del sustantivo)
All flowers are beautiful. ≠ All (of) the flowers in this garden are beautiful.
Most problems have solution. ≠ We were able to solve most of the problems we had.
APARTADO 88C
all of / some of / none of / half of / a few of etc. + PRONOMBRES
(it / us / you / them)
All of us were late.
I haven’t finished the book yet. I’ve only read half of it.
APARTADO 88D
a few / half / some / most etc. – pueden aparecer solas (sin ningún
sustantivo o pronombre) para no repetir las mismas palabras dos veces
Some cars have four doors and some have two.
A few shops were open, but most (of them) were closed.
Half this money is mine,and half (of it) is yours.
UNIDAD 89 - BOTH, NEITHER, EITHER

APARTADO 89A – both / neither / either

BOTH – los dos/las dos/ambos/ambas +sustantivo PLURAL: I like both


restaurants. o solo: I like both.

NEITHER – niguno, ninguna (de los dos) + sustantivo SINGULAR: Neither


EITHER – cualquiera (de los dos) restaurant is expensive. o solo:
Which of these two restaurants is
expensive? Neither.
We can go to either restaurant. I don’t mind.
Do you want tea or coffee? Either. I don’t mind.

APARTADO 89B – both OF / neither OF / either OF

BOTH OF + the/these/those/ determinantes posesivos (my, your,


NEITHER OF his, her, its, our, their) / Tom’s + sustantivo PLURAL
EITHER OF I like both of the restaurants.
+ PRONOMBRES (us/you/them): I like both of them.

EXEPCIONES:
 both OF my parents = both my parents!!!!!!! significa lo mismo

 neither of + sustantivo PLURAL + verbo singular o plural Neither of


the children wants / want to go to bed. !!!!!!!!

APARTADO 89C

Tres parejas de palabras + sustantivos, verbos, adjetivos, frases:

1. BOTH … AND … - tanto … como … , a la vez … y …


Both Chris and Paul were late.
I was both tired and hungry.

2. NEITHER … NOR … - ni … ni …
Neither Chris nor Paul came to the party.
There was an accident but we neither saw nor heard anything.

3. EITHER … OR … - o … o …
I’m not sure where Maria’s from. She’s either Spanish or Italian.
Either you apologise, or I’ll never speak to you again.
APARTADO 89D – dos o más
(diferencia entre either/neither/both y any/none/all)

Hablando de 2 cosas Hablando de 3 cosas o más


EITHER OF THEM – cualquiera ANY OF THEM – cualquiera
There are two good hotels here. You There are many good hotels here. You
can stay at either of them. can stay at any of them.
NEITHER OF THEM – ninguno/a NONE OF THEM – ninguno/a
We tried two hotels. Neither of them We tried a lot of hotels. None of them
had any rooms. had any rooms.
BOTH OF THEM – ambos/as ALL OF THEM – todos/as
We tried two hotels. Both of them We tried a lot of hotels. All of them
were full. were full.
UNIT 90 - ALL, EVERY, WHOLE

APARTADO 90A – all/everybody como sujeto


ALL + of + pronombre – todos/todas
EVERYBODY/EVERYONE – cada uno/una, todos/todas
Everybody/Everyone had a great time. = All of us/you/them had a great time.
Everybody in our class passed.
NO SE PUEDE DECIR: All had a great time./ Everybody of us !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

APARTADO 90B – all/everything como complemento


ALL, EVERYTHING – todo
- EVERYTHING puede aparecer solo: He thinks he knows everything.
- ALL normalmente no aparece solo; después de ALL ponemos una
frase: all I can, all you need
- después de EVERYTHING también puede ir una frase: I’ll do all I
can to help. = I’ll do everything I can to help.
- (know, tell, ask…) ALL + ABOUT – todo sobre: He knows all about
computers.
- ALL y EVERYTHING como sujeto:
1. ALL (no everything) al principio de la frase cuando significa
“la única cosa” = THE ONLY THING
ALL + descipción (sujeto+verbo) + verbo principal
All I’ve eaten today is a sandwich. All I had was ten dollars.
2. EVERYTHING + verbo + el resto de la frase
Everything is the same. (todo)

APARTADO 90C
EVERY/EVERYBODY/EVERYONE/EVERYTHING + verbo singular
PERO EVERYBODY/EVERYONE + they/them/their
Everybody is saying they are enjoying themselves at the party.

APARTADO 90D – whole/all


WHOLE – todo, entero (no se suele usar con incontables)
- a / the / determinantes posesivos + whole + sustantivos
contables singulares
I read the whole book.
Emily has lived her whole life in the same town. (= all her life)
ALL – todo,entero
- all + the / determinantes posesivos + sustantivos
contables singulares e incontables
I’ve spent all the money.
Emily has lived all her life in the same town. (= her whole life)
APARTADO 90E
EVERY – CADA, hablando de frecuencia: every day, every Monday, every
ten minutes, every three weeks…

ALL ... / THE WHOLE ... – TODO, ENTERO:


all day (all the day) = the whole day (todo el día, el día entero),
all evening (all the evening) =the whole evening, all week=the whole week

ALL THE TIME – todo el tiempo: They never go out. They are at home all the time.
EVERY TIME – cada vez: Every time I see you, you look different.
UNIDAD 91-EACH and EVERY
EACH EVERY
APARTADO 91A
En muchas frases se puede usar las dos palabras:
Each time / Every time I see you, you look different.
There are computers in each classroom / every classroom.
CADA UNO/UNA TODOS/TODAS (~all)
- pensando en cada una de las - pensando en las cosas/personas
cosas/personas por separado como un conjunto

- cuando la cantidad de - cuando la cantidad de


cosas/personas es pequeña cosas/personas es grande

- cuando las cosas son solo dos o - cuando hay más de dos cosas
más de dos
- hablando de frecuencia: every
day, every ten minutes
APARTADO 91B
- en las frases puede aparecer - no puede aparecer solo en las
acompañado por un sustantivo o frases, siempre tiene que estar
solo: Each room was different. / Each acompañado por algún sustantivo
was different. o por la palabra “one”

- each one: Each one was different. - every one:


- ‘Have you read all these books?’
- ‘Yes, every one.’

- each of + the/these/those + - every ONE of + the/these/those +


sustantivo o pronombre: Each of sustantivo o pronombre: I’ve read
the rooms was a different colour. / every one of those books. / I’ve read
Each of them was a different colour. every one of them.

APARTADO 91C
- podemos utilizar en cualquier
parte de la frase (al principio, en
el medio, al final)
APARTADO 91D
EVERYONE =EVERYBODY (todos)
– se refiere solamente a la gente
Everyone enjoyed the party.
EVERY ONE=EACH ONE (cada
uno/una) – se refiere a las cosas
pero también las personas
She is invited to lots of parties and she
goes to every one.
UNIDAD 92 - RELATIVE CLAUSES 1: WHO/THAT/WHICH
APARTADO 92A – WHO y THAT

WHO / THAT – se refiere a las PERSONAS y sustituye ‘he/she/they’


The woman – SHE lives next door – is a doctor.
The woman who/that lives next door is a doctor.

APARTADO 92B – WHICH y THAT

WHICH / THAT – se refiere a las COSAS y sustituye ‘it’


Where is the cheese? – IT was in the fridge
Where is the cheese which /that was in the fridge?
(se suele usar más ‘that’ que ‘which’, pero a veces es obligatorio usar
‘which’)

APARTADO 92C

En ‘relative clauses’ no podemos utilizar ‘he/she/they/it’. Estos


pronombres los reemplazamos con ‘who, that, which’.

APARTADO 92D - WHAT

WHAT = THE THING(S) THAT – LO QUE, pero solamente cuando


‘what’ es la primera palabra de la frase
What happened was my fault. = The thing that happened was my fault.
/ Everything that happened was my fault.
Did you hear what they said? = Did you hear everything that they said?
UNIDAD 93 - RELATIVE CLAUSES 2: WHO/THAT/WHICH
APARTADO 93A – who/that/which como SUJETOS

The woman who/that lives next door is a doctor. ‘who,that,which’


Where is the cheese which/that was in the fridge? son sujetos, por
eso no podemos
omitirlos

APARTADO 93B – who/that/which como COMPLEMENTOS

The woman who I wanted to see was away on holiday. ‘who,that’ son
The woman I wanted to see was away on holiday. complementos,
Have you found the keys that you lost? por eso pueden
Have you found the keys you lost? omitir

APARTADO 93C – preposiciones con WHO, THAT y WHICH

El lugar de preposiciones en relative clauses – después del verbo:


Tom is talking to a woman – do you know her?
Do you know the woman (who/that) Tom is talking to?
I slept in a bed last night – it wasn’t very comfortable.
The bed (which/that) I slept in last night wasn’t very comfortable.

APARTADO 93D – WHAT (UNIDAD 92D)

Everything (that) they said was true. nunca ‘what’


I gave her all the money (that) I had.

Did you hear what they said? = the thing that they said
UNIDAD 94 - RELATIVE CLAUSES 3:
WHOSE/WHOM/WHERE
APARTADO 94A - WHOSE

WHOSE – se refiere mayormente a las PERSONAS, lo utilizamos para


indicar la POSESIÓN (de quien es...). Sustituye ‘his/her/their’.
I met a man who knows you.
I met a man – HIS sister knows you.
I met a man whose sister knows you.

APARTADO 94B - WHOM

WHOM - se refiere a las PERSONAS. Susituye ‘him/her/them’.


Lo utilizamos:
- para sustituir ‘who’ cuando aparece como el complemento del
verbo de relative clauses, pero es una palabra muy formal y no
se suele utilizarla mucho
George is a person whom/who/that I admire very much.
(I admire HIM)
- con preposiciones
I like the people with whom I work. (I work with THEM)
I like the people who/that I work with.

APARTADO 94C - WHERE

WHERE – se refiere a los LUGARES


I recently went back to the town where I grew up.
I recently went back to the town (that) I grew up in.

APARTADO 94D - THAT

THE DAY/THE YEAR/THE TIME etc.+ (that) something happens


The last time (that) I saw Anna, she looked great.
I can’t meet you on Friday. That’s the day (that) I’m going away.

APARTADO 94E – the reason…

THE REASON + (that/why) something happens


The reason (that/why) I’m phoning is to ask your advice.
UNIDAD 95 - RELATIVE CLAUSES 4:
EXTRA INFORMATION CLAUSES (1)

APARTADO 95A
RELATIVE CLAUSES 1 RELATIVE CLAUSES 2
sin comas con comas
definen la persona o cosa, de la solamente aportan una
cual alquien está hablando. Sin información adicional, que no es
esta explicación no sabríamos a necesaria para entender a quien
quien o a que se refiere la o a que se refiere la persona que
persona que está hablando. está hablando.

The woman who lives next door is My sister, who lives next door, is
a doctor. a doctor.

APARTADO 95B

RELATIVE CLAUSES 1 RELATIVE CLAUSES 2


sin comas con comas
- se puede utilizar - no se puede utilizar ‘that’ , es
‘who/that/which’ u omitirlos: obligatorio utilizar ‘who,which’
(no se puede omitirlos)

This morning I met somebody This morning I met Chris, who I


(who/that) I hadn’t seen for hadn’t seen for ages.
ages.

- no se suele utilizar ‘whom’ - se puede utilizar ‘whom’ como


complemento
This morning I met Chris, whom I
hadn’t seen for ages.

APARTADO 95C

RELATIVE CLAUSES 1 RELATIVE CLAUSES 2


sin comas con comas
- se puede utilizar ‘whose, where’ - se puede utilizar ‘whose,where’

We met some people whose car Lisa, whose car had broken
had broken down. down, was in a very bad mood.
UNIDAD 96 - RELATIVE CLAUSES 5:
EXTRA INFORMATION CLAUSES (2)

APARTADO 96A
ESTILO FORMAL: preposiciones antes de ‘WHOM’ (personas) y
‘WHICH’ (cosas)
Mr Lee, to whom I spoke at the meeting, is very interested in our
proposal.
ESTILO INFORMAL: preposiciones en frases con ‘WHO’ y
‘WHICH’ después del verbo
This is my friend from Canada, who I was telling you about.

APARTADO 96B
ALL OF / MOST OF / NONE OF /
NEITHER OF / ANY OF / EITHER OF /
SOME OF / MANY OF / MUCH OF / + WHOM (personas)
(A) FEW OF / BOTH OF / HALF OF / + WHICH (cosas)
EACH OF / ONE OF / TWO OF etc.

THE CAUSE OF / THE NAME OF + WHICH


Ejemplos en el libro

APARTADO 96C

WHICH = THE FACT THAT (nunca ‘what’)


Joe got the job. THIS surprised everybody.
Joe got the job, which surprised everybody.

Sarah couldn’t meet us, which was a shame.


The weather was good, which we hadn’t expected.
UNIDAD 97 – ‘-ING‘ and ‘–ED’ CLAUSES

APARTADO 97B – ‘-ING’ clasues

-ING CLAUSES:
- para decir que alguien o algo está o estaba haciendo algo en
un momento particular
Do you know the woman talking to Tom? (=who is talking to Tom)
- para decir que “algo sucede todo el tiempo”, para describir
una situación continua
The road connecting the two villages is very narrow. (= which
connects the two villages)
Can you think of the name of a flower beginning with T?

APARTADO 97C – ‘-ed’ clauses

-ED CLAUSES:
- los verbos tienen forma del PARTICIPIO
- las frases tienen significado de LA PASIVA
The boy injured in the accident was taken to the hospital.
(= who was injured)

APARTADO 97D – THERE IS and THERE ARE, LEFT

-ING CLAUSES y –ED CLAUSES: se suele usarlas después de


‘THERE IS’ y ‘THERE ARE’
There were some children swimming in the river.
Is there anybody waiting?
There was a big red car parked outside the house.

LEFT = NOT USED, STILL HERE (queda/quedan)


We’ve eaten nearly all the chocolates. There are only a few left.
UNIDAD 98 – ADJECTIVES ending in –ING and -ED
adjetivos –ing: se refieren adjetivos –ed: se refieren a las
NORMALMENTE a las cosas personas y nos indican como
(solamente a veces a las están estas personas, el efecto
personas) y nos indican que causado
efecto causan estas cosas
boring – aburrido bored (with) – aburrido
The class is very boring. The students are bored.
The teacher is boring.
interesting – interesante interested (in) – interesado
The class is very interesting. The students are interested.
The teacher is interesting.
tiring - agotador tired (of/from/gerundio) –
agotado, cansado
satisfying - satisfactorio satisfied (with) - satisfecho
depressing - deprimente depressed (about/because of) –
deprimido
disappointing - decepcionante disappointed (by/with) –
decepcionado
shocking – chocante, shocked (by/when) –
impresionante traumatizado, impresionado
exhausting - agotador exhausted (by/from) - agotado
exciting - emocionante excited (about) - emocionado
amazing - asombroso amazed (by/when) - asombrado
embarrassing - embarazoso embarrassed (by) - avergonzado
amusing – divertido, gracioso amused (by) - entretenido
terrifying - aterrador terrified (at/of) - aterrorizado
confusing – confuso confused (about/by)- confundido
disgusting – repugnante, disgusted (by) – asqueado,
indignante indignado
surprising - sorprendente surprised (by) - sorprendido
annoying – fastidioso, pesado annoyed (by)- enfadado, molesto
1. He never stops talking and he never says anything __________ .
a) interesting b) interested
2. The kitchen hadn’t been cleaned for ages. It was
really__________ .
a) disgusted b) disgusting
3. I’m so __________ about my new job.
a) exciting b) excited
4. It’s __________ when you have to ask people for money.
a) embarrassed b) embarrassing
5. The new teacher is so __________. I always fall asleep during his
lectures.
a) boring b) bored
6. I had never expected to get the job. I was really __________
when I was offered it.
a) amazed b) amazing
7. I’ve got nothing to do. I’m __________
a) boring b) bored
8. I’m very shy. I easily get __________
a) embarrassed b) embarrassing
9. I don’t visit art galleries very often. I’m not particularly
__________ in art.
a) interested b) interesting
10. Everybody was __________ that he passed the exam.
a) surprised b) surprising
11. Helen is a very __________ person. She knows a lot and she’s
travelled a lot.
a) interested b) interesting
12. Is your life really so __________?
a) boring b) bored
13. The new job sounds _________.
a) exciting b) excited
14. It was __________ that he passed the exam.
a) surprised b) surprising
UNIDAD 99 – EL ORDEN DE LOS ADJETIVOS

OPSISHACOMP
OP – opinion (opinión)
SI – size (tamaño)
SH – shape (forma)
A – age (edad)
C – colour (color)
O – origin (origen)
M – material (material)
P – purpose (uso)

APARTADO 99A
OPINION ADJECTIVES – adjetivos que expresan una opinión personal sobre
algo o alguien
FACT ADJECTIVES – adjetivos que definen propriedades de algo o alguien, nos
aportan una información sobre la edad, el tamaño, el color,
el material etc.

Normalmente los adjetivos de la opinión ponemos antes de los adjetivos de


la información:
an interesting young man delicious hot vegetable soup
a beautiful large round wooden table

APARTADO 99B
El orden de los FACT ADJECTIVES:
1. tamaño
2. edad
3. color
4. origen
5. material
a tall young man, big blue eyes, an old Russian song, an old white cotton shirt

El orden de los ADJETIVOS DEL TAMAÑO:


1. tamaño y longitud
2. forma y anchura
a large round table, a tall thin girl, a long narrow street

Si en una frase hay dos o más ADJETIVOS DE COLOR, juntamos los dos
últimos con ‘AND’
a black and white dress, a red, white and green flag
APARTADO 99C
Después de los siguientes verbos hay que usar adjetivos:
be / get / become / seem:
Be careful! / I’m getting hungry. / Your friend seems very nice.
look / feel / sound / taste / smell
You look tired. / I feel tired. / She sounds tired.
/ The dinner smells good. / This tea tastes a bit strange.

PERO: Es obligatorio usar adverbios con los verbos que describen como
alguien hace algo: Drive carefully! Susan plays the piano very well.

APARTADO 99D
1. Adjetivos del orden en el tiempo
2. Adjetivos de la cantidad
I didn’t enjoy the first two days of the course.
They’ll be away for the next few weeks.
I always spend the last ten minutes of my workday staring at the clock.
UNIDAD 100 – ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS 1
APARTADO 100A – adjectivo + ‘-LY’ = adverbio

ADJETIVO + LY = ADVERBIO
quick → quickly , serious → seriously, careful → carefully, quiet→ quietly,
heavy → heavily, bad→ badly
No todas las palabras que se terminan con ‘-ly’ son adverbios:
friendly –simpático, acogedor
lively – animado (person, conversation), vivo (imagination, interest)
elderly - anciano
lonely – solo
silly- tonto
lovely – bonito, precioso, encantador

APARTADO 100B – be / look / feel / sound

ADJETIVOS ADVERBIOS
Se refieren a los sustantivos Se refieren a los verbos
Sam is a careful driver. Sam drove carefully.
The heavy rain. It was raining heavily.
She speaks perfect English. She speaks English perfectly.
PERO se puede utilizar los adjetivos
después de algunos verbos
(BE / LOOK / FEEL / SOUND etc.)
Please be quiet. Please speak quietly.
I was disappointed that my exam results I was unhappy that I did so badly in the
were so bad. exam.
Why do you always look so serious? Why do you never take me seriously?
I feel happy. The children were playing happily.

APARTADO 100C – adverbios antes de los adjetivos

Adverbios antes de adjetivos u otros adverbios:


It’s a reasonably cheap restaurant and the food is extremely good.
I’m terribly sorry.
Maria learns languages incredibly quickly.

Adverbios antes de participios:


Two people were seriously injured in the accident.
The meeting was badly organised.
UNIDAD 101 – ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS 2
APARTADO 101A – good / well
GOOD (adjectivo) / WELL (adverbio)
Your English is good. = You speak English well.
Susan is a good pianist. = Susan plays the piano well.

‘WELL’ – lo usamos con:


- participios: well-dressed, well-known, well-educated, well-paid
- con el verbo ‘be’ como un adjetivo (=in good health):
How are you today? I’m very well, thanks.

APARTADO 101B – fast, hard, late


FAST / HARD / LATE → son adjetivos y adverbios a la vez
Daren is a very fast runner. Darren can run very fast.
Kate is a hard worker. Kate works hard.
I was late. I got up late this morning.

LATELY = RECENTLY – ultimamente


Have you seen Tom lately?

APARTADO 101C - hard / hardly


HARDLY = VERY LITTLE, ALMOST NOT - apenas
Sarah wasn’t very friendly at the party. She hardly spoke to me.
We’ve only met once or twice. We hardly know each other.

HARDLY no significa lo mismo que HARD


He tried hard to find a job, but he had no luck.
I’m not surprised he didn’t find a job. He hardly tried.

I CAN HARDLY + infinitivo – es dificil para mí hacer algo, casi imposible


Your writing is terrible. I can hardly read it.
My leg was hurting. I could hardly walk.

APARTADO 101D – hardly + any


HARDLY + ANY / ANYBODY / ANYONE / ANYTHING / ANYWHERE – casi
How much money have we got? Hardly any.
The exam results were very bad. Hardly anybody in our class passed.

ORDEN DE LAS PALABRAS:


She said hardly anything. = She hardly said anything.
We’ve got hardly any money. = We’ve hardly got any money.

HARDLY EVER – casi nunca: I hardly ever got out.

HARDLY = CERTAINLY NOT – seguramente no (no puede…)


It’s hardly surprising that you’re tired. You haven’t slept for three days.
The situation is serious, but it’s hardly a crisis.
UNIDAD 102 – SO and SUCH
APARTADO 102A
SO (realmente) SUCH (realmente)
+ adjetivo o adverbio + a/an + (adjetivo) +
sustantivos singulares
The story was so stupid. It was such a (stupid) story.

+ (adjetivo) + sustantivos
plurales o incontables
They are so nice. They are such (nice) people.

APARTADO 102B
SO (tan) SUCH (tan)
so + adjetivo o adverbio + (that) such + a/an + (adjetivo) +
sustantivos singulares + (that)
The book was so good (that) I couldn’t It was such a good book (that) I couldn’t
put it down. put it down.

such + (adjetivo) + sustantivos


plurales o incontables + (that)
It was such nice weather (that) we spent
the whole day on the beach.

APARTADO 102C
SO (así) SUCH (así)
The house was built 100 years ago. I I didn’t realise it was such an old house.
didn’t realise it was so old.
How can you say such a thing?

no + such + sustantivo
There´s no such word.

APARTADO 102D
SO SUCH
SO LONG SUCH A LONG TIME
I haven’t seen her for so long. I haven´t seen her for such a long time.

SO FAR SUCH A LONG WAY


I didn´t know it was so far. I didn´t know it was such a long way.

SO MUCH / SO MANY SUCH A LOT (OF)


There was so muc h traffic. There was such a lot of traffic.
UNIDAD 103 – ENOUGH and TOO
APARTADO 103ª – ENGOUGH con adjectivos, adverbios y verbos;
TOO con adjetivos y adverbios
adjetivo o adverbio + enough (suficiente)
I can’t run very far. I’m not fit enough.
Let’s go. We’ve waited long enough.

not + verbo + adjetivo o adverbio + enough (no suficiente)


You’re lazy. You don’t work hard enough.

too + adjetivo o adverbio (demasiado)


You never stop working. You work too hard.

APARTADO 103B – ENOUGH con sustantivos o solo;


TOO MUCH/MANY
enough + sustantivo (suficiente)
I can’t run very far. I don’t have enough energy.
We have enough petrol. We don’t have to stop.

enough SOLO
We don’t need to stop for petrol. We have enough.

too much / too many vs. enough


There’s too much furniture. There’s not enough space.
There were too many people and not enough chairs.

APARTADO 103C – ENOUGH/TOO + FOR y TO


enough / too + for + alguien / algo (suficiente / demasiado para )
Does Joe have enough experience for the job?
That shirt is too small for you.

enough / too + to + verbo (suficiente / demasiado para hacer algo)


Does Joe have enough experience to do the job?
She’s too young to have a driving licence.

enough / too + for + sustantivo/pronombre + to + verbo


The bridge is just wide enough for two cars to pass each other.

APARTADO 103D – SO / TOO + pronombres


The food was very hot. We couldn’t eat it.
The food was so hot that we couldn’t eat it.
The food was too hot to eat it.
UNIDAD 104 – QUITE, PRETTY, RATHER, FAIRLY
APARTADO 104A
QUITE / PRETTY / RATHER / FAIRLY + adjetivos o adverbios - bastante

APARTADO 104B – QUITE vs. PRETTY


QUITE - más formal
PRETTY - menos formal, utilizado mayormente en el inglés hablado
- quite / pretty + adjetivo o adverbio
She’s quite / pretty famous.
Anna lives quite near me, so we see each other pretty often.
- quite+a/an+adjetivo+sustantivo pero a+pretty+adjetivo+sustantivo
Sarah has quite a good job. Sarah has a pretty good job.
- quite + a/an + sustantivo
I didn’t expect to see them. It was quite a surprise.
- quite + a lot (of)
There were quite a lot of people at the meeting.
- quite + verbo (especialmente ‘like’ y ‘enjoy’)
I quite like tennis, but it’s not my favourite sport.

APARTADO 104C - RATHER


RATHER
- para conceptos negativos, cuando pensamos que algo no es/está
bueno
The weather isn’t good. It’s rather cloudy. (quite / pretty cloudy)
Paul is rather shy. He doesn’t talk very much. (quite / pretty shy)
- para conceptos positivos (con adjetivos good / nice etc.), cuando algo
es/está extraordinariamente o sorprendentemente bueno.
These oranges are rather good. Where did you get them?

APARTADO 104D - FAIRLY


FAIRLY es menos fuerte que las otras tres palablas, por ejemplo si algo es
‘fairly good’ significa que es bueno o está bien, pero no muy bueno o no muy
bien, y podría ser mejor.
My room is fairly big, but I’d prefer a bigger one.
We see each other fairly often, but not as often as we used to.

APARTADO E – QUITE = completely


QUITE – completamente
- quite + sure, certain, right, wrong, true, safe, clear, obvious,
different, unnecessary, incredible, extraordinary,
amazing, impossible
- quite + algunos verbos I quite agree with you.

NOT QUITE – no completamente


They haven’t quite finished eating yet.
I don’t quite understand what you mean.
‘Are you ready yet?’ ‘Not quite.’
UNIDAD 105 – COMPARISON 1
APARTADO 105A – ejemplos

It’s cheaper to drive than go by train.


Going by train is more expensive than driving.

APARTADO 105B – reglas

-ER / -IER MORE + adjetivo


- palabras de una sílaba - palabras de dos sílabas o más
cheap – cheaper fast - faster more serious more comfortable
thin – thinner large - larger
- adverbios que se terminan con –ly
- palabras de dos sílabas que se more slowly more quietly
terminan con –y
lucky – luckier easy - easier
con algunos adjetivos de dos sílabas podemos utilisar
las dos formas del comparativo
clever – cleverer / more clever shallow – shallower / more shallow
narrow – narrower / more narrow simple – simpler / more simple
quiet – quieter / more quiet

APARTADO 105C – adjetivos y adverbios irregulares

ADJETIVOS y ADVERBIOS IRREGULARES:


- good / well → BETTER
- bad / badly → WORSE
- far → FARTHER / FURTHER
farther = further – más lejano, más lejos
further – más, otro: Let me know if you hear any further news. (=any more)
UNIDAD 106 – COMPARISON 2
APARTADO 106A – much,a lot, fat, a bit, a little, slightely

MUCH / A LOT / FAR - mucho + comparativo


A BIT / A LITTLE / SLIGHTLY – un poco
‘How do you feel?’ ‘Much better, thanks.’
Could you speak a bit/a little more slowly?
This bag is slightly heavier than the other one.
Her illness was far /much / a lot more serious than we thought at first.

APARTADO 106B – any, no


any / no + comparativo
I’m not waiting any longer. – más
Do you feel any better? – algo major
We expected their apartment to be very big, but it’s no bigger than ours.
but it isn’t any bigger than ours.

APARTADO 106C – comparativo AND comparativo

Se puede repetir dos comparativos (juntandolos con ‘and’) cuando queremos


decir que algo se está cambiando continuamente.
Your English is improving. It’s getting better and better,
These days more and more people are learning English.

APARTADO 106D – THE comparativo THE BETTER/comparativo

THE + comparativo … THE + better - … mejor, lo más/menos … posible


‘What time shall we leave?’ ‘The sooner the better.’
When you’re travelling, the less luggage you have the better.

THE + comparativo … THE + comparativo … - para decir que una cosa


depende de la otra; para expresar lo mismo, que expresaríamos con los
condicionales.
The sooner we leave, the earlier we will arrive. (=if we leave sooner, we will arrive
earlier).
The younger you are, the easier it is to learn.
The more expensive the hotel, the better the service.

APARTADO 106E – older/elder


old – OLDER / ELDER - los usamos cuando hablamos de los miembros
de una familia
My elder / older sister is a TV producer.

PERO no podemos usar ‘elder’ en las frases de este tipo:


My sister is older than me.
UNIDAD 107 – COMPARISON 3
APARTADO 107A
comparativo (+sustantivo)+THAN pero NOT AS + positivo (+sustantivo) (+AS)
- tan (tanto)
Joe is richer than David. But he isn’t as rich as Sarah.
Jack looks older than he is. But he isn’t as old as he looks.
Yesterday was colder than today. It’s not as cold. The weather is better today.
You know more people than me. I don’t know as many people as you do.

NOT AS = NOT SO … (AS) pero ‘so’ solamente en frases negativas


It’s not warm, but it isn’t so/as cold as yesterday.

LESS (+ sustantivo / adjetivo positive) THAN – menos que …


I spent less money than you.
The city centre was less crowded than usual.
I play tennis less than I used to.

APARTADO 107B
AS + positivo (+sustantivo) + AS – en frases positivas y preguntas
I’m sorry I’m late. I got here as fast as I could.
Let’s walk. It’s just as quick as taking the bus.
Can you send me the information as soon as possible, please?

TWICE/THREE TIMES AS + positive (+sustantivo) + AS


Petrol is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago.

APARTADO 107C
THE SAME (+sustantivo) AS – igual que
Laura’s salary is the same as mine. = Laura gets the same salary as me.
David is the same age as James.

APARTADO 107D
THAN ME = THAN I AM
You’re taller than me. = You’re taller than I am.
UNIDAD 108 – SUPERLATIVES
APARTADO 108A - reglas

THE –EST / -IEST THE MOST


- palabras de una sílaba - palabras de dos sílabas o más
long – the longest hot – the hottest famous –the most famous

- palabras de dos sílabas que se - adverbios que se terminan con –ly


terminan con –y slowly – the most slowly
easy – the easiest
adjetivos irregulares:
good – the best bad – the worst far – the furthest / the farthest

APARTADO 108B – the + superlativos

Normalmente ponemos ‘THE’ antes de los superlativos.

APARTADO 108C – oldest/eldest

OLD – OLDEST / ELDEST (pero ‘eldest’ solamente cuando hablamos de los


miembros de una familia):
That church is the oldest building in the town.
Are you the eldest/oldest in your family?
My eldest/oldest son is 13 years old.

APARTADO 108D – superlativos + IN/OF

superlativos + IN + lugares / organizaciones / grupos de personas


What’s the longest river in the world?
superlativos + OF + periodos de tiempo
Yesterday was the hottest day of the year.

APARTADO 108E –superlativos + Present Perfect

Después de los superlativos usamos a menudo PRESENTE PERFECTO:


What is the most important decision you’ve ever had to make?
That was the best holiday I’ve had for a long time.
UNIDAD 109 – EL ORDEN DE LAS PALABRAS (parte 1)

APARTADO 109A – verbo + complemento

Normalmente el verbo y el complemento siempre van juntos en todo tipo de


frases y no podemos poner otras palabras entre ellos.

verbo + complemento
I like my job very much.
Did you see your friends yesterday?
Where did you see your friends yesterday?
Helen never drinks coffee.

APARTADO 109B – lugar y tiempo

Cuando en una frase tenemos un verbo, un lugar y una indicación de tiempo,


normalmente el verbo y el lugar van juntos. La indicación de tiempo viene
después del lugar.

verbo + lugar + tiempo


Ben walks to work every morning.
Sam has been in Canada since April.
We arrived at the ariport early.

PERO:
A veces es posible poner la indicación de tiempo al principio de la frase.
Every morning Ben walks to school.
On Monday I’m going to Paris.

Si aparte del lugar y la indicación de tiempo aparece un complemento, lo


ponemos justo después del verbo.

verbo + complemento + lugar + tiempo


Sarah gave me a lift home after the party.
I met John in the street yesterday.
UNIDAD 110 – EL ORDEN DE LAS PALABRAS (parte 2)

APARTADO 110A y 110B – adverbios


con los tiempos de solamente 1 verbo

En los tiempos de solo 1 verbo, ponemos los adverbios antes del verbo.

adverbio + verbo
Helen always drives to work.
I almost fell down the stairs.
I cleaned the house and also cooked the dinner.
“Shall I give you my address?” “No,I already have it.

PERO:
Cuando en la frase aparece ‘BE’, ponemos los adverbios después del verbo.

verbo BE + adverbio
We were also hungry.
You are never on time.
The traffic isn’t usually that bad.

APARTADO 110C – adverbios con los modales, negaciones


y los tiempos de 2 o más verbos

Con los modales, en las frases negativas y en los tiempos de dos o más
verbos, normalmente ponemos los adverbios después del primer verbo.

Primer verbo + adverbio + otros verbos


I can never remember her name.
Clare doesn’t often eat meat.
Are you definitely going away?
The house was only built a year ago.
You have always been kind to me.

PERO:
En las frases con el verbo modal ‘HAVE TO’, ponemos los adverbios antes de
este modal.
Joe never phones. I always have to phone him.

En las frases negativas ponemos el adverbio ‘PROBABLY’ antes del primer


verbo, si este aparece en su forma corta.
I will probably see you.
I will probably not see you. I probably won’t see you.
APARTADO 110D – ALL y BOTH

Las mismas reglas aplicamos para los pronombres ‘BOTH’ y ‘ALL’.


We all felt ill after the meal.
We both felt ill after the meal.
We were both ill.
My parents are both teachers.
We are all going out tonight.
Sarah and Jane have both applied.

APARTADO 110E – verbos auxiliares (unidad 51)

A veces para no repetir ciertas partes de las frases, usamos solamente los
verbos auxiliares correspondentes. Cuando ocurre eso, ponemos los
adverbios antes del verbo auxiliar.
He always says he won’t be late, but he always is. = he is always late
I’ve never done it and I never will. = I will never do it
UNIDAD 111 – STILL,YET,ALREADY, ANY MORE,
ANY LONGER, NO LONGER

APARTADO 111A - still


STILL – aún, todavía; normalmente lo ponemos:
- después del verbo ‘be’
It’s 10 o’clock and he is still in bed.
- entre el verbo auxiliar y el verbo principal
When I went to bed, Chris was still working.
- entre el sujeto y el verbo principal (en las preguntas)
Do you still want to go away or have you changed your mind?

APARTADO 111B – any more / any longer / no longer


NOT ............ ANY MORE / ANY LONGER – no más; lo ponemos al final de
las frases negativas
Lucy doesn’t work here any more / any longer.

NO LONGER – no más; en el medio de las frases afirmativas


Lucy no longer works here.
We are no longer friends.
APARTADO 111C – yet / still
YET – todavía, ya (hasta ahora);
- mayormente en las frases negativas y preguntas;
- lo utilizamos para mostrar que estamos esperando que algo pase
- a menudo con PRESENTE PERFECTO
- lo ponemos al final de las frases negativas
It’s 10 o’clock and Joe isn’t here yet.
Have you met your new neighbours yet?

YET ≠ STILL
He is still unemployed. ~ He hasn’t found another job yet.
Is it still raining? ~ Has it stopped raining yet?
STILL en frases negativas antes del verbo negativo para expresar que
estamos sorprendidos, impacientes o enfadados
She still hasn’t come. = She hasn’t come yet.

APARTADO 111 D - already


ALREADY – ya; normalmente lo ponemos donde ‘still’
She has already left.
Does he already know?
I’m already hungry.
UNIDAD 113 – ALTHOUGH, THOUGH,
EVEN THOUGH,IN SPITE OF,DESPITE
APARTADO 113B - although

ALTHOUGH + sujeto + verbo – aunque


Although it rained a lot, we enjoyed our holiday.
I didn’t get the job although I had the necessary qualifications.

BECAUSE + sujeto + verbo - porque


We went out although it was raining heavily. ≠ We didn’t go out because it was
raining heavily.

APARTADO 113C – despite / in spite of

IN SPITE OF / DESPITE + sustantivo / pronombre / -ing – a pesar de


In spite of / Despite the rain , we enjoyed our holiday.
I didn’t get the job in spite of / despite having the necessary qualifications.
She wasn’t well, but in spite of / despite THIS she continued working.
In spite of / despite WHAT I said yesterday, I still love you.

IN SPITE OF / DESPITE + THE FACT (THAT) + sujeto + verbo


I didn’t get the job in spite of / despite the fact (that) I had the necessary
qualifications.

BECAUSE OF + sustantivo / pronombre /-ing


We went out in spite of / despite the rain.≠ We didn’t go out because of the rain.

APARTADO 113E – though / even though


THOUGH = ALTHOUGH - aunque
I didn’t get the job although/ though I had the necessary qualifications.

THOUGH – sin embargo (en ingles hablado, al final de la frase)


The house isn’t so nice. I like the garden though. ( = but I like the garden)
I see them every day. I’ve never spoken to them though. (=but I’ve never spoken to
them)

EVEN THOUGH – aunque (pero más fuerte)


Even though I was really tired, I couldn’t sleep.
UNIDAD 112 - EVEN
EVEN – incluso / NOT EVEN – ni siquiera + SUSTANTIVO / PRONOMBRE
These pictures are really awful. Even I take better pictures than these.
The print was very small, I couldn’t read it, even with glasses.
Not even her best friend would help her.

EVEN + VERBO
 Sue has travelled all over the world. She has even been to the Antarctic.
entre el verbo auxiliar y el principal
 They are very rich. They even have their own private jet.
entre el sujeto y el verbo
 I can’t cook. I can’t even boil and egg.
Jessica just run five miles and she ‘s not even out of breath.
después del verbo negativo

EVEN + COMPARATIVO
I got up early, but Jack got up even earlier.
We were surprised to get an email from her. We were even more surprised to see
her a few days later.

EVEN IF / EVEN WHEN + FRASE – incluso si / incluso cuando


He never shouts, even when he’s angry.
I can’t reach the shelf even if I stand on a chair.
UNIDAD 114-118 – IN CASE (OF), UNLESS,
AS/SO LONG AS, AS
IN CASE (OF)

IN CASE + una frase - por si ≠ IF + una frase - si


We will buy some more food in case Tom comes for dinner. (por si acaso, por si
viene...)
We will buy some more food if Tom comes for dinner. (solo si viene; si no viene, no
compramos nada)

IN CASE OF + sustantivo - en caso de...


In case of emergency, call this number.
In case of fire, don’t use the lift! Go down the stairs.

UNLESS

UNLESS + una frase afirmativa (nunca negatica, porque no podemos tener


doble negación) – a no ser que, a menos que, si no...
Unless we g out now, we’ll be late. = If we don’t go out now, we’ll be late.

AS/SO LONG AS
AS/SO LONG AS = IF
As/So long as go out now, we won’t be late. = If we go out now, we won’t be late.

AS
AS = WHILE – mientras (para hablar de dos acciones que pasan a la vez)
As I drove home, I listened to music.
As I was driving home, I saw an accident on the road.

WHEN – cuando (para hablar de dos acciones, una tras otra)


When I got home, I had dinner.

AS = BECAUSE – porque, como


As I was hungry and nothing in the fridge, I ordered a pizza.
UNIDAD 119 – FOR, DURING, WHILE

APARTADO 119A – FOR and DURING

FOR + periodos del tiempo (hours, weeks, ages) para decir cuanto tiempo
dura algo
We watched TV for two hours last night.
Jess is going away for a week in September.
I’ve been waiting for ages.
Are you going away for the weekend?
I haven’t been there for three years.
I have known her for three years.

DURING + sustantivos para decir cuando pasó algo, no cuanto duró!!!


I fell asleep during the movie.
We met some really nice people during our holiday.

The ground is wet. It must have rained during the night./ in the night. → con ‘time
words’ (the morning , the afternoon, the evening, the night, the spring, the
summer, the autumn, the winter…) se puede usar DURING o IN

APARTADO 119B – DURING and WHILE

WHILE + sujeto + verbo


I fell asleep while I was watching TV. ~ I fell asleep during the movie.
We met a lot of interesting people while we were on holiday. ~ during our holiday
John suddenly began to feel ill while he was doing the exam. ~ during the exam

WHILE + presente simple o continuo (NO will !!!) aunque estemos hablando
del futuro
I’m going to London next week. I hope to see some friends of mine while I’m there.
What are you going to do while you’re waiting?
UNIDAD 121 – AT / ON / IN (time)

APARTADO 121A – AT, ON, IN

AT + horas, partes del día (excepto: morning, afernoon, evening):


at five o’clock, at 11:45,
at lunchtime (a la hora de la comida),
at midday ≠ at midnight (a mediodía ≠ a medianoche), at night (por la noche)
at dawn ≠ at dusk (al alba ≠ al atardecer),
at sunrise ≠ at sunset (al amanecer ≠ al atardecer)

ON + días y fechas:
on Friday/ on Fridays, on 16 May 2009,
on Christmas Day (25.12. pero at Christmas), on Boxing Day (26.12),
on New Year´s Eve (31.12), on New Year´s Day (01.01),
on Easter Day (Domingo de Pascua, pero at Easter)
on my birthday, on our wedding anniversary

IN + periodos de tiempo (largos)


- meses: in October
- estaciones del año: in (the) winter
- años: in 1998, in the 1990s
- siglos: in the 18th century, in the Middle Ages,
- pasado, future: in the past, in (the) future

APARTADO 121B - AT

AT night / BY night We travelled by night and slept during the day.


AT the weekend/at weekends (Br.E.) / on the weekend/on weekends (Am.E.)
AT Christmas , AT Easter
AT the moment / AT present / AT the present moment (en este momento)
≠ IN a moment (enseguida)
AT the same time (al mismo tiempo)

APARTADO 121C – morning, afternoon, evening

IN the morning(s) pero ON Friday morning(s)


IN the afternoon(s) pero ON Sunday afternoon(s)
IN the evening(s) pero ON Monday evening(s)
APARTADO 121D – last / next / this / every

no ponemos AT/ON/IN antes de LAST / NEXT / THIS/ EVERY


I‘ll see you on Friday = I’ll see you next Friday.
They got married in March. = They got married last March.

en el inglés hablado se puede omitir ON antes de los días de la semana


I’ll see you on Friday. = I’ll see you Friday.
I don’t work on Monday mornings. = I don’t work Monday mornings

APARTADO 121E – ‘in’ para hablar del futuro o de cuanto


dura algo

HABLANDO DEL FUTURO:


in a few minutes = a few minutes from now: The train will be leaving in a few
minutes.
in a moment = a moment from now: They’ll be here in a moment.
in a week = in a week’s time = a week from now
in six months = in six months’ time = six months from now: They’re getting
married in six months / in six months’ time.

HABLANDO DE CUANTO SE TARDA EN HACER ALGO:


in a day The book was so interesting that I read it in a day.
in four weeks I learnt to drive in four weeks. = It took me four weeks to learn.
UNIDAD 122 – ON TIME and IN TIME,
AT THE END and IN THE END

APARTADO 122A – ON TIME and IN TIME

ON TIME – a tiempo (puntual) ≠ LATE - tarde


The 11:45 train left on time.
‘I’ll meet you 7.30.’ ‘OK, but please be on time.” = ‘Don’t be late’

IN TIME (+ FOR sustantivo / + TO infinitivo) – a tiempo (suficientemente


temprano) ≠ TOO LATE – demasiado tarde
Will you be at home in time for dinner? = soon enough for dinner
I’m in a hurry. I want to get home in time to see the game on TV. ≠ I got home
too late to see the game.
JUST IN TIME – justo a tiempo
We got home just in time to see the game.
We got to the station just in time for our train.

APARTADO 122B – AT THE END and IN THE END


AT THE END OF – al final de ≠ AT THE BEGINNING OF – al principio de

at the end of the month


at the end of January
at the end of the film / the game / the concert / the course

IN THE END – al fin y al cabo, total, al final ≠ AT FIRST – al principio

At first we didn’t get on well, but in the end we became good friends.
We had a lot of problems with our car. We sold it in the end. = Finally we sold it.
He got more and more angry. In the end he just walked out.
Alan couldn’t decide where to go on holidays. He didn’t go anywhere in the end.
UNIT 123 – IN ,ON, AT (position 1)

APARTADO 123A – IN (dentro)

IN + nombres de aldeas, pueblos, ciudades y paises


When we were in Italy, we spent a few days in Venice.

IN – en (dentro)
room, building, box,
garden, park, mountains,
village, town, country, city, city centre, centre,
pool, sea, river (cuando nos referimos a nadar)
box, pencilcase, pocket etc. (cuando nos referimos a objetos cerrados)

APARTADO 123B – AT (no dentro, al lado)


AT – en (NO dentro)
- at the door, at the window (una persona esperando o mirando algo)
- at the bus stop, at the next stop
- at the roundabout, at the traffic lights, at the junction, at the church/at the
shop u otros edificios (cuando solo cuando estamos indicando el camino)
- at reception / at reception desk

APARTADO 123C – ON (encima)


ON – en (encima)
- on the floor, on the ground, on the grass, on the table
- on the beach, on the coast, on an island
- on a page, on page seven
- on your shirt, on your cap
- on the ceiling, on the door, on the wall, on the notice board

APARTADO D – diferencia entre IN, AT y ON

There were a lot of people in the shop.


Go along this road, then turn left at the shop.

I’ll meet you in the hotel lobby.


I’ll meet you at the entrance to the hotel.

There is some water in the bottle.


There is a label on the bottle.

There is somebody at the door. Shall I go and see who it is?


There is a notice on the door. It says ‘Do not disturb’.
There is a key in the door.
UNIT 124 – IN ,ON, AT (position 2)

APARTADO 124A - IN

IN BED (en la cama)


IN a line (estar en línea) / IN a row (estar en la fila) / in a queue (estar en la cola)
IN the sky (en el cielo) / IN the world (en el mundo)
IN the country / IN the countryside (en el campo)
IN an office (en una oficina) / IN an department (en un departamento)
IN a book (en un libro) / IN a paper = newspaper (en un periódico) / IN a
magazine (en una revista) / IN a letter (en una carta)
IN a picture (en un cuadro) / IN a photo = photograph (en una foto)

APARTADO 124B - ON

ON the left = on the left-hand side (en la izquierda)


ON the right = on the right-hand side (en la derecha)

ON+ pisos: on the ground floor (en la planta baja) / on the first floor (en la
primera planta) / on the second floor (en la segunda planta)

ON a map (en un mapa) /ON a menu (en un menu) / ON a list (en una lista)

ON a farm (en una granja)


ON the coast (en la costa)
ON a river (el río pasa por...) / ON the (River) Danube
ON a road (en un camino) / ON the way home (en el camino a casa)

APARTADO 124C – AT + top / bottom / end

AT the top (of) - en la cima


AT the bottom (of) – abajo, en el fondo
AT the end (of) - al final de
APARTADO 124D – IN/AT/ON + back / front

IN the front (of) / IN the back (of) + coches


I was sitting in the back (of the car) when we crashed.

AT the front (of) / AT the back (of) + edificios, grupos de personas, filas en el
cine o teatro
The garden is at the back of the house.
Let’s sit at the front (of the cinema).
We were at the back, so we couldn’t see well.

ON the front of / ON the back of + cartas, papel, fotos…


I wrote the date on the back of the photo.

APARTADO 124E – IN/AT/ON + corner

IN THE CORNER + habitaciones (dentro)


The TV is in the corner of the room.

AT THE CORNER / ON THE CORNER + calles (afuera)


There is a small shop at/on the corner of the street.
UNIT 125 – IN ,ON, AT (position 3)

APARTADO 125A – IN/AT + instituciones, trabajo, casa

to be IN hospital / IN prison / IN jail / IN church

to be AT work / AT school / AT university / AT college (trabajo e instituciones


de educación)

to be AT home = to be home (estar en casa: I’ll be home/at home all evening)


to do something AT home (hacer algo en casa: Shall we go to a restaurant or eat
at home?)

APARTADO 125B – AT + eventos

to be AT a party (en una fiesta) / AT a concert (en un concierto) /


AT a conference (en una conferencia) / AT a meeting (en una reunión) /
AT a wedding (en una boda)

APARTADO 125C – IN/AT + edificios

IN/AT + edificios:
to eat in/at a restaurant; to buy something it/at a supermarket
PERO:
AT + edificios si hablamos que algun evento tiene lugar o de algo que ha
pasado dentro de ellos
We went to a concert at the National Concert Hall.
The meeting took place at the company’s head office.
There was a robbery at the supermarket.

AT + edificios o lugares que se refieren a medios de transporte:


- AT the station (en la estación)
- AT the airport (en el aeropuerto)
- AT the bust stop (en la parada de autobus)

AT + nombres de personas CON APÓSTROFO y S(‘s) o profesiones CON THE


y APÓSTROFO y ‘S’ (‘s), cuando nos referimos a los lugares donde nos
reciben o atienden:
- AT Helen’s house / AT Helen’s: I was at Helen’s (house) last night.
- AT the doctor’s / AT the hairdresser’s

IN + edificios cuando los tratamos como contrucciones y hablamos de sus


propriedades:
We had dinner at the hotel. ≠ All the rooms in the hotel have air conditioning.
I was at Helen’s house. ≠ It’s always cold in Helen’s house. The heating doesn’t work
well.
APARTADO 125D – IN/AT + pueblos y ciudades

IN + pueblos y ciudades cuando hablamos de estar o hacer algo ahí


AT + pueblos y ciudades cuando nos referimos a ellos como puntos o
paradas en el viaje:
I was in Oxford last week. ≠ Does the train stop at Oxford? (at Oxford station)

APARTADO 125E – IN/ON + medios de transporte

ON a bus / ON a train / ON a plane / ON a ship


The bus was very full. There were too many people on it.
ON a bike / ON a motorbike / ON a horse
Jane passed me on her bike.
IN a car / IN a taxi
Laura arrived in a taxi.
UNIDAD 126 – TO / AT / IN / INTO

APARTADO 126A – verbos y sustantivos con TO


VERBOS con ‘to’: (se refieren al movimiento, cambio de lugar)
go / come / travel / return / be taken /
be sent / drive / welcome somebody + TO + lugares o eventos
- paises, ciudades: to go to China, London, Welcome to our country!
- edificios, instituciones: to go to the bank, to come to my house, to be taken
to hospital, to be sent to prison, to drive to the airport
- eventos: to go to a concert

SUSTANTIVOS con ‘to’: (se refieren al movimiento, cambio de lugar)


a journey to / a trip to / a visit to / on my way to

have / has been to


I’ve been to Italy four times.
Amanda has never been to a football match.

APARTADO 126B - get TO = arrive IN/AT (llegar a)


get to + lugares
What time did they get to London / to work / to the hotel?
arrive in + pueblos, ciudades, paises
They arrived in London a week ago.
arrive at + lugares (edificios etc.) o eventos
When did they arrive at the hotel / at the airport / at the party?

APARTADO 126C - home

to go home / come home/ get home/ arrive home /on the way home
to be home = to be at home
to do something at home (play, eat, party…)

APARTADO 126D – into/in/out of


go / get / fly + into – entrar en un lugar (en la mayoría de casos cerrados)
I opened the door, went into the room and sat down.
A bird flew into the kitchen through the window.
My salary is paid directly into my bank account.

Con algunos verbos (ante todo con: go/get/put) + in / into:


She got in/into the car and drove away.
I read the letter and put it back in/into the envelope.

GET + medios de transporte


- get in/into – entrar, subir ≠ out of – salir, bajar + coches
She got out of the car and went into a shop.
- get on – entrar, subir ≠ off – salir, bajar + otros medios de transporte (a
bus / a train / a plane)
She got on the bus and I never saw her again.
UNIDAD 127 – EXPRESIONES CON IN / ON / AT
in the rain – bajo la lluvia
in the sun – al sol
in the snow – en la nieve
in the shade – a la sombra
in the dark – a oscuras
in bad weather – cuando hay mal tiempo

write in ink – escribir con tinta


write in pen – con boli
write in pencil – con lápiz
write in words – en palabras
write in figures – en cifras
write in capital letters – en mayúsculas
write in lower case letters / small letters – en minúsculas
write a story in your own words – con tus proprias palabras

to be / fall in love with – estar enamorado / enamorarse de alguien

in (my) opinion – en mi opinion

on TV / television – en la tele
on the radio – en la radio
on the phone – por teléfono
be / go on strike – estar en huelga / declararse en huelga, hacer huelga
be / go on a diet – estar a dieta / empezar una dieta
be / set on fire – quemarse / prender fuergo a
on the whole = in general – en general
on purpose – a propósito
be / go on holiday – estar / irse de vacaciones
be / go on a trip – estar / irse de viaje
be / go on business – estar / irse de viaje de negocios
be / go on on a tour – estar / irse de un tour
be / go on a cruise – estar / irse de crucero

at 16 = at the age of 16 – a los 16 (edad)


drive / fly / travel at 120 miles an hour – conducir/volar /viajar a 120 m/h
at a speed of 800 kilometres – a una velocidad de 800 km
at an altitude of 9,000 metres – a la altura de 9000m
boil at 100 degrees Celsius – hervir a 100 grados
UNIDAD 128 – BY

APARTADO 128A – BY para manera de hacer algo


BY – para decir como hacemos algo, para hablar de la manera de hacer algo
send something BY POST
do something BY HAND
contact somebody BY PHONE / BY EMAIL

pay BY CREDIT CARD / BY CHEQUE pero pay CASH / IN CASH

happen / meet BY MISTAKE (por error) / BY ACCIDENT (por accidente)


/ BY CHANCE (por suerte) pero do something ON PURPOSE (a propósito)

APARTADO 128B - BY para medios de transporte


BY + sustantivo – para hablar de los medios de transporte o de la forma de
viajar
by car / by train / by plane/ by boat / by ship / by bus / by bike etc.
by road / by rail / by air / by sea
pero ON foot

IN + a / the / pronombres posesivos + coches o taxis


ON + a / the / pronombres posesivos + bicis o medios de transporte público
by car ≈ IN my car
by taxi ≈ IN a taxi
by train ≈ ON the train , ON the 6.45 train

APARTADO 128C – BY para personas / WITH para utensilios

PASSIVA + BY – para decir por quien fue hecho algo (personas, animales)
Have you ever been bitten BY a dog?

PASSIVA + WITH – para decir con que fue hecho algo (cosas, utensilios)
The door must have been opened BY somebody WITH a key.

BY – para hablar de los autores de libros, obras de arte, cuadros etc.


Have you read anything BY Ernest Hemingway?
a play BY Shakespeare, a painting BY Rembrandt, a novel BY Tolstoy

APARTADO 128D – BY (al lado)


BY = NEXT TO / BESIDE – al lado de, cerca de, junto a
Come and sit by me = next to me.
‘Where’s the light switch?’ ‘ By the door.’

APARTADO 128E – BY con números (por)


Clare’s salary has just gone up FROM £2,500 a month TO £2,750. So it has increased
BY £250 / BY ten per cent.
Carl and Mike had a race over 200 metres. Carl won BY about three metres.
UNIDAD 132 – VERB + preposition TO and AT

APARTADO 132A - verbos + TO + persona

talk TO / WITH – hablar con


speak TO / WITH – hablar con
listen TO somebody/something - escuchar: I’m listening to you / to the radio.
apologise TO somebody FOR something – pedir perdón a alguien por algo:
I want to apologise to you for my behaviour last night.

explain something TO somebody- explicar algo a alquien:


Can you explain this word to me?
pero explain / describe (to somebody) what / how / why… - explicar como /
porque / quien
I explained to them why I was worried.
Let me describe to you what I saw.

APARTADO 132B – verbos sin TO + persona

phone / call / email / text SOMEBODY – llamar / escribir un correo


electrónico / escribir un mensaje
I called the airline to cancel my flight.
pero write (a letter) TO somebody – escribir algo a alguien

answer somebody / something – contestar a


He refused to answer my question.
pero reply TO an email / a letter etc. – responder a un correo electrónico o
una carta

ask somebody – preguntar a alguien


Can I ask you a question?

thank somebody FOR something – dar las gracias a alguien por algo
He thanked me for helping him.

APARTADO 132C - verbos + AT

look (mirar) /stare (mirar fijamente) +AT


glance (echar un vistazo / mirada) + AT
have a look / take a look + AT – echar un vistazo
lough AT – reirse de
aim / point (something) AT – apuntar a
Don’t point that knife at me!
shoot / fire (a gun) AT – disparar a
We saw someone with a gun shooting at birds, but he didn’t hit any.
APARTADO 132D – verbos + ‘AT’ o ‘TO’

shout AT somebody – gritar a alguien (enfadado)


He got very angry and started shouting at me.

shout TO somebody – gritar a alguien (para que pueda oirnos)


He shouted to me from the other side of the street.

throw something AT somebody / something - tirar algo a alguien (para


pegarle):
Somebody threw an egg at the minister.

throw something TO somebody – tirar algo - tirar algo a alguien (para que lo
coja):
Lisa shouted ‘Catch!’ and threw the keys to me from the window.
UNIDAD 137 – PHRASAL VERBS 1

APARTADO 137A – basic phrasal verbs

get on - The bus was full. We couldn’t get on.


drive off – A woman got into the car and drove off.
come back – Sarah is leaving tomorrow and coming back on Saturday.
turn round – When I touched him on the shoulder , he turned round.
break down – Sorry I’m late. The car broke down.= stopped working
look out – Look out! There’s a car coming. = be careful
take off – It was my first flight. I was nervous as the plane took off.=went in the air
get on – How was the exam? How did you get on? = How did you do?
get by – My French isn’t very good, but it’s enough to get by. = manage

APARTADO 137B – prasal verbs + preposiciones

PHRASAL VERBS + preposiciones


run away from – Why did you run away from me?
keep up with – You’re walking too fast. I can’t keep up with you.
look up at – We looked up at the plane as it flew above us.
look forward to – Are you looking forward to your trip?

APARTADO 137C - phrasal verbs + objetos

phrasal verb = verbo + preposición

verbo + sustantivo + prepocición: I turned the light on.


verbo + preposición + sustantivo: I turned on the light.

verbo + pronombre + preposición: I turned it on.

fill in – Can you fill in this form?


throw away – Don’t throw away this box.
take off – I’m going to take off my shoes.
wake up – Don’t wake up the baby.
UNIDAD 138 – PHRASAL VERBS 2

APARTADO 138A – IN and OUT


verbos + in – entrar verbos + out – salir
How did the thieves get in? get out
Here’s a key, so you can let yourself in. let yourself out
Lisa walked up to the edge of the pool dive out
and dived in.
I’ve got a new apartment. I’m moving in move out
on Friday.
As soon as I got to the airport, I checked What time do we have to check out.
in.
walk in He just stood up and walked out/ went
go in out.
lock in I had no key, so I was locked out.
climb in She swam up and down the pool, and the
climbed out.
Andy opened the window and looked in. Andy opened the window and looked
out.
come in come out
break in break out
INTO / OUT OF + sustantivo !!!
I’m moving in next week. ≈ I’m moving into my new flat.
He walked out. ≈ He walked out of the room.

APARTADO 138B – IN
drop in – I dropped in to see Chris on my way home.
join in – They were playing cards, so I joined in.
plug in (an electrical machine) – The fridge isn’t working because you haven’t
plugged it in.
fill in = fill out (a form, a questionnaire) – Please fill in the application form and
send it to us by 28 February.
take somebody in – The man said he was a policeman and I believed him. I was
completely taken in.

APARTADO 138C – OUT


eat out – There wasn’t anything to eat at home, so we decided to eat out.
drop out (of college, university, a course, a race) – Gary went to university but
dropped out after a year.
get out (of a situation) – I promised to go to the wedding. I don’t want to go, but I
can’t get out of it now.
cut something out – There was a beautiful picture in the magazine , so I cut it out
and kept it.
leave out – In the sentence ‘ She said that she was ill,’ you can leave out the word
‘that’.
cross something out / rub something out – Some of the names on the list had
been crossed out.
PHRASAL VERBS
be back – estar de vuelta (at work – en el trabajo)
be off – irse: Tomorrow I’m off to Paris / I’m off on holiday.
beat up – dar una paliza: He was beaten upand had to be taken to hospital.
blow out – apagar (candle - vela)
blow up – volar: The engine caught fire and blew up. The bridge was blown up.
break down – romperse, averiarse
break in – entrar para robar
Someone broke IN and took several computers.
Someone broke INTO the building and took several computers.
break out – escaparse (de una prisión)
Two dangerous criminals broke OUT yesterday.
Two dangerous criminals broke OUT OF jail yesterday.
break up = split up with – separarse de alguien
bring up – criar, educar: She was brought up by her grandparents.
- vomitar
- sacar (a topic): I don’t want to hear anymore about this matter. Don’t
bring it up again.
call off – cancelar: The flight was called off because of the weather.
carry out – cumplir (an order – orden), llevar a cabo (a plan, a survey), realizar,
hacer (an experiment, an investigation)
calm down – tranquilizarse
catch up with / catch somebody up – alcanzar a alguien
I’m not ready yet. You go on and I’ll catch up with you / catch you up.
check in – facturar ( at the airport), registrarse (at a hotel)
check out – dejar libre una habitación (at a hotel)
cheer up – animarse, animar a alguien
clean up = clear up = tidy up – recoger
clear up – despejarse: It was raining when I got up, but it cleared up later.
climb out – salir de algun lugar, donde hace falta subir para poder salir
She swam up and down the pool, and then climbed out.
come back – volver: I came back home at 10 pm yesterday.
come in - entrar: Come in, please! The door is open!
come up – mencionarse: Some interesting points came up in our discussion.
come up with – tener una idea, sugerencia: She always comes up with new ideas.
cross out - tachar
cut down on – reducer el consumo de algo: I’m trying to cut down on coffee.
cut out + an article / a photo of a newspaper / a magazine – cortar , recortar
do up – renovar, restaurar: The kitchen looks great now that is has been done up.
- abrochar, hace el nudo (a coat, a shoelace, buttons) (=fasten, tie)
Do up your coat before you go out.
dive in – sumergirse, zambullirse
doze off = drop off = nod off –dormirse: I dozed off in the middle of it.
drive off – irse (en coche, moto)
drop in – ir a ver a alguien un momento, visitor inesperadamente
I dropped in to see Chris on my way home.
drop out of + college, university, a course, a race – darse de baja, dejar
eat out – comer afuera
end up (somewhere, doing something)– terminar, acabar
There was a fight in the street and three men ended up in hospital.
I ended up in love with him.
fall out with – enemistarse con alguien: He fell out with his father and left home.
They used to be very good friends. I’m surprised that they have fallen out.
fill in = fill out + a form – rellenar un formulario
find out (about) – descubrir, averiguar, informarse:
The police never found out who committed the murder.
finish off – terminar, acabar
fix up – organizar (=arrange): We’ve fixed up a meeting for next Monday.
fly away – irse volando
fly in – entrar volando
get away – marcharse, escaparse: The robbers got away with £50,000.
get away with – salirse con la suya tras algo, salir impune de algo
I parked in a no-parking zone, but I got away with it. I didn’t have to
pay a fine.
get back to – responder llamando o por correo electronic
I sent him an email, but he never got back to me.
get by – arreglárselas, defenderse (idioma), sobrevivir (con poco dinero)
My French isn’t very good but it’s enough to get by.
get in – entrar: How did the thieves get in?
get off + a bus / a train / a plane / a horse / a bike – salir, bajar
get on + a bus / a train / a plane / a horse / a bike – entrar, subir
get on – arreglárselas, salir (resultados de algo):
How was the exam? How did you get on?
I don’t know how we’ll get on without you.
get on with – llevarse bien con alguien: He gets on well with his students.
get out – sacar , salir
I’ve got something in my eye and I can’t get it out.
I’m trapped in here and I can’t get out.
get out of – evitar algo, librarse de un compromiso
I promised to go to the wedding. I don’t want to go, but I can’t get out of it.
See if you can get out of that meeting tomorrow.
get up – levantarse (de la cama)
give back – devolver algo prestado:
When you borrow something, you have to give it back .
give out = hand out - repartir: The speaker gave out some sheets to the audience.
give up – rendirse, dejar de
Don’t give up! Be brave!
I want to give up smoking but it’s not easy.
go down – bajar (the stairs – bajar por la escalera)
go off – estallar : A bomb went off in the city centre.
- sonar (alarma): Did you hear the alarm go off?
go on – pasar : What’s all that noise? What’s going on? (What’s happening?)
go on = carry on – continuar: I can’t go on spending money like this.
go up – subir, aumentar (prices – precios, the stairs – subir la escalera )
grow up – crecer (hacerse adulto): She was born in Madrid but grew up in Sevilla.
hold up – atrasar, hacer esperar: Don’t wait for me. I don’t want to hold you up.
Our plans have been held up because of the rain.
join in – unirse: They were playing cards, so I joined in.
keep up with – seguir el ritmo, mantenerse al tanto de algo
You’re walking to fast. I can’t keep up with you.
It’s difficult to keep up with the changes in technology.
knock down – atropellar: A man was knocked down by a car and taken to hospital.
- derribar: Some old houses were knocked down to make way for the
new shopping centre.
knock over – tirar
I knocked the vase over by accident while I was cleaning.
leave out – omitir, excluir: Steve was upset because he’d been left out of team.
let down – decepcionar
let in – dejar entrar (Let yourself in! – Entra!)
let out – dejar salir, soltar
look back on – mirar hacía atrás, recordar
lock in – encerrar (be locked in – estar encerrado dentro)
lock out – impeder la entrada (be locked out – no poder entrar por no tener la
llave o dejarla dentro)
look around – mirar alrededor, girarse
look forward to (+ sustantivo o verbo -ING!!!!!) – tener muchas ganas de algo
I’m looking forward to seeing you / hearing you / our trip to Italy.
look out – tener cuiado (Look out! – Ten cuidado!) , mirar por la ventana
look up at – mirar hacía arriba
look up in – buscar (a dictionary, an encyclopaedia)
make up – invetarse algo: What Kevin told you wasn’t true. He made it all up.
mix up / get mixed up – confundir:
They look so similar that many people mix them up / get them mixed up.
move in – instalarse, mudarse
move out – dejar la casa, mudarse
pay back – devolver el dinero prestado
plug in – conectar, enchufar (≠ unplug - desenchufar)
point out (to) – señalar:
I didn’t realise I’d made a mistake until somebody pointed it out to me.
As we drove through the city, out guide pointed out all the sights.
put down – bajar (prices – precios)
put off – posponer: The wedding has been put off until January.
- desanimar: What put you off applying for the job?
We wanted to go to the exhibition, but we were put off by the queue.
put on – ponerse (clothes – ropa, glasses - gafas), poner (CD, music)
We need some boiling water, so I’ll put the kettle on.
put on weight – engordar
put out – apagar, extingir (fire – fuego, cigarette - cigarrillo)
put up – subir (the prices - precios)
put up with – soportar, tolerar: I can’t put up with that noise.
rip off – timar: Did you really pay£2,000 for this? I think you were ripped off.
rub out – borrar con un borrador
run away from – escaparse de algo
run out of – quedarse sin: We ran out of petrol on the motorway.
save up for – ahorrar: Dan is saving up for a trip round the world.
see off – despedir (at the airport, at the station)
Helen was going away. We went to the station with her to see her off.
set off – partir: We set off early to avoid the traffic.
set up – crear, establecer (a company, a business, a system, a webside):
The government has set up a committee to investigate the problem.
show off – lucir: Look at that boy on the bike riding with no hands. He’s just showing
off.
sit down – sentarse
slow down – bajar la velocidad
sort out – solucionar, arreglar: There are a few problems we need to sort out.
All these papers are mixed up. I’ll have to sort them out.
speak up – subir la voz, hablar más alto
stand up – levantarse (cuando estamos sentados)
switch off – apagar con un interruptor
switch on – encender con un interruptor
take back – devolver algo prestado o comprado
I borrowed these books from the library. I have to take them back tomorrow.
If the shirt doesn’t fit, take it back.
take in – estafar (be taken in – ser engañado)
take off – despegar (plane - avión), quitarse (make-up - el maquillaje, clothes - la
ropa, glasses - gafas)
take up – comenzar (a hobby, a sport): Laura took up photography a few years ago.
tear up – despedazar (tear into pieces): I tore the letter up and threw it away.
tell off – echar bronca: Her mother told her off for wearing dirty shoes in the house.
throw away – tirar a la basura, deshacerse de algo
try on – probar (clothes – ropa, glasses - gafas)
try out – probar (a machine, a system, a new idea)
The company is trying out a new computer system at the moment.
turn down – bajar (the music - volumen, the heating – calefacción)
turn off – apagar (the lights / the TV / the radio)
turn on – encender (the lights / the TV / the radio)
turn out – apagar (the lights)
- resultar: Nobody believed Paul at first, but he turned out to be right.
The weather wasn’t so good in the morning, but it turned out nice later.
turn round – girar, darse la vuelta
turn up – subir (the music - volumen, the heating - calefacción)
- aparecer, venir
wake up – despertarse, despertar a alguien
wash up – fregar los platos (= do the washing-up)
work out – hacer deporte: Rachel works out at the gym three times a week.
- resolverse, salir, acabar bien: I hope everything works out well for you.
Things didn’t work out.
- calcular: 345x76? I can’t work it out in my head. I need a calculator.
The total bill for three pe ople is £84,60. That works out at £28,20 each.
write down – apuntar, tomar apuntes
PHRASAL VERBS
be back – estar de vuelta (at work – en el trabajo)
blow out – apagar (candle - vela)
break down – romperse, averiarse
break in – entrar para robar: Someone broke IN and took several computers.
Someone broke INTO the building and took several computers.
break out – escaparse (de una prisión): Two dangerous criminals broke OUT.
Two dangerous criminals broke OUT OF prison.
bring up – criar, educar: She was brought up by her grandparents.
call off – cancelar: The flight was called off because of the weather.
calm down – tranquilizarse
check in – facturar ( at the airport), registrarse (at a hotel)
check out – dejar libre una habitación (at a hotel)
climb out – salir de algun lugar, donde hace falta subir para poder salir
She swam up and down the pool, and then climbed out.
come back – volver: I came back home at 10 pm yesterday.
come in - entrar: Come in, please! The door is open!
cross out – tachar
cut out an article / a photo of a newspaper / a magazine – cortar , recortar
dive in – sumergirse, zambullirse
drive off – irse (en coche, moto)
drop in – ir a ver a alguien un momento, visitar inesperadamente
I dropped in to see Chris on my way home.
drop out of + college, university, a course, a race – darse de baja, dejar
eat out – comer afuera
fill in = fill out + a form – rellenar un formulario
find out – descubrir, averiguar, informarse: They can’t find out who is the murder.
fly away – irse volando
fly in – entrar volando
get away – marcharse, escaparse: The robbers got away with £50,000.
get by – arreglárselas, defenderse (idioma), sobrevivir (con poco dinero)
My French isn’t very good but it’s enough to get by.
get in – entrar: How did the thieves get in?
get off + a bus / a train / a plane / a horse / a bike – salir, bajar
get on + a bus / a train / a plane / a horse / a bike – entrar, subir
get on – arreglárselas, salir (resultados): How was the exam? How did you get on?
get on with – llevarse bien con alguien: He gets on well with his students.
get out – sacar , salir: I’ve got something in my eye and I can’t get it out.
I’m trapped in here and I can’t get out.
get out of – evitar algo, librarse de un compromiso
I promised to go to the wedding. I don’t want to go, but I can’t get out of it.
get up – levantarse (de la cama)
give back – devolver algo prestado: When you borrow something, give it back !
give up – rendirse: Don’t give up! Be brave!
- dejar de: I want to give up smoking but it’s not easy.
go down – bajar (the stairs – bajar por la escalera)
go on = carry on – continuar: I can’t go on spending money like this.
go up – subir, aumentar (prices – precios, the stairs – subir la escalera )
grow up – crecer (hacerse adulto): She was born in Madrid but grew up in Sevilla.
join in – unirse: They were playing cards, so I joined in.
keep up with – seguir el ritmo, mantenerse al día
You’re walking to fast. I can’t keep up with you.
knock over – tirar: I knocked the vase over by accident while I was cleaning.
leave out – omitir, excluir: Steve was upset because he’d been left out of team.
let down – decepcionar
let in – dejar entrar (Let yourself in! – Entra!)
let out – dejar salir, soltar
lock in – encerrar (be locked in – estar encerrado dentro)
lock out – impedir la entrada (be locked out – no poder entrar por no tener la
llave o dejarla dentro)
look around – mirar alrededor, girarse
look forward to (+ sustantivo o verbo -ING!!!!!) – tener muchas ganas de algo
I’m looking forward to seeing you / hearing you / our trip to Italy.
look out – tener cuiado (Look out! – Ten cuidado!) , mirar por la ventana
look up at – mirar hacía arriba
look up in a dictionary / an encyclopaedia – buscar una palabra, una explicación
move in – instalarse, mudarse ≠ move out – dejar la casa, mudarse
pay back – devolver el dinero prestado
plug in – conectar, enchufar (≠ unplug - desenchufar)
put down – bajar (prices – precios) ≠ put up – subir
put off – posponer: The wedding has been put off until January.
put on – ponerse (clothes – ropa, glasses - gafas)
put on weight – engordar
put out – apagar, extingir (fire – fuego, cigarette - cigarrillo)
put up with – soportar: I can’t put up with that noise.
rub out – borrar con un borrador
run away from – escaparse de algo
run out of – quedarse sin: We ran out of petrol on the motorway.
sit down – sentarse
slow down – bajar la velocidad
speak up – subir la voz, hablar más alto
stand up – levantarse (cuando estamos sentados)
switch off – apagar con un interruptor ≠ switch on – encender con un interruptor
take back – devolver algo prestado o comprado
I borrowed these books from the library. I have to take them back tomorrow.
take off – despegar (plane - avión), quitarse (make-up-maquillaje, clothes-ropa)
take in – estafar (be taken in – ser engañado)
tell off – echar bronca: Her mother told her off for wearing dirty shoes in the house.
throw away – tirar a la basura, deshacerse de algo
try on – probar (clothes – ropa, glasses - gafas)
turn down – bajar (the music-volumen, the heating– calefacción) ≠ turn up–subir
turn off – apagar (the lights / the TV / the radio) ≠ turn on – encender
turn round – girar, darse la vuelta
wake up – despertarse, despertar a alguien
wash up – fregar los platos (= do the washing-up)
write down – apuntar, tomar apuntes
La parte de la frase que empieza con “by the time” o “before” tiene que estar en
Pasado Simple y la otra parte de la frase en Pasado Perfecto.

BY THE TIME + Past Simple, Past Perfect


Past Perfect, BY THE TIME + Past Simple

By the time the police arrived, the burglars had stolen everything.
The burglars had stolen everything by the time the police arrived.

BEFORE + Past Simple, Past Perfect


Past Perfect, BEFORE + Past Simple

Before the police arrived, the burglars had stolen everything.


The burglars had stolen everything before the police arrived.

Cuando “before” es la última palabra de la frase (justo antes del punto), la


primera parte de la frase tiene que estar en Pasado Simple y la segunda parte de la
frase (la que se termina en “befote” en Pasado Perfecto.

Past Simple, Past Perfect + BEFORE .

The police arrived quickly but the burglars had stolen everything before.
MAKE – hacer DO – hacer
(crear algo que no existía) (actividades, tareas, trabajos,
deportes)
make an appointment – quedar do one’s best – emplearse a fondo
make changes – hacer cambios do one’s duty – cumplir con su
make a change: obligación
 That would make a nice change do a favour – hacer un favor
- no estaria mal hacer eso para do harm – hacer daño
variar do the military service – hacer la mili
 The train was on time today.
Well, that makes a change. do drugs – tomar drogas
- Que cambio! do English – estudiar inglés
do sport – hacer deporte
make a comment – hacer un comentario
make a decision – tomar una decisión do the ironing – planchar
make a journey - hace un viaje do the shopping – hacer la compra
make a mistake – commeter un error do the washing – hacer la colada
make plans – hacer planes do the washing up – fregar los platos
make a promise – hacer una promesa
make a suggestion – hacer una do an exercise – hacer un ejercisio
sugerencia do an experiment - hacer un
experimento
make the bed – hacer la cama do homework – hacer deberes
do housework – hacer tareas domésticas
make breakfast – preparar el desayuno do one’s job – hacer su trabajo
make lunch – preparar la comida do a project – hacer un proyecto
make dinner – preparar la cena do one’s work – hacer su trabajo
make coffee – preparar café

make somebody do something – hacer


que alguien haga algo
make an effort – esrofzarse
make an excuse – poner una excusa

make friends – hacer amigos


make somebody happy – hacer feliz
make somebody laugh – hacer reír
make somebody sad – hacer triste

make a living – ganarse la vida


make money – hacer dinero
make an offer – hacer una oferta
make profits – tener beneficios

make a noise – hacer ruido


make a phone call – hacer una llamada
make a sound – hacer un soñido

make peace – hacer las paces


make war – hacer la guerra
CAN = BE ABLE TO ≠ CANNOT (CAN’T) = NOT BE ABLE TO
(I am / You are / He, She, It is, (I’m not / You aren’t /
We, You, They are) He, She, It isn’t /
We, You, They aren’t)
- se refiere al presente y al futuro
- significa ‘poder’
1. ser capaz
2. saber
3. tener permiso
4. ser posible

WAS / WERE ABLE TO = ≠ WASN´T/WEREN´T ABEL TO =


MANAGED TO ≠ DIDN´T MANAGE TO
- se refiere al pasado
- significa ‘poder’ pero solo hablando
de situaciones especificas

COULD ≠ COULD NOT (COULDN’T)


-se refiere al pasado - se refiere al pasado
- significa ‘poder’ pero solo hablando - significa ‘no poder’ hablando de
de habilidades generales o con los situaciones especificas y de habilidades
siguientes verbos: see, hear, smell, taste, generales
feel, remember, understand

COULD = MAY/MIGHT ≠ COULDN’T = MAY NOT/MIGHTN´T


- se refiere al presente o al futuro - se refiere al presente o al futuro
- significa ‘podría’ - significa ‘no podría’ (falta de
1. sugerencia probabilidad)
2. posibilidades / probabilidades
3. situaciones irreales (could y might)

COULD HAVE + PARTICIPIO ≠ COULDN’T HAVE + PARTICIPIO


- se refiere al pasado - se refiere al pasado
- significa ‘pudo/podía haber...’ - significa ‘no pudo/podía haber...’
1. posibilidades en el pasado que 1. para decir que en el pasado no hubo
no llegaron a cumplirse otras posibilidades menos es

COULD HAVE + PARTICIPIO ≠ COULDN’T HAVE + PARTICIPIO


MAY/ MIGHT HAVE + PARTICIPIO ≠ MAY NOT/ MIGHTN’T HAVE +
PARTICIPIO
- se refiere al pasado - se refiere al pasado
- significa ‘pudo/podía haber’ - significa ‘pudo/podía haber’
1. probabilidaes en el pasado 1. falta de probabilidad en el pasado
NEED TO
- se refiere al presente
- significa ‘necesitar’

MUST
- se refiere al presente y al futuro
- significa ‘deber’
1. obligaciones internas
2. obligaciones externas
3. ordenes y reglas escritas
≠ DON’T/DOESN’T HAVE TO =
HAS/HAVE TO DON’T/DOESN’T HAVE TO
- se refiere al presente o al futuro - significa ‘no hace falta’
- significa ‘tener que’ 1. falta de necesidad
1. obligaciones externas 2. falta de obligación

MUST
- se refiere al prasente
- significa ‘deber’ o ‘tener que’
1. seguridad que algo es cierto

HAD TO ≠ DIDN’T HAVE TO = DIDN’T NEED TO


- se refiere al pasado - se refiere al pasado
- es pasado de ‘must’ y ‘have to’ - significa ‘no tenía que’
- significa ‘tenía que’ 1. falta de obligación (da igual se ha hecho
1. obligaciones algo o no)
2. ordenes y reglas escritas 2. las pistas: ‘so’ y ‘but’

≠ NEEDN’T HAVE + PARTICIPIO


- se refiere al pasado
- significa ‘no debía haber’ o ‘no tenía que
haber’
1. falta de obligación (cuando hicimos algo
porque en aquel momento no sabíamos
que no hacía falta hacerlo)

SHOULD = OUGHT TO ≠ SHOULDN’T = OUGHT NOT TO


- se refiere al presente y al futuro
- significa ‘deber’
1. para expresar opinion
2. consejos (no obigación)
3. sugerencias
4. para decir que algo no es como
esprabamos

SHOULD HAVE + PARTICIPIO ≠ SHOULDN’T HAVE + PARTICIPIO =


OUGHT TO HAVE + PARTICIPIO OUGHT NOT TO HAVE + PARTICIPIO
- se refiere al pasado - se refiere al pasado
- significa ‘debería haber’ - significa ‘no debería haber’
1. para hablar de cosas que deberían 1. para hablar de cosas que han pasado
haber pasado pero no pasaron pero no deberían haber pasado
Forma simple de los modales en el presente: MODAL + INFINITIVO

Forma continua de los modales en el presente: MODAL + BE + VERBO ING

Forma simple de los modales en el pasado:


1. algunos modales tienen su forma en el pasado
2. con otros modales se utiliza la forma: MODAL + HAVE + PARTICIPIO
3. hay modales que tienen su forma en el pasado y también se utiliza con ellos la forma del
punto 2, pero dependiendo de la forma que elijamos, cambia su significado

Formas continuas de los modales en el pasado: MODAL + HAVE + BEEN + VERBO ING