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CHAPTER SIX

Masonry

In this chapter you will learn how to apply the principles are located at the top of the walls and over ­openings.
in Chapter 4 to block and structural brick walls and Like rebar in concrete, the rebar in the bond beam must
brick veneer. This chapter includes sample spreadsheets be lapped. The combination of the lapping and the short
that may be used in the quantity takeoff. lengths of rebar used to reinforce the wall vertically
greatly increases the amount of rebar needed to complete

F
the job. The estimator should read the specifications care-
fully and fully understand the reinforcing requirements
or this chapter we divide masonry into two cat-
for the project when preparing a bid.
egories: (1) block and structural brick and (2)
Brick veneer is brick applied to the surface of a wood
brick veneer.
or block wall as an architectural finish material. The
Block and structural brick walls are characterized
components of brick veneer include the brick, weather
by being self-supporting and are often used as structural
barrier (when installed over wood walls), lintels, and
walls. The components of block and structural brick
ties. Wood walls should be covered with a weather bar-
walls include the block or brick, reinforcement, mortar,
rier, such as asphalt-impregnated felt or Tyvek, prior to
grout, imbeds, insulation used to fill the ungrouted cells,
installation of brick veneer. The weather barrier may
and anchor bolts. Commonly the wall is reinforced with
be installed by the framers or the mason. The quantity
rebar running in the vertical and horizontal directions.
takeoff of weather barriers is covered in Chapter 9. Steel
The bars running in the vertical direction are commonly
lintels must be used to support the brick wherever the
spaced at 32 inches on center, and additional bars are
brick is not supported by a concrete wall. The lintels con-
often added around openings. This vertical rebar often
sist of steel angles that are fastened to a structural wall
consists of a single bar (often a #5 bar) placed in a col-
or imbedded in the brick veneer. The brick veneer must
umn of cells that are grouted solid. Because the rebar is
be attached to the surface of the wood or block wall.
placed in the cells of the blocks or bricks, the rebar spac-
This is often done with masonry ties. The masonry ties
ing must match the block or brick cell spacing. When
are secured to wood walls with nails and are secured to
placing the blocks, they must be lifted over the top of the
block and brick by placing the ties in the mortar joints.
rebar and then placed on the blocks in the wall, or the
rebar must be stabbed down the cells after the block is
placed. This requires that the rebar be ordered in short
lengths. One way to do this is to reinforce the walls in
4-foot increments with rebar that is 4 feet long plus the
length of the lap.
Bars running in the horizontal direction are placed in
a bond beam. The bond beam consists of a block with a
channel in the top of the block, similar to the one shown
in Figure 6-1. The rebar is placed in the channel, and
the cells of the blocks are grouted solid. A typical bond
beam consists of two #4 bars. The bond beams are com-
monly spaced 4 feet on center. Additional bond beams FIGURE 6-1  Bond-beam Block
107

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108 CHAPTER SIX

In addition, masonry ties should be included at the cor- Using Eq. (4-18), we calculate the number of blocks as follows:
ners to strengthen the corners.
Number = (15 rows)(75 columns) = 1,125 blocks
Let’s look at estimating block and structural brick
walls. Three bond beams are required: one at 4 feet, one at 8 feet, and
one at 10 feet. The number of bond beam blocks is calculated
using Eq. (4-18) as follows:
BLOCK AND STRUCTURAL Number = (3 rows)(75 columns) = 225 blocks
BRICK WALLS
The project requires a total of 1,125 blocks of which 225 are
The work package for block and structural brick walls bond beam blocks. For the bond beams, six 100-foot-long #4
includes the block or brick, reinforcement, mortar, grout, bars are required for a total length of 600 feet. The lap for the
insulation (such as perlite) used to fill the ungrouted #4 rebar is 30 bar diameters, or 15 inches (30 * 0.5 in). The
block cavities, and imbeds and anchor bolts used to con- number of 20-foot bars is calculated using Eq. (4-6) as follows:
nect the building components to the wall. The block and
600 ft
brick walls are treated as a sheet good. When calculat- Number = = 32 each
(20 ft - 1.25 ft)
ing the number of blocks, the estimator must separate
standard blocks from bond beam blocks and other spe- The number of vertical bars is calculated using Eq. (4-1) as
cialty shapes. The vertical rebar is treated as a counted follows:
item; the horizontal rebar is treated as a linear good. The
(100 ft)(12 in/ft)
mortar and grout are treated as quantity-from-­quantity Number = + 1 = 39 each
goods. The best way to determine the quantities of 32 in
mortar and grout is based on past experience. Finally, The required lap on the vertical bar is 18.75 inches
anchor bolts and imbeds are treated as counted items. (30 * 0.625 in). Each of these vertical bars will be ordered in
Steel imbeds and anchor bolts through structural steel the following increments: 5 feet 7 inches long for the first 4 feet
are often provided by the structural steel supplier and of the wall and 5 feet 11 inches long for the remaining 6 feet of
need to be delivered before the structural steel so they the wall. If we ordered 5-foot 7-inch-long bars for the second
can be installed by the mason. Anchor bolts not through four feet of the wall and 1-foot 11-inch-long bars for the last
the structural steel also need to be provided so they can two feet of the wall, the last bar will lap the second to last bar
be installed by the mason. The quantity takeoff for a 19 of its 23-inch length. It is more economical and is just as
block or structural brick wall is shown in the following easy to replace the last two bars with a single bar. The wall will
require 39 #5 rebar 5 feet 7 inches long and 39 #5 rebar 5 feet
example.
11 inches long. The area of the wall is calculated as follows:

Area = (100 ft)(10 ft) = 1,000 ft2


EXAMPLE 6-1 The number of cubic yards of mortar needed is calculated as
Determine the number of blocks, the rebar, mortar, and grout follows:
needed to construct a 100-foot-long by 10-foot-high block 1 yd3
5 ft3
wall constructed of 7 5/8-inch-high by 7 5/8-inch-wide by Volume = (1,000 ft2) ¢ ≤ ¢ ≤ = 1.9 yd3
15 5/8-long blocks. The mortar joint is 3/8 inch thick. The 100 ft2 27 ft3
wall is horizontally reinforced by bond beams at 4 feet on
The number of cubic yards of grout needed is calculated as
center containing two #4 bars. The wall is vertically reinforced
follows:
with #5 rebar at 32 inches on center. All rebar is to be lapped
30 bar diameters. The rebar for the bond beam is to be deliv- 17 ft3 1 yd3
ered to the site in 20-foot lengths, and the vertical rebar is to Volume = (1,000 ft2) ¢ ≤ ¢ ≤ = 6.3 yd3
100 ft2 27 ft3
be delivered cut to the required lengths. Allow 5 cubic feet
of mortar and 17 cubic feet of grout per 100 square feet of The number of anchor bolts is calculated using Eq. (4-1) as
block wall. Anchor bolts are placed in the top of the wall at follows:
32 inches on center. How many of the blocks need to be bond (100 ft)(12 in/ft)
beam blocks? Number = + 1 = 39 each ■
32 in
Solution:  Using Eq. (4-14) to find the number of rows, we
get the following:
The estimator must take openings into account when
estimating block walls. Openings reduce the number of
(10 ft) (12 in/ft) blocks needed and may require the use of special blocks
NumberRows = = 15 rows
(7 5/8 in + 3/8 in) around the openings. Additional rebar is often placed
around the opening as shown in Figure 6-2. The blocks
Using Eq. (4-17) to get the number of columns, we get the
above the opening are often supported by multiple bond
following:
beams. To allow the bond beams to provide a finished
(100 ft)(12 in/ft) surface, a lintel block with a flat bottom, as shown in
NumberColumns = = 75 columns
(15 5/8 in + 3/8 in) Figure 6-3, may be used for the bottom bond beam.

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Masonry 109

FIGURE 6-2  Reinforcing around an Opening

Other specialty blocks, such as the bullnose block shown


in Figure 6-3, may be used on the sides of the opening.
When estimating block, the estimator must determine
the additional reinforcing for the opening, the specialty
blocks needed, and the quantity of standard block that
can be deducted for the opening. Block waste around the
opening is greater than for other areas of the wall; there-
fore, the estimator cannot determine the number of stand-
ard blocks to be deducted by simply deducting the area of
the opening and the specialty blocks. Many estimators do
not deduct any blocks for small openings and deduct only
half of the area for medium-sized openings. In addition to
accounting for the opening, support for the bond beam
needs to be provided until the grout in the beam has cured.
The following example looks at how to take openings into
account when estimating block and structural brick walls.

EXAMPLE 6-2
Determine the number of specialty blocks needed, additional
rebar required, and the number of standard blocks that can
be deducted when building a wall with the opening shown
in Figure 6-2. The wall is constructed of 7 5/8-inch-high by
7 5/8-inch-wide by 15 5/8-inch-long blocks with a 3/8-inch
mortar joint. The blocks at the top and bottom of the opening
are to be the lintel block shown in Figure 6-3, with the blocks
FIGURE 6-3  Specialty Blocks at the bottom placed upside down to provide a smooth surface.

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110 CHAPTER SIX

Bullnose blocks are to be provided at the sides of the opening. beam blocks that are needed for one bar is calculated by divid-
A 2 * 8 wood frame with a center support will be provided to ing the length of the bar by the length of the block including
support the bond beam until the grout has cured. one mortar joint as follows:
Solution:  Lintel blocks are needed at the top and bottom of 88 in
the opening. The number of lintel blocks needed for the top of Blocks = = 5.5 blocks
(15 5/8 in + 3/8 in)
the opening is calculated by dividing the width of the opening
by the length of the block including one mortar joint as follows: Six bond beam blocks are needed for each bar for a total of
40 in 18 blocks. Six of these blocks are replaced with lintel blocks;
Blocks = = 2.5 blocks therefore, 12 bond beam blocks are needed.
(15 5/8 in + 3/8 in)
The vertical rebar to the sides of the opening extends about
The number of blocks will be rounded up to three blocks. two blocks above and one block below the opening; therefore,
Three lintel blocks are needed at the top and three at the bot- six #6 bars 6 feet (16 in + 4 ft + 8 in) long are needed.
tom for a total of six. The number of standard blocks that can be deducted for
Bullnose blocks are needed at both sides. The number of the opening is determined by multiplying the number of full
bullnose blocks needed for one of the sides of the opening is blocks that can fit in the width of the opening by the number
calculated by dividing the height of the opening by the height of full blocks that can fit in the height of the opening. In this
of the block including one mortar joint as follows: case two full blocks can fit in the width of the opening and six
(4 ft)(12 in/ft) full blocks can fit in the height of the opening. The number of
Blocks = = 6 blocks standard blocks that can be deducted is 12 (6 * 2). The bond
(7 5/8 in + 3/8 in)
beam blocks, bullnose blocks, and lintel blocks will replace
Twelve bullnose blocks are needed. standard blocks. A total of 42 (12 + 12 + 12 + 6) standard
The horizontal #6 rebar above and below the opening blocks may be deducted from the estimate for the opening.
extends about a block and a half (about 24 in) beyond the Two 3-foot 4-inch-long 2 * 8s are needed for the
opening in both directions; therefore, three #6 bars 7 foot 4 top and bottom of the opening. Three 3-foot 9-inch-long
inches (2 ft + 3 ft 4 in + 2 ft) long are needed. Bond beam (4 ft - 1 1/2 in - 1 1/2 in) 2 * 8s are needed for the sides
blocks are needed for each of these bars. The number of bond and center of the opening. Order three 8-foot-long 2 * 8s. ■

EXCEL QUICK TIP 6-1


Block Wall
The numbers of standard blocks, bond beam blocks, needed for a block wall are set up in a spreadsheet by
bars of horizontal rebar, and bars of vertical rebar entering the data and formatting the cells as follows:

A B C
1 Wall Length 100 ft
2 - in
3 Wall Height 10 ft
4 - in
5 Block Length 15.625 in
6 Block Height 7.625 in
7 Joint Thickness 0.375 in
8 Bond Beam Spacing 48 in
9 Number of Horizontal Bars per Bond Beam 2 ea
10 Splice Length for Bond Beam Rebar 15.00 in
11 Order Length of Horizontal Rebar 20.00 ft
12 Vertical Rebar Spacing 32 in
13 Splice Length for Vertical Rebar 18.75 in
14 Mortar 5 cft/100 sft
15 Grout 17 cft/100 sft
16
17 Rows 15 ea
18 Columns 75 ea
19 Bond Beams 3 ea
20 Standard Blocks 900 ea
21 Bond Beam Blocks 225 ea
22 Horizontal Rebar 32 ea
23 Length of Vertical Rebar (1) 67 in
24 Vertical Rebar (1) 39 ea
25 Length of Vertical Rebar (2) 71 in
26 Vertical Rebar (2) 39 ea
27 Mortar 1.9 cyd
28 Grout 6.3 cyd

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Masonry 111

In this spreadsheet, if the distance between the B25 =IF((B3*12+B4-(B19-1)*B8)>24,


second-to-last bond beam and the top of the wall is B3*12+B4-(B19-1)*B8-1,B3*12+B4-
24 inches or less, the last vertical bar runs from the (B19-2)*B8-1)
third-to-last bond beam to 1 inch below the top of the B26 =ROUNDUP((B1*12+B2)/B12,0)+1
wall. The Length of Vertical Rebar (1) and the Vertical
B27 =(B1+B2/12)*(B3+B4/12)*B14/
Rebar (1) are used to calculate the vertical rebar for (100*27)
the wall from the bottom of the wall to the second-to-
last or third-to-last bond beam. The Length of Vertical B28 =(B1+B2/12)*(B3+B4/12)*B15/
(100*27)
Rebar (2) and the Vertical Rebar (2) are used to calcu-
late the last vertical rebar for the wall, which runs from
the second-to-last or third-to-last bond beam to 1 inch
below the top of the wall. The following formulas need The data for the block wall is entered in Cells B1
to be entered into the associated cells: through B15. Cell B20 determines the total number of
blocks and subtracts the number of bond beam blocks.
Cell 23 determines the length of the vertical rebar for
all of the wall except the wall above the second-to-last
Cell Formula or third-to-last bond beam by adding the lap on the
B17 =ROUNDUP((B3*12+B4)/(B6+B7),0) vertical rebar to the spacing between the bond beams.
Cell C25 determines the length of the last vertical rebar
B18 =ROUNDUP((B1*12+B2)/(B5+B7),0)
for the wall by determining the distance between the
B19 =ROUNDUP((B3*12+B4)/B8,0) second-to-last or third-to-last bond beam and the top
B20 =B17*B18-B21 of the wall and subtracting 1 inch. An IF function
is used in Cells B24 and B25 to determine if the last
B21 =B18*B19
vertical bar runs from the second-to-last or third-to-
B22 =ROUNDUP((B1+B2/12)*B19*B9/ last bond beam based upon the distance between the
(B11-B10/12),0) second-to-last bond beam and the top of the wall. The
B23 =ROUNDUP(B8+B13,0) data shown in the foregoing figure is from Example 6-1
B24 =IF((B3*12+B4-(B19-1)*B8)>24, and is formatted using the comma style, which replaces
(B19-1)*B26,(B19-2)*B26) zeros with dashes.

BRICK VENEER Solution:  Using Eq. (4-14) to find the number of rows of
brick, we get the following:
The work package for brick veneer includes brick,
weather barrier, lintels, mortar, and ties. The brick (10 ft)(12 in/ft)
NumberRows = = 40 rows
and ties are treated as sheet goods and the mortar is (2 1/2 in + 1/2 in)
treated as a quantity-from-quantity good. The best way
Using Eq. (4-17) to get the number of columns, we get the
to determine the quantities of mortar is based on past following:
experience. The brick veneer must bear on a footing,
foundation wall, or a steel ledger created by bolting steel (50 ft)(12 in/ ft)
NumberColumns = = 50 columns
angle iron to the wall. Steel angle iron is used as lintels (11 1/2 in + 1/2 in)
over window and door openings and must be bolted to
the wall or bear on the brick at the sides of the opening. Using Eq. (4-18), we calculate the number of blocks needed
A common bearing distance for steel lintels is 4 inches. as follows:
The quantity takeoff for brick walls is shown in the fol- Number = (40 rows)(50 columns) = 2,000 blocks
lowing example.
The ties are laid out in rows and columns along the wall.
A column will occur every 3 feet along the wall. The columns
Example 6-3 will consist of seven rows of ties, which are located at 1 foot 6
inches, 3 feet, 4 feet 6 inches, 6 feet, 7 feet 6 inches, 9 feet, and
Determine the number of bricks, corrugated masonry ties, and 9 feet 9 inches above the base of the wall. A tie is not needed at
mortar needed to face a wall 50 feet long by 10 feet high. The the base of the wall because it will bear on a footing, founda-
brick is 2 1/2 inches high by 3 1/2 inches wide by 11 1/2 inches tion, or steel lintel. Using Eq. (4-1) to determine the number of
long. Allow for a 1/2-inch mortar joint. The spacing between vertical columns of ties, we get the following:
the ties is to be 18 inches measured vertically and 36 inches
measured horizontally. Historically, 10.2 cubic feet of mortar 50 ft
Number = + 1 = 18 columns
is required per 100 square feet of brick. 3 ft

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112 CHAPTER SIX

The number of ties is 126 (7 rows * 18 columns). The area of


the wall is calculated as follows: The following formulas need to be entered into the
associated cells:
Area = (50 ft)(10 ft) = 500 ft2
The number of cubic yards of mortar needed is calculated as Cell Formula
follows:
10.2 ft3 1 yd3 B12 =ROUNDUP((B3*12+B4)/(B6+B7),0)
Volume = (500 ft2) ¢ ≤¢ ≤ = 1.9 yd3 ■
100 ft 2
27 ft3 B13 =ROUNDUP((B1*12+B2)/(B5+B7),0)

B14 =B12*B13
EXCEL QUICK TIP 6-2 B15 =ROUNDUP((B3*12+B4)/B8,0)
Brick Wall
B16 =ROUNDUP((B1*12+B2)/B9,0)+1
The numbers of bricks and brick ties needed for a B17 =B15*B16
brick wall are set up in a spreadsheet by entering the
data and formatting the cells as follows: B18 =(B1+B2/12)*(B3+B4/12)*B10/
(100*27)
A B C
1 Wall Length 50 ft The data for the brick wall is entered in Cells B1
2 - in through B10. The data shown in the foregoing fig-
3 Wall Height 10 ft ure is from Example 6-6 and is formatted using the
4 - in
comma style, which replaces zeros with dashes.
5 Brick Length 11.500 in
6 Brick Height 2.500 in
7 Joint Thickness 0.500 in
8 Vertical Tie Spacing 18 in
9 Horizontal Tie Spacing 36 in
10 Mortar 10.2 cft/100 sft
11
12 Rows of Brick 40 ea EXAMPLE 6-4
13 Columns of Brick 50 ea
A 4-foot wide opening is placed in a brick wall. The top of the
14 Bricks 2,000 ea
opening is supported by an L3 * 3 * 3/8 steel lintel. Deter-
15 Rows of Ties 7 ea
16 Columns of Ties 18 ea mine the minimum length of the lintel.
17 Ties 126 ea Solution:  Allow 4 inches of bearing on both sides of the lin-
18 Mortar 1.9 cyd tel. The lintel needs to be 4 feet 8 inches (4 in + 4 ft + 4 in)
long.  ■

CONCLUSION PROBLEMS
Masonry consists of block, structural brick, and brick 1. Determine the number of 7 5/8-inch-high by 5
veneer. The work package for a block or structural 5/8-inch-wide by 15 5/8-inch-long concrete blocks
brick wall includes the block or brick, reinforcement, required to complete a wall 80 feet long by 12 feet
mortar, grout, insulation, and imbeds and anchor bolts high. Allow for a 3/8-inch mortar joint.
used to connect the building components to the wall. 2. How many of the blocks in Problem 1 need to be bond
The block and brick are treated as a sheet good. The beam blocks if the bond beams are 4 feet on center?
vertical rebar is treated as a counted item; the horizontal
rebar is treated as a linear good. The mortar and grout 3. Determine the number of 20-foot-long #4 bars
are treated as quantity-from-quantity goods. The work needed for the wall in Problem 1 if the wall is
package for brick veneer includes brick, weather bar- horizontally reinforced by bond beams at 4 feet on
rier, lintels, and ties. The brick and ties are treated as a center. Each bond beam has two each #4 bars. The
sheet good and the mortar is treated as a quantity-from- rebar is to be lapped 18 inches.
quantity good.

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Masonry 113

4. Determine the quantity and length of vertical rebar vertically reinforced with #5 rebar at 32 inches on
needed for the wall in Problem 1 if the wall is ver- center. The rebar is to be lapped 18 inches.
tically reinforced with #5 rebar at 32 inches on 11. Determine the quantity of mortar needed for the
center. The rebar is to be lapped 18 inches. wall in Problem 7 if 4.3 cubic feet of mortar is
5. Determine the quantity of mortar needed for the required per 100 square feet of block.
wall in Problem 1 if 4.5 cubic feet of mortar is 12. Determine the quantity of grout needed for the wall
required per 100 square feet of block. in Problem 7 if 16 cubic feet of grout is required per
6. Determine the quantity of grout needed for the wall 100 square feet of block.
in Problem 1 if 18 cubic feet of grout is required per 13. Determine the number of specialty blocks needed,
100 square feet of block. additional rebar required, and number of standard
7. Determine the number of 7 5/8-inch-high by 5 blocks that can be deducted when building a wall
5/8-inch-wide by 15 5/8-inch-long concrete blocks with the opening shown in Figure 6-4. The wall is
required to complete a wall 160 feet long by 8 feet constructed of 7 5/8-inch-high by 7 5/8-inch-wide
high. Allow for a 3/8-inch mortar joint. by 15 5/8-inch-long blocks with a 3/8-inch mortar
8. How many of the blocks in Problem 7 need to be joint. The blocks at the top and bottom of the open-
bond beam blocks if the bond beams are 4 feet on ing are to be the lintel block shown in Figure 6-3,
center? with the blocks at the bottom placed upside down
to provide a smooth surface. Bullnose blocks are
9. Determine the number of 20-foot-long #4 bars
to be provided at the sides of the opening. A 2 * 8
needed for the wall in Problem 7 if the wall is
wood frame with a center support will be provided
horizontally reinforced by bond beams at 4 feet on
to support the bond beam until the grout has cured.
center. Each bond beam has two #4 bars. The rebar
is to be lapped 18 inches. 14. Determine the number of specialty blocks needed,
additional rebar required, and number of standard
10. Determine the quantity and length of vertical rebar
blocks that can be deducted when building a wall
needed for the wall in Problem 7 if the wall is

FIGURE 6-4 Opening

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114 CHAPTER SIX

FIGURE 6-5 Openings

with the openings shown in Figure 6-5. The wall is 18. Determine the number of 3 1/2-inch-high by 3
constructed of 7 5/8-inch-high by 7 5/8-inch-wide 1/2-inch-wide by 11 1/2-inch-long bricks that are
by 15 5/8-inch-long blocks with a 3/8-inch mortar required to face a wall 40 feet long by 8 feet high.
joint. The blocks at the top and bottom of the open- Allow for a 1/2-inch mortar joint.
ings are to be the lintel block shown in Figure 6-3, 19. Determine the number of corrugated masonry ties
with the blocks at the bottom placed upside down that are required to complete the wall in Prob-
to provide a smooth surface. Bullnose blocks are lem 18. The spacing between the ties is to be 24
to be provided at the sides of the opening. A 2 * 8 inches measured vertically and 24 inches measured
wood frame will be provided to support the bond horizontally.
beam until the grout has cured.
20. Determine the quantity of mortar needed for the
15. Determine the number of 2 1/2-inch-high by 3 wall in Problem 18 if 7.5 cubic feet of mortar is
1/2-inch-wide by 11 1/2-inch-long bricks that are required per 100 square feet of brick.
required to face a wall 80 feet long by 4 feet high.
21. Determine the brick veneer and ties needed to com-
Allow for a 1/2-inch mortar joint.
plete the Johnson Residence given in Appendix G.
16. Determine the number of corrugated masonry ties
22. Determine the block and rebar needed to complete
that are required to complete the wall in Problem 15.
the West Street Video project given in Appendix G.
The spacing between the ties is to be 12 inches meas-
The continuous rebar is to be lapped 18 inches and
ured vertically and 24 inches measured horizontally.
will be ordered in 20-foot lengths.
17. Determine the quantity of mortar needed for the
23. Set up Excel Quick Tip 6-1 in Excel.
wall in Problem 15 if 9.7 cubic feet of mortar is
required per 100 square feet of brick. 24. Set up Excel Quick Tip 6-2 in Excel.

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