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27/03/2017

Session  3:  Publica0on  Ethics  


 
Prof.  Dr.  Zainal  Salam,  
Centre  of  Electrical    
Energy  Systems,  
UTM  Johor  Bahru  
Malaysia  
 
For  CEES  and  FKE,  
Post  Graduates  Students.  
28  and  29  March  2017  

www.utm.my     innovaIve  ●  entrepreneurial  ●  global   1  

Research  Misconduct  
As defined by Office of Research Integrity, US
Dept. of Health and Human Services

Research misconduct means fabrication,


falsification and plagiarism in proposing,
performing, or reviewing or reporting
research results
Honest error or difference in opinion is not included
in this definition

Known as FFP
www.utm.my     innovaIve  ●  entrepreneurial  ●  global   2  

Imprtant  Aspects  of  Publishing  in  High  Impac  


Journals.                                                                                                                                
Prof  Zainal  Salam,  UTM  Johor  Bahru   1  
27/03/2017  

Research  Misconduct  
Fabrication :
making up data/results which does not exist and
recording them
Falsification:
Manipulating research material, processes, result to
achieve pre-planned outcomes
Omitting data such that the results are not accurately
represented.

Plagiarism:
Using other person(s) material, ideas, sentences,
paragraph, pictures etc. without appropriately
acknowledging them.
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Data  Fabrica0on/Falsifica0on  
 

v “Trimming”: altering data

v “Cooking”: selective reporting of data

v “Forging”: making up the data

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Imprtant  Aspects  of  Publishing  in  High  Impac  


Journals.                                                                                                                                
Prof  Zainal  Salam,  UTM  Johor  Bahru   2  
27/03/2017  

Consequences  
●  Manipulate  data  with  intenIon  to  that  deceive  
others  (cheaIng)  
●   Failure  to  honestly  fulfil  scienIfic  obligaIons.    
●  Mislead  their  colleagues  
●   PotenIally  impede  progress  in  their  field  or  
research.    
●  Undermine  their  own  authority  and  
trustworthiness  as  researchers  (lose  credibility).  

www.utm.my     innovaIve  ●  entrepreneurial  ●  global   5  

In  Research  and  
Publica0on,  
FFP  is    a  CRIME!  

www.utm.my     innovaIve  ●  entrepreneurial  ●  global   6  

Imprtant  Aspects  of  Publishing  in  High  Impac  


Journals.                                                                                                                                
Prof  Zainal  Salam,  UTM  Johor  Bahru   3  
27/03/2017  

High  profile  case  

The Telegraph 26 Oct 2009

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Plagiarism  and  Self-­‐Plagiarism    

DEFINITION  
● Plagiarism:  using  the  ideas  or  words  
of  another  person  without  giving  
appropriate  credit  

● Self-­‐Plagiarism:  The  copying  or  reuse  


of  one’s  own  research    

www.utm.my     innovaIve  ●  entrepreneurial  ●  global   8  

Imprtant  Aspects  of  Publishing  in  High  Impac  


Journals.                                                                                                                                
Prof  Zainal  Salam,  UTM  Johor  Bahru   4  
27/03/2017  

Plagiarism  
 
² All  sources  should  be  disclosed  through  
appropriate  cita0on  or  quota0on  
convenIons.  

² If  a  large  amount  of  other  people’s  


wri[en  or  illustraIve  material  is  to  be  
used,  permission  must  be  sought.  

 
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To  Avoid  Self    Plagiarism  


●  Journals  not  interested  to  reproduce  published  
material  (self  plagiarism)  as  it  consumes  
valuable  space.  

●  Sentences  need  to  be  “paraphrased”    

●  Use  quotaIon  mark  for  short  quotes,  and  cite  


the  original  version    

●  Permission  must  be  obtained  to  reproduce  large  


objects,  e.g.  pictures,  tables  etc.  

www.utm.my     innovaIve  ●  entrepreneurial  ●  global   10  

Imprtant  Aspects  of  Publishing  in  High  Impac  


Journals.                                                                                                                                
Prof  Zainal  Salam,  UTM  Johor  Bahru   5  
27/03/2017  

How  Journals  Detect    Plagiarism  


Ø Similarity check by Journal Admin before
review process using software, for example
turnitin and crosscheck.

Ø Information from reviewers or other editors

Ø Withdrawal of a paper from publication or


review process (by authors)

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Consequences  

Ø Papers  are  retracted  from  journal  

Ø Authors  banned  from  publicaIon  in  the  


journal  (and  possibly  other  journals  too).  
 
Ø Authors  are  placed  on  a  “watch  list”.  
Future  submissions  will  be  subjected  to  
careful  examinaIon  

www.utm.my     innovaIve  ●  entrepreneurial  ●  global   12  

Imprtant  Aspects  of  Publishing  in  High  Impac  


Journals.                                                                                                                                
Prof  Zainal  Salam,  UTM  Johor  Bahru   6  
27/03/2017  

High  profile  case  

www.utm.my     innovaIve  ●  entrepreneurial  ●  global   13  

Other  Ethical  Issues    

● Authorships  
● MulIple  submissions  
● Human/Animal  violaIons  
● Conflict  of  Interest  

www.utm.my     innovaIve  ●  entrepreneurial  ●  global   14  

Imprtant  Aspects  of  Publishing  in  High  Impac  


Journals.                                                                                                                                
Prof  Zainal  Salam,  UTM  Johor  Bahru   7  
27/03/2017  

Examples  of  retracted  papers  

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Authorships  

www.utm.my     innovaIve  ●  entrepreneurial  ●  global   16  

Imprtant  Aspects  of  Publishing  in  High  Impac  


Journals.                                                                                                                                
Prof  Zainal  Salam,  UTM  Johor  Bahru   8  
27/03/2017  

www.utm.my     innovaIve  ●  entrepreneurial  ●  global   17  

Sequence  of  Authorship  

First Author:
Doing most of the
writing/work

Second Author:
Supervisor/Second
most contributor

www.utm.my     innovaIve  ●  entrepreneurial  ●  global   18  

Imprtant  Aspects  of  Publishing  in  High  Impac  


Journals.                                                                                                                                
Prof  Zainal  Salam,  UTM  Johor  Bahru   9  
27/03/2017  

Who  qualify  as  Authors?  

“Authorship  credit  should  be  based  only  on  


 1)  substanIal  contribuIons  to  concepIon  and  
design,  or  acquisiIon  of  data,  or  analysis  and  
interpretaIon  of  data;    
2)  drading  the  arIcle  or  revising  it  criIcally  for  
important  intellectual  content;  and    
3)  final  approval  of  the  version  to  be  published.    
 Condi0ons  1,  2,  and  3  must  all  be  met.  “  

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Duplicate  Submissions  

●   Most  journals  consider  simultaneously  


submi[ed  manuscripts  is  not  acceptable  
–   May  cause  disagreement  over  right  to  publish  
(among  publishers)  
–   Unnecessary  duplicaIon  of  peer  review  and  ediIng  

●   However,  it  Is  acceptable  if    


–  Paper  has  been  rejected  by  another  journal  
–  the  paper  is  withdrawn  

www.utm.my     innovaIve  ●  entrepreneurial  ●  global   20  

Imprtant  Aspects  of  Publishing  in  High  Impac  


Journals.                                                                                                                                
Prof  Zainal  Salam,  UTM  Johor  Bahru   10  
27/03/2017  

zainals@fke.utm.my

www.utm.my     innovaIve  ●  entrepreneurial  ●  global   21  

Imprtant  Aspects  of  Publishing  in  High  Impac  


Journals.                                                                                                                                
Prof  Zainal  Salam,  UTM  Johor  Bahru   11