# Design of I.C.

Engine Parts
By:
Er. Shankar Sehgal
Faculty of Mech. Engg., UIET,
Panjab University, Chandigarh
Website: http://shankarsehgal.weebly.com
I.C. Engine
Design of Cylinder
• Types of stresses:
– Stresses due to Gas Pressure
• Longitudinal Stresses
• Circumferential Stresses
– Stresses due to Piston Side Thrust
Design of Cylinder
• Bore and Length of Cylinder:
• Where,
– ; I.P. = Indicated Power, B.P. = Brake Power
– pm is indicated mean effective pressure
– l is length of stroke = 1.5 D
– A is cross-sectional bore area of cylinder
– n is number of working strokes per minute
• Length of Cylinder = 1.15 l
60
. .
lAn p
P I
m
=
mech
P B
P I

. .
. . =
Design of Cylinder
• Thickness of Cylinder Wall:
• Based upon thin cylinder formula
• Where C is allowance for reboring
C
pD
t
c
+ =
 2
Design of Cylinder Flange
• Cylinder flange thickness = 1.4 t
• Considering tensile failure of cylinder flange
bolts:
• Use bolts of diameter greater than 16 mm only
2
2
4
4
c
d
n
p D
A
F

|
.
|

\
|
= =
• Considering tensile failure of cylinder head
bolts:
c
h
p C
D t

.
=
2
2
4
4
c
d
n
p D
A
F

|
.
|

\
|
= =
Design of Piston
Piston of I.C. Engine
Design Considerations for Piston
• High strength to withstand the high gas
pressure and inertia forces.
• Low weight density
• Low coefficient of thermal expansion
• High heat conductivity
Materials for Piston
• C.I.
• Cast Aluminium
• Cast Steel
• Forged Aluminium
• Forged Steel
• Considering tensile strength requirement:
– Using Grashoff’s Formula
t
H
D p
t
 16
. 3
2
=
• Considering heat dissipation requirement:
• Where,
– H is heat flow rate
– k is coefficient of thermal conductivity
– T
C
is Temperature at centre of the piston
– T
E
is Temperature at edges of the piston
( )
E C
H
T T k
H
t
÷
=
56 . 12
Design of Piton Rings
• Compression Rings
– Three to seven in number
– Transfer heat from piston to cylinder liner
– Absorb side thrust on piston
– Cross-section is rectangular
– Diameter is slightly larger than cylinder bore
– Diagonal or step cut is provided
• Oil Control Rings
– Help in lubrication of liner
Design of Piston Rings
rings
n
D
t
10
2
=
t
w
p
D t

3
1
=
Design of Piston Rings
• Width of top land
• Width of other ring lands
H
t b =
1
2 2
t b =
Design of Piston Barrel
9 . 4
100
3
1 3
+ + = t D t
3 4
4
1
t t =
Design of Piston Skirt
• Considering
bearing failure of
piston skirt:
skirt
b
Dl
D p
p
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
4 10
1 
Design of Piston Pin
• Considering bearing failure of piston pin:
• Where,
1 0
2
4
l d
D p
p
b

=
D l 45 . 0
1
=
Design of Piston Pin
• Considering bending failure of piston pin:
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
.
|

\
|
× ÷ ×
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
64
4 2 2 2
2
4 4
1 2
i o
o
d d
l P l P
d
I
M
y

Design of Connecting Rod
Connecting Rod
Ratio
• l = length of connecting rod
• r = radius of crank
• Small
– small and compact engines
– large angular motion of connecting rod
– large side thrust of connecting rod
– rapid wear and tear of cylinder liner
5 _ _ 4 to
r
l
=
r
l
r
l