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UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

COLLEGE OF LAW
DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY

COURSE OUTLINE IN CRIMINAL LAW REVIEW


First Semester, AY 2018 - 2019

Dan Peruelo Calica

INTRODUCTION

A. Course Guidelines and Overview

B. Penological objectives
A.F. Tadiar, Philosophy of a Penal Code, 52 PHIL.L.J.
165 (1977)

PART I

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINAL LAW

I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINAL LAW

A. Definitions

1. Criminal law

“Criminal law is that branch or division of law which defines


crimes, treats of their nature, and provides for their punishment.”
[Luis B. Reyes, The Revised Penal Code, Eighteenth Edition, 2012,
at 1, citing 12 Cyc. 129]

It is that branch of public substantive law which defines


offenses and prescribes their penalties. It is substantive because it
defines the state’s right to inflict punishment and the liability of the
offenders. It is public law because it deals with the relation of the
individual with the state.

a. Bustos v. Lucero, 81 Phil. 640 (1948)

2. Crime

Crime is an act committed or omitted in violation of a public


law forbidding or commanding it. [Reyes, supra, at 1, citing I
Bouvier’s Law Dictionary, Rawle’s Third Revision, 729]

B. Nullum crimen nulla poena sine lege

1. “Applicable here is a familiar maxim in criminal law: Nullum


crimen nulla poena sine lege. There is no crime where there is
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no law punishing it.” [Potenciana Evangelista v. People, G.R.


Nos. 108135-36, 14 August 2000]

2. The maxim Nullum crimen nulla poena sine lege has its roots
in history. It is in accordance with both centuries of civil law
and common law tradition. Moreover, it is an indispensable
corollary to a regime of liberty enshrined in our Constitution.
It is of the essence then that while anti-social acts should be
penalized, there must be a clear definition of the punishable
offense as well as the penalty that may be imposed - a
penalty, to repeat, that can be fixed by the legislative body,
and the legislative body alone. So constitutionalism
mandates, with its stress on jurisdictio rather than
guvernaculum. The judiciary as the dispenser of justice
through law must be aware of the limitation on its own
power. [Concurring Opinion, Justice Fernando, People v.
Cabural, G.R. No. 34105, 4 February 1983]

3. “Although courts must not remain indifferent to public


sentiments, in this case the general condemnation of a
hazing-related death, they are still bound to observe a
fundamental principle in our criminal justice system – ‘[N]o
act constitutes a crime… unless it is made so by law.’
Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege. Even if an act is
viewed by a large section of the populace as immoral or
injurious, it cannot be considered a crime, absent any law
prohibiting its commission. As interpreters of the law, judges
are called upon to set aside emotion, to resist being swayed
by strong public sentiments, and to rule strictly based on the
elements of the offense and the facts allowed in evidence.”
[Artemio Villareal v. People, G.R. Nos. 151258, 154954,
155101, 178057 & 178080, 1 February 2012]

4. Sources of Philippine criminal law

a. The Revised Penal Code (Act No. 3815) and


amendments thereto

b. Special penal laws

c. Penal provisions in other laws

d. Local ordinances

5. REV. PEN. CODE, art. 5, 21


United States v. Carson Taylor, 28 Phil. 599 (1914)
Lito Corpuz v. People of the Philippines, G.R. No. 180016, 29
April 2014
REP. ACT NO. 10951 (2016)

C. State authority to punish crimes

1. The right to prosecute and punish crimes is an attribute of


sovereignty
3

“Each State has the authority, under its police power,


to define and punish crimes” [People v. Santiago, 43 Phil.
120 (1922)]

“The right to prosecute and punish crimes is an


attribute of sovereignty” [People v. Santiago, 43 Phil. 120
(1922)]

“The right and prosecution for a crime is one of the


attributes that by a natural law belong to the sovereign
power instinctively charged by the common will of the
members of the society to look after, guard and defend the
interests of the community, the individual and social rights
and the liberties of every citizen and the guaranty of the
exercise of his rights.” [United States v. Pablo, 35 Phil. 94
(1916)]

2. Police power

a. People v. Evangeline Siton and Krystel Kate Sagarano,


G.R. No. 169364, 18 September 2009

“Police power is an inherent attribute of


sovereignty. It has been defined as the power vested by
the Constitution in the legislature to make, ordain,
and establish all manner of wholesome and reasonable
laws, statutes and ordinances, either with penalties or
without, not repugnant to the Constitution, as they
shall judge to be for the good and welfare of the
commonwealth, and for the subjects of the same. The
power is plenary and its scope is vast and pervasive,
reaching and justifying measures for public health,
public safety, public morals, and the general welfare.”

b. CONST., art. II, sec. 5

3. Who exercises police power?

a. CONST., art. VI, sec. 1

b. CONST., art. II, sec. 1

c. People v. Evangeline Siton and Krystel Kate Sagarano,


supra

“The power to define crimes and prescribe their


corresponding penalties is legislative in nature and
inherent in the sovereign power of the state to
maintain social order as an aspect of police power. The
legislature may even forbid and penalize acts formerly
considered innocent and lawful provided that no
constitutional rights have been abridged.”
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d. Delegated legislative power to local government units

(i) Rep. Act No. 7160 (1991), sec. 16, 48, 447(a)(1)
(ii), (iii), (v) and (vi), 458(a)(1)(ii), (iii), (v) and (vi),
468(a)(1)(ii), (iii), (v) and (vi)
(ii) Mayor Pablo Magtajas v. Pryce Properties Corp.,
G.R. No. 111097, 20 July 1994

2. Limitations on power to enact penal legislation

a. Due process and vagueness

(i) People v. Evangeline Siton and Krystel Kate


Sagarano, supra

(ii) Estrada v. Sandiganbayan, 421 Phil. 290 (2001)

(iii) Alfredo Romualdez v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No.


152259, 29 July 2004

(iv) Southern Hemisphere Engagement Network, Inc.


v. Anti-Terrorism Council, G.R. Nos. 178552,
178554, 178581, 178890, 179157 & 179461,
October 5, 2010, 632 SCRA 146

b. Effectivity of penal laws

(i) CIV. CODE, art. 2

(ii) Exec. Order No. 292, sec. 18 and 24 and C.A.


No. 638 (1941)

(iii) REV. PEN. CODE, art. 1, 21, 22 and 366

(iv) Pesigan v. Angeles, 129 SCRA 174 (1984)

(v) Tañada v. Tuvera, 136 SCRA 27 (1985)

(vi) Tañada v. Tuvera, 146 SCRA 446 (1986)

(vii) Nagkakaisang Maralita ng Sitio Masigasig, Inc.


V. Military Shrine Service Philippine Veterans
Affairs Office, G.R. No. 187587, 5 June 2013

c. Ex-post facto law

(i) CONST. (1987), art. III, sec. 22

(ii) REV. PEN. CODE, art. 1, 22

(iii) In re. Kay Villegas Kami, Inc., 35 SCRA 429


(1970)

(iv) People v. Villaraza, 81 SCRA 95 (1978)


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(v) U.S. v. Diaz-Conde, 42 Phil. 766 (1922)

d. Bill of attainder

(i) CONST. (1987), art. III, sec. 22

(ii) People v. Ferrer, 48 SCRA 382 (1972)

3. Other Constitutional and statutory limitations and the rights


of the accused

a. CONST. (1987), art. III, secs. 1, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18,
19, 20, 21

b. RULES OF COURT, Rule 115

D. Characteristics of criminal law

1. General

a. CONST. (1987), art. VI, sec. 1

b. CIV. CODE, art. 14

c. Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of


the Philippines and the Government of the United
States of America Regarding the Treatment of United
States Armed Forces Visiting the Philippines, 10
February 1998 (Visiting Forces Agreement)

d. REP. ACT NO. 75

e. REP. ACT NO. 7055


Cf. PRES. DECREE No. 1850

f. CONST., art. VI, sec. 11 and art. XI, sec. 2

g. Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961) and


Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963)

h. Cases:

(i) United States v. Sweet, 1 Phil. 18 (1901)

(ii) Liang v. People, 323 SCRA 692 (2000)


Read also Annotation on “Various Categories of
Diplomatic Immunity from Local
Jurisdiction” in 323 SCRA 699-715 (2000)

(iii) Schneckenburger v. Moran, 63 Phil. 249 (1936)

(iv) Khosrow Minucher v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No.


142396, 11 February 2003
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2. Territorial

a. REV. PEN. CODE, art. 2

b. CONST. (1987), art. I

c. Visiting Forces Agreement, art. V

d. REP. ACT NO. 9372 (2007), sec. 58

e. REP. ACT NO. 10173 (2012), sec. 6

f. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea


(UNCLOS), art. 2, 3, 27, 29-33, 46-49, 55

g. Cases:

(i) Miquiabas v. Commanding General, 80 Phil. 262


(1948)

(ii) United States v. Bull, 15 Phil. 7 (1910)

(iii) United States v. Look Chaw, 18 Phil. 573 (1910)

(iv) United States v. Ah Sing, 36 Phil. 978 (1917)

(v) People v. Wong Cheng, 46 Phil. 729 (1922)

(vi) People v. Lo-lo & Saraw, 43 Phil. 19 (1922)

3. Prospective

a. REV. PEN. CODE, arts. 1, 21, 22

A person shall be deemed to be habitual delinquent, if


within a period of ten (10) years from the date of his
release or last conviction of the crimes of serious or less
serious physical injuries, robo, hurto, estafa or
falsification, he is found guilty of any of said crimes a
third time or oftener. [ Revised Penal Code, art. 62(5), as
amended by Rep. Act No. 7659, sec. 23]

b. CIV. CODE, art. 4

c. Cases:

(i) People v. Ringor, 320 SCRA 342 (1999)

(ii) In Re: Kay Villegas Kami, Inc., supra

(iii) Gumabon v. Director of Prisons, 37 SCRA 420


(1971)

(iv) People v. Pimentel, 288 SCRA 542 (1998)


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E. Construction/Interpretation of Penal Laws

1. Strict construction against the State and liberally in favor of


the accused
CONST. (1987), art. III, sec. 14(2)
People v. Garcia, 85 Phil. 651 (1950)

2. Spanish text of the Revised Penal Code prevails over its


English transaction
People v. Manaba, 58 Phil. 665 (1933)

3. Retroactive application if favorable to the accused


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 22

4. Prescribed, but undeserved, penalties


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 5, 2nd par.

5. Effects of repeal/amendment of penal law

a. Tuates v. Bersamin, G.R. No. 138962, 4 October 2002

b. Benedicto v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 125359, 4


September 2001

c. People v. Garcia, supra

II. FELONIES AND CRIMINAL LIABILITY

REV. PEN. CODE, art. 3-10

A. Felonies

1. Definition/Elements
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 3

a. Act
People v. Gonzales, 183 SCRA 309 (1990)

b. Omission

(i) REV. PEN. CODE, art. 116, 137, 208, 213(2)(b),


224, 234, 275(1)
(ii) People v. Sylvestre and Atienza, 56 Phil. 353
(1931)

c. Punishable by the Revised Penal Code

(i) Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege


(“There is no crime when there is no law
punishing it.”)

(ii) REV. PEN. CODE, art. 3, 5, 1st par., sec. 21

(iii) United States v. Carson Taylor, supra


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(iv) Lito Corpuz v. People of the Philippines, supra

2. How committed
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 3, 365
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 205, 208, 217, 224

a. Dolo

(i) Elements

(ii) Presumption of intent


United States v. Apostol, 14 Phil. 92 (1909)
United States v. Catolico, 18 Phil. 504 (1911)
RULES OF COURT, Rule 131, sec. 3(b)

(iii) General and specific intent


People v. Puno, 219 SCRA 85 (1993)
People v. Delim, 396 SCRA 386 (2003)

(iv) Intent and Motive


People v. Temblor, 161 SCRA 623 (1988)
People v. Hassan, 157 SCRA 261 (1988)
People v. Delim, supra

(v) Mistake of fact


United States v. Ah Chong, 15 Phil. 488
(1910)
People v. Oanis, 74 Phil. 257 (1943)

b. Culpa

(i) Quizon v. Justice of the Peace, G.R. No. L-6641,


28 July 1955

(ii) Venancio M. Sevilla v. People, G.R. No. 194390,


13 August 2014

(iii) Elements
People v. Carmen, 355 SCRA 267 (2001)

(iv) Distinguished from dolo


People v. Pugay, 167 SCRA 439 (1988)

B. Crimes defined and penalized by special laws

1. Crimes Mala in se and Mala prohibita

a. Arsenio B. Garcia v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No.


157171, 14 March 2006

b. Dandy L. Dungo v. People, G.R. No. 209464, 1 July


2015

c. Lozano v. Martinez, 146 SCRA 323 (1986)


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d. United States v. Go Chico, 14 Phil. 128 (1909)

e. Estrada v. Sandiganbayan, supra

2. Relation of RPC to special laws

a. REV. PEN. CODE, art. 10

b. REP. ACT NO. 9372, art. 52; Rep. Act No. 9165, art. 25,
26 & 98

c. Ladonga v. People, 451 SCRA 673 (2005)

d. People v. Enriquez, 281 SCRA 103 (1997)

C. Criminal Liability

1. How incurred

a. Wrongful act done be different from what was


intended

(i) REV. PEN. CODE, art. 4(1), 13(3), 48, 49

(ii) People v. Iligan, 191 SCRA 643 (1990)

2 req'ts to be criminally liable


1) Committing an intentional felony
2)

(iii) People v. Mananquil, 132 SCRA 196 (1984)

(iv) Bataclan v. Medina, 102 Phil. 181 (1957)

(v) People v. Orlando Acuram, G.R. No. 117954, 27


April 2000

(vi) Virgilio Talampas v. People, G.R. No. 180219, 23


November 2011

(vii) People v. Guillen, 85 Phil. 307 (1950)

(viii) United States v. Brobst, 14 Phil. 310 (1909)

(ix) People v. Albuquerque, 59 Phil. 150 (1933)

(x) People v. Gona, 54 Phil. 605 (1903)

(xi) Guillermo Wacoy v. People, G.R. No. 213792, 22


June 2015

(xii) United States v. Valdez, 41 Phil. 497 (1921)

(xii) People v. William Page, 77 SCRA 348 (1977)


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b. Impossible crimes

(i) REV. PEN. CODE, art. 4(2), 59

(ii) People v. Balmores, 85 Phil. 493 (1950)

(iii) Intod v. Court of Appeals, 215 SCRA 52 (1992)

(iv) Jacinto v. People, G.R. No. 162540, 13 July


2009

2. Stages of commission

a. Definitions

(i) REV. PEN. CODE, art. 6 and 7

(ii) Esmeraldo Rivera v. People, G.R. No. 166326, 25


January 2006

(iii) United States v. Eduave, 36 Phil. 209 (1917)

(iv) People v. Listerio, 335 SCRA 40 (2000)

(v) People v. Enriquez, supra

b. Specific felonies

(i) Rape
People v. Erinia, 50 Phil. 998 (1927)
People v. Hernandez, 49 Phil. 980 (1925)
People v. Orita, 184 SCRA 105 (1990)
People v. Campuhan, 329 SCRA 270 (2000)

(ii) Theft
United States v. Adiao, 38 Phil. 754 (1918)
People v. Dino, 45 O.G. 3446
Aristotel Valenzuela v. People, G.R. No. 160188,
21 June 2007

(iii) Robbery
People v. Lamahang, 61 Phil. 703 (1935)
People v. Salvilla, 184 SCRA 671 (1990)

(iv) Murder
People v. Borinaga, 55 Phil. 433 (1930)
People v. Sy, 94 Phil. 885 (1954)
People v. Trinidad, 169 SCRA 51 (1989)

(v) Homicide
Giovani Serrano v. People, G.R. No. 175023, 5
July 2010

c. Penalties to be imposed in relation to stages of


11

commission
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 6, 7, 46, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55,
56, 57 and 60, 61 and 71

d. Rep. Act No. 9165, sec. 26

3. Conspiracy and proposal to commit a felony

a. REV. PEN. CODE, art. 8, 115, 136, 141, 186, 306

b. People v. Peralta, 25 SCRA 759 (1968)

c. Jose “Jinggoy” Estrada v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No.


148965, 26 February 2002

4. Multiple/Repeat offenders

a. Recidivism
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 14(9)
People v. Lagarto, 196 SCRA 611 (1991)
People v. Faustino Tolentino, G.R. No. L-48740, 5
August 1942

b. Habituality (Reiteracion)
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 14(10)
People v. Melchor Real, G.R. No. 93436, 24 March
1995

a. Quasi-Recidivism
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 160
People v. Nicolas Layson, G.R. No. L-25177, 31
October 1969

b. Habitual Delinquency
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 62(5)
People v. Canuto Bernal, G.R. No. L-44988, 31
October 1936

5. Classification of felonies
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 7, 9, 25, and 26
REP. ACT NO. 10951 (2016)

III. CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH AFFECT CRIMINAL LIABILITY

REV. PEN. CODE, art. 11-15

A. Justifying Circumstances
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 11, 101

1. Self-defense
People v. Boholst-Caballero, 61 SCRA 180 (1974)
People v. Alconga, 78 Phil. 366 (1947)
United States v. Mack, 8 Phil. 701 (1907)
People v. Sumicad, 56 Phil. 643 (1932)
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2. Defense of honor
People v. Luague, 62 Phil. 504 (1935)
People v. De la Cruz, 61 Phil. 344 (1935)
People v. Jaurigue, 76 Phil. 174 (1946)

3. Defense of property
People v. Apolinar, 38 OG 2870
United States v. Bumanglag, 14 Phil. 644 (1909)
People v. Narvaez, supra

4. Defense of relative
United States v. Esmedia, 17 Phil. 260 (1910)

5. Avoidance of a greater evil


People v. Norma Hernandez, 55 OG 8465
Ty v. People, 439 SCRA 220 (2004)

6. Fulfillment of duty
People v. Delima, 46 Phil. 738 (1922)
People v. Belbes, 334 SCRA 161 (2000)

7. Lawful order of superior


People v. Beronilla, 96 Phil. 566 (1955)

8. Battered woman syndrome


People v. Genosa, 419 SCRA 537 (2004)
Republic Act No. 9262, sec. 3 & 26

B. Exempting Circumstances
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 12, 101

1. Insanity
People v. Michael Nuñez, G.R. Nos. 112429-30, 23 July
1997
People v. Bonoan, 64 Phil. 87 (1937)
People v. Ambal, 100 SCRA 325 (1980)
People v. Melecio Robiños, G.R. No. 138453, 29 May
2002
People v. Belonio, 429 SCRA 579 (2004)

2. Somnabulism
People v. Taneo, 58 Phil. 255 (1933)

3. Minority
REP. ACT NO. 9344, as amended
REP. ACT NO. 10630
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 80
PRES. DECREE NO. 603, as amended
Rule on Juveniles in Conflict with the Law (A.M. No. 02-
1-18-SC)
People v. Doquena, 68 Phil. 580 (1939)
People v. Navarro, 51 OG 4062
Jose v. People, 448 SCRA 116 (2005)
People v. Jacinto, G.R. No. 182239, 16 March 2011
People v. Arpon, G.R. No. 183563, 14 December 2011
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4. Accident
People v. Bindoy, 56 Phil. 15 (1931)
U.S. v. Tanedo, 15 Phil. 196 (1910)
Pomoy v. People, 439 SCRA 439 (2004)

5. Irresistible force/uncontrollable fear


United States v. Caballeros, 4 Phil. 350 (1905)
United States v. Exaltacion, 3 Phil. 339 (1904)
Ty v. People, supra

6. Insuperable cause
U.S. v. Vicentillo, 19 Phil. 118 (1911)
People v. Bandian, 63 Phil. 530 (1936)

C. Mitigating Circumstances
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 13, 62, 63, 64 and 65

1. Incomplete justifying or exempting circumstances


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 67, 69

2. Minority and old age


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 68, 83
REP. ACT NO. 9344 as amended

3. Lack of intention to commit so grave a wrong


People v. Ural, 56 SCRA 138 (1974)

4. Sufficient provocation
People v. Leonor, 305 SCRA 285

5. Immediate vindication of a grave offense


United States v. Ampar, 37 Phil. 201 (1917)
People v. Pajares, 210 SCRA 237 (1992)

6. Passion or obfuscation
United States v. Hicks, 14 Phil. 217 (1909)
United States v. De la Cruz, 22 Phil. 429 (1912)

7. Voluntary surrender and confession of guilt

8. Physical defect

9. Illness
People v. Javier, 311 SCRA 576 (1999)

10. Analogous circumstances


Canta v. People, 353 SCRA 250 (2001)

D. Aggravating Circumstances
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 14, 62, 63, 64 and 65
RULES OF COURT, Rule 110, sec. 8 & 9

1. People v. Orilla, G.R. Nos. 148939-40, 13 February 2004


14

2. PO3 Benito Sombilon, Jr. v. People, G.R. No. 175528

3. People v. Rosendo Rebucan, G.R. No. 182551, 27 July 2011

4. Insult to public authorities


People v. Rodil, 109 SCRA 308 (1981)

5. Dwelling
People v. Daniel, 86 SCRA 511 (1978)

6. Nighttime/Disguise
People v. Bermas, 309 SCRA 741 (1999)

7. Evident premeditation
United States v. Manalinde, 14 Phil. 77 (1909)

8. Treachery
People v. Sangalang, 58 SCRA 737 (1974)

9. Ignominy
People v. Torrefiel, 45 OG 803
People v. Alfanta, 320 SCRA 357 (1999)

E. Alternative Circumstances
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 15

1. Relationship
People v. Orilla, supra

2. Intoxication
People v. Camano, 115 SCRA 688 (1982)

3. Degree of instruction and education of the offender

F. Absolutory Causes and Similar Situations

1. Instigation and entrapment


People v. Lua Chu, 56 Phil. 44 (1931)
United States v. Phelps, 16 Phil. 440 (1910)
People v. Florencio Doria, G.R. No. 125299, 22 January 1999

2. Absolutory causes
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 6(3), 7, 16, 20, 247, 280, 332, 344

IV. PERSONS CRIMINALLY LIABLE

REV. PEN. CODE, art. 16-20

A. In Grave and Less Grave Felonies


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 16

1. Principals
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 17

a. Principals by direct participation


15

United States v. Diris, 26 Phil. 133 (1918)

b. Principals by inducement
People v. Ong Chiat Lay, 60 Phil. 788 (1934)
United States v. Indanan, 24 Phil. 203 (1913)
People v. Kichi Omine, 61 Phil. 609 (1935)

c. Principals by indispensable cooperation


People v. Montealegre, 161 SCRA 700 (1988)
People v. Simbra, 117 SCRA 242 (1982)

2. Accomplices

a. REV. PEN. CODE, art. 18

b. People v. Nierra, 96 Phil. 1 (1980)


People v. Doble, 114 SCRA 131 (1982)
People v. Doctolero, 193 SCRA 632 (1991)
People v. Vera, 312 SCRA 640 (1999)

3. Accessories

a. REV. PEN. CODE, art. 19 and 20

b. People v. Talingdan, 84 SCRA 19 (1978)


Vino v. People, 178 SCRA 626 (1989)

c. PRES. DECREE NOS. 1612 and 1829

B. In Light Felonies
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 16

C. Corporations and officers

1. Ching v. Secretary of Justice, G.R. No. 164317, 6


February 2006

2. West Coast Insurance Co. V. Geo Hurd, G.R. No. L-8527,


30 March 1914

V. PENALTIES

REV. PEN. CODE, art. 21-88

A. General Principles

1. Constitutional limitations
CONST., art. III, sec. 1, 2, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,
20, 21, & 22

a. No ex post facto law and bill of attainder

b. Due process

c. No cruel and inhuman punishment


16

2. Prospectivity
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 1, 21, 22, Civil Code, art. 4

3. Rep. Act No. 9745 (2009)

B. Purposes

C. Penalties that may be imposed


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 21, 24, 25

1. Death penalty

a. CONST., art. III, sec. 19(1)

b. REP. ACT NO. 9346 (2006)

c. REP. ACT NO. 7659 (1993)

d. People v. Echegaray, 267 SCRA 682 (1997)

c. People v. Munoz, G.R. Nos. 38969-70, 9 February


1989

d. People v. Bon, G.R. No. 166401, 30 October 2006

g. People v. Sarcia, G.R. No. 169641, 10 September


2009

h. People v. Arpon, supra

D. Classification
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 25, 26

E. Duration and Effect


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 27 to 45

1. Reclusion perpetua v. Life imprisonment

2. Destierro
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 87

3. Preventive imprisonment
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 29
REP. ACT NO. 10592 (2013)

4. Civil interdiction
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 34

5. Bond to keep the peace


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 35

6. Subsidiary penalty
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 39
REP. ACT NO. 10159 (2012)
17

F. Application

1. Rules for the application of penalties on principals,


accomplices and accessories
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 46, 50 to 57

2. Rules for graduating penalties


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 61 to 65, 71
People v. Bon, supra

3. Complex crimes and Special complex crimes

a. REV. PEN. CODE, art. 48

b. People v. Guillen, supra

c. Enrile v. Salazar, 186 SCRA 217 (1990)

d. Napolis v. Court of Appeals, 43 SCRA 301 (1972)

e. People v. Toling, 62 SCRA 17 (1975)

f. People v. Salvilla, supra

g. People v. Valdez, 304 SCRA 611 (1999)

h. People v. Sanidad, G.R. No. 146099, 30 April 2003

i. People v. Lawas, 97 Phil. 975 (1955), unreported

4. Continued crime and Continuing crime

a. People v. De Leon, 49 Phil 437 (1926)

b. Umil v. Ramos, 187 SCRA 311 (1990)

c. Sanlakas, et.al. v. Angelo Reyes, et.al., G.R. Nos.


159085, 159103, 159185, 159196, 3 February 2004
(read only the Separate Opinion of Justice Consuelo
Ynares-Santiago)

5. Penalties in special cases


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 48, 49, 58, 59, 60, 67, 68, 69

6. Three-fold rule
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 70
Mejorada v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. Nos. L-51065-72, 30 June
1987

7. Indeterminate Sentence Law

a. ACT NO. 4103 (1933), as amended

b. People v. Simon, G.R. No. 930280, 29 July 1994,


18

234 SCRA 555 (1994)

c. Rosa Lim v. People, G.R. No. 130038, 18 September


2000

d. People v. Gabres, 267 SCRA 581, 595-596 (1997)

e. People v. Lampaza, 319 SCRA 112 (1999)

f. People v. Oyanib, G.R. No. 130634-35, 12 March


2001

g. People v. Ducosin, 59 Phil. 109 (1933)

h. People v. Formigones, 87 Phil. 658 (1950)

G. Execution and Service

1. Probation

a. PRES. DECREE NO. 968 (1976), as amended


REP. ACT NO. 9344, sec. 67, 42
REP. ACT NO. 10707 (2015)

b. Francisco v. Court of Appeals, 243 SCRA 384


(1995)

c. Yusi v. Morales, 121 SCRA 854 (1983)

d. Cal v. Court of Appeals, 251 SCRA 523 (1995)

e. Llamado v. Court of Appeals, 174 SCRA 566 (1989)

f. Baclayon v. Mutia, 129 SCRA 148, 154 (1984)

g. Bala v. Martinez, 181 SCRA 459 (1990)

h. Salgado v. Court of Appeals, 189 SCRA 304 (1990)

2. Children in conflict with the law

VI. EXTINCTION OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY

REV. PEN. CODE, art. 89-99

A. Total Extinction
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 89

1. Death of the convict


RULES OF COURT, Rule 20, sec. 7 & 8
RULES OF COURT, Rule 111, sec. 4

a. People v. Bayotas, 236 SCRA 239 (1994)

b. People v. Dela Cruz, G.R. No. 190610, 25 April


19

2012

2. Service of the sentence

3. Amnesty
CONST., art. VII, sec. 19
People v. Patriarca, G.R. No. 135547, 29 September
2000
People v. Casido, G.R. No. 116512, 7 March 1997
Barrioquinto v. Fernandez, 82 Phil. 642 (1949)

4. Absolute pardon
CONST., art. VII, sec. 19
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 23, 344
Flora v. Oximana, G.R. No. 19745, 31 January 1964
Barrioquinto v. Fernandez, supra
Pelobello v. Palatino, G.R. No. 48100, 20 June 1941
Atty. Alicia Risos-Vidal v. Commission on Elections,
G.R. No. 206666, 21 January 2015

5. Prescription of the crime


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 90 and 91
ACT NO. 3326

6. Prescription of the penalty


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 92 and 93

7. Marriage of the offended woman, as provided in Article


344 of the Revised Penal Code
People v. Ronie de Guzman, G.R. No. 185843, 3 March
2010
People v. Ernesto dela Cerna, G.R. Nos. 136899-904, 9
October 2002

B. Partial Extinction
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 94
REP. ACT NO. 10592 (2013)

1. Conditional pardon
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 95
In re. Antonio Infante, G.R. No. 4164, 12 December
1952
Torres v. Gonzales, 152 SCRA 272 (1987)

2. Commutation of the sentence


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 96

3. Good conduct allowances


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 97, 98, 99 and 158
REP. ACT NO. 10592 (2013)

VII. CIVIL LIABILITY

REV. PEN. CODE, art. 100-113


20

CIV. CODE, art. 19-21, 29-36, 1157, 1158 to 1162, 2176, 2177, 2180,
2202, 2204, 2206, 2216, 2219, 2230, 2233, 2234
Rules of Court, Rule 111, sec. 1

A. In general

1. Chua v. Court of Appeals, 443 SCRA 142 (2004)

B. Persons civilly liable

1. Carpio v. Doroja, 180 SCRA 1(1989)

2. Basilio v. Court of Appeals, 328 SCRA 341 (2000)

3. Philippine Rabbit v. Court of Appeals, 427 SCRA 526 (2004)

4. Quinto v. Andres, 453 SCRA 511 (2005)

C. What civil liability includes

1. Heirs of Raymundo Castro v. Bustos, 27 SCRA 327


(1969)

D. Extinction of civil liability

1. REV. PEN. CODE, art. 89

2. CIV. CODE, art. 29

3. RULES OF COURT, Rule 111, sec. 1 & 4

4. People v. Bayotas, supra


21

PART II

CRIMES AND SPECIAL PENAL LAWS

I. CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL SECURITY AND THE LAW OF NATIONS

A. Crimes against national security

Treason and espionage

1. Treason
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 114
Rep. Act No. 7659 (1993)
Rep. Act No. 9346 (2006)
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
Laurel v. Misa, 77 Phil. 856 (1947)
People v. Manayao, 78 Phil. 721 (1947)
People v. Perez, 83 Phil. 314 (1949)
People v. Prieto, 80 Phil. 138 (1948)
People v. Adriano, 78 Phil. 561 (1947)

2. Conspiracy and proposal to commit treason


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 115
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

3. Misprision of treason
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 116

4. Espionage
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 117
Commonwealth Act No. 616 (1941) or Espionage Law
Batas Pambansa Bilang 39 (1979) or Foreign Agents Act of 1979

B. Crimes against the law of nations

Provoking war and disloyalty in case of war

5. Inciting to war or giving motives for reprisals


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 118

6. Violation of neutrality
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 119

7. Corresponding with hostile country


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 120

8. Flight to enemy's country


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 121

Piracy and mutiny on the high seas or in Philippine Waters

9. Piracy in general and mutiny on the high seas or in Philippine


waters
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 122
22

10. Qualified piracy


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 123
Pres. Decree No. 532 (1974)
Rep. Act No. 7659 (1993) and Republic Act No. 9346 (2006)
People v. Lol-lo and Saraw, 43 Phil 19 (1922)
People v. Rodriguez, 135 SCRA 485 (1985)
People v. Siyoh, 141 SCRA 356 (1986)
People v. Tulin, G.R. No. 111709, 30 August 2001, 364 SCRA
11 (2001)

11. Hijacking
Rep. Act No. 6235 (1971) or Anti-Hijacking Law

Terrorism

12. Terrorism

Republic Act No. 9372 (2007) or Human Security Act of 2007


Republic Act No. 10168 (2012) or The Terrorism Financing
Prevention and Suppression Act of 2012
Southern Hemisphere Engagement Network, Inc. v. Anti-Terrorism
Council, G.R. Nos. 178552, 178554, 178581, 178890,
179157 & 179461, October 5, 2010, 632 SCRA 146 (2010)

Genocide and Other Crimes Against Humanity

13. Republic Act No. 9851 (Philippine Act on Crimes Against


International Humanitarian Law, Genocide and Other Crimes
Against Humanity)

II. CRIMES AGAINST THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF THE STATE

A. Arbitrary detention and expulsion

1. Arbitrary detention
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 124
CONST., art. III, sec. 1
RULES OF COURT, Rule 113, sec. 1, 2 & 5
See also Rep. Act No. 7438 (1992)
Milo v. Salanga, 152 SCRA 113 (1987)
People v. Burgos, 144 SCRA 1 (1986)
Umil v. Ramos, 187 SCRA 311 (1990)
Astorga v. People, G.R. No. 154130, 1 October 2003

2. Delay in the delivery of detained persons to the proper judicial


authorities
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 125
CONST., art. III, sec. 1
Exec. Order No. 272 (1987)
RULES OF COURT, Rule 112, sec. 7
Rep. Act No. 9372 (2007), secs. 18 and 19
See also Rep. Act No. 7438 (1992)
Sayo v. Chief of Police, 80 Phil. 859 (1948)
Medina v. Orozco, 18 SCRA 1168 (1966)
23

Jasper Agbay v. The Honorable Deputy Ombudsman for the


Military, et.al., G.R. No. 134503, 2 July 1999
Soria v. Desierto, G.R. Nos. 153524-25, 31 January 2005

3. Delaying release
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 126
CONST., art. III, sec. 1

4. Expulsion
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 127
CONST., art. III, sec. 6

B. Violation of domicile

5. Violation of domicile
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 128
CONST., art. III, sec. 2 & 3

6. Search warrants maliciously obtained and abuse in the service of


those legally obtained
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 129
CONST., art. III, sec. 2 & 3
RULES OF COURT, Rule 126
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
Stonehill v. Diokno, 20 SCRA 383 (1967)
Burgos v. Chief of Staff, 133 SCRA 800 (1984)

7. Searching domicile without witnesses


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 130
CONST., art. III, sec. 2 & 3
RULES OF COURT, Rule 126, sec. 8

C. Prohibition, interruption, and dissolution of peaceful meetings

8. Prohibition, interruption, and dissolution of peaceful meetings


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 131
CONST., art. III, sec. 4 & 8

D. Crimes against religious worship

9. Interruption of religious worship


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 132
CONST., art. III, sec. 5

10. Offending the religious feelings


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 133
CONST., art. III, sec. 5
People v. Mandoriao, 51 OG 4619 (1955)
People v. Baes, 68 Phil. 203 (1939)
People v. Tengson, 67 OG 1552
People v. Nanoy, 69 OG 8043 (1972)

E. Republic Act No. 9745 (Anti-Torture Act)


24

III. CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER

A. Rebellion, coup d'etat, sedition, and disloyalty

1. Rebellion or insurrection
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 134
Rep. Act No. 6968 (1990)
People v. Lovendioro, 250 SCRA 389 (1995)
People v. Dasig, 221 SCRA 549 (1993)
Umil v. Ramos, supra
People v. Hernandez, 99 Phil. 515 (1956)
People v. Geronimo, 100 Phil. 90 (1956)
Enrile v. Salazar, 186 SCRA 217 (1990)
Ponce Enrile v. Amin, 189 SCRA 573 (1990)
Sanlakas, et.al. v. Angelo Reyes, et.al., G.R. Nos. 159085, 159103,
159185, 159196, 3 February 2004 (read only the Separate
Opinion of Justice Consuelo Ynares-Santiago)

2. Coup d’etat
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 134-A
Rep. Act No. 6968 (1990)

3. Conspiracy and proposal to commit coup d'état, rebellion or


insurrection
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 136
Rep. Act No. 6968 (1990)
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

4. Disloyalty of public officers or employees


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 137

5. Inciting to rebellion or insurrection


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 138

6. Sedition
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 139
People v. Cabrera, 43 Phil. 64 (1922)

7. Conspiracy to commit sedition


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 141
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

8. Inciting to sedition
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 142
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
U.S. v. Tolentino, 5 Phil 682 (1906)
Espuelas v. People, 90 Phil. 524 (1951)
Umil v. Ramos, supra

B. Crimes against popular representation

9. Acts tending to prevent the meeting of Congress and similar bodies


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 143
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
25

10. Disturbance of proceedings of Congress or similar bodies


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 144
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

11. Violation of parliamentary immunity


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 145
Martinez v. Morfe, 44 SCRA 22 (1972)

C. Illegal assemblies and associations

12. Illegal assemblies


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 146
Batas Pambansa Blg. 880 (1985)

13. Illegal associations


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 147
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

D. Assault upon, and resistance and disobedience to persons in


authority and their agents

14. Direct assaults


REV. PEN. CODE, arts. 148, 152 and 203
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
People v. Beltran, 138 SCRA 521 (1985)
People v. Dollantes, 151 SCRA 592 (1987)

15. Indirect assaults


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 149
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

16. Disobedience to summons issued by Congress, its committees,


etc., by the constitutional commissions, its committees, etc.
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 150
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

17. Resistance and disobedience to a person in authority or the agents


of such person
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 151
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

E. Public disorders

18. Tumults and other disturbances of public order


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 153
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

19. Unlawful use of means of publication and unlawful utterances


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 154
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

20. Alarms and scandals


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 155
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
26

21. Delivering prisoners from jails


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 156
Alberto v. De la Cruz, 98 SCRA 406 (1980)

F. Evasion of service of sentence

22. Evasion of service of sentence


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 157
Tanega v. Masakayan, 19 SCRA 564 (1967)
People v. Abilong, 82 Phil. 172 (1948)

23. Evasion of service of sentence on the occasion of disorder,


conflagrations, earthquakes, or other calamities
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 158

24. Other cases of evasion of service of sentence [violation of


conditional pardon]
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 159
Torres v. Gonzales, supra

G. Commission of another crime during service of penalty


imposed for another previous offense

25. Commission of another crime during service of penalty imposed for


another previous offense
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 160
People v. Dioso, 132 SCRA 616 (1984)

H. Illegal possession of firearms

26. Illegal possession of firearms and ammunitions


Pres. Decree No. 1866 (1983)
Rep. Act No. 8294 (1997)
Rep. Act No. 9516 (2008)
Rep. Act No. 10591 (2013)
People v. Quijada, 259 SCRA 225 (1996)
People v. Ringor, Jr., 320 SCRA 342 (1999)

IV. CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC INTEREST

A. Forgeries

Forging the seal of the Government of the Philippine Islands, the


signature or stamp of the Chief Executive

1. Counterfeiting the great seal of the Government of the Republic of


the Philippines, forging the signature or stamp of the Chief
Executive
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 161

2. Using forged signature or counterfeiting seal or stamp


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 162
27

Counterfeiting Coins

3. Making and importing and uttering false coins


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 163
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
People v. Kong Leon, 48 OG 664 (1950)

4. Mutilation of coins, importation and uttering of mutilated coins


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 164
Pres. Decree No. 247 (1973)
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

5. Selling of false or mutilated coins, without connivance


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 165

Forging treasury or bank notes, obligations and securities;


importing and uttering false or forged notes, obligations and
securities

6. Forging treasury or bank notes or other documents payable to


bearer, importing and uttering of such false or forged notes and
documents
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 166
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
Del Rosario v. People, 3 SCRA 650 (1961)
People v. Galano, 54 OG 5897

7. Counterfeiting, importing and uttering instruments payable to


bearer
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 167
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

8. Illegal possession and use of forged treasury or bank notes and


other instruments of credit
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 168

9. Anti-Forgery Act
Rep. Act No. 9105 (2001)

Falsification of legislative, public, commercial, and private


documents, and wireless, telegraph, and telephone messages

10. Falsification of legislative documents


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 170
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

11. Falsification by public officer, employee or notary or ecclesiastic


minister
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 171
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

12. Falsification by private individuals and use of falsified documents


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 172
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
28

Falsification
People v. Romualdez, 57 Phil. 148 (1932)
Berdadio v. Court of Appeals, 103 SCRA 567 (1981)
Luague v. Court of Appeals, 112 SCRA 97 (1982)
Cabigas v. People, 152 SCRA 18 (1987)
People v. Sandaydiego, 81 SCRA 120 (1978)
Siquian v. People, 171 SCRA 223 (1989)
People v. Villalon, 192 SCRA 521 (1990)

Use of falsified documents


People v. Dava, 202 SCRA 62 (1991)

13. Falsification of wireless, cable, telegraph and telephone messages


and use of said falsified messages
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 173

Falsification of medical certificates, certificates of merit or service


and the like

14. False medical certificates, false certificates of merit or service


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 174
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

15. Using false certificates


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 175

Manufacturing, importing and possession of instruments or


implements intended for the commission of falsification

16. Manufacturing and possession of instruments or implements for


falsification
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 176
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

B. Other Falsities

Usurpation of authority, rank, title, and improper use of names,


uniforms and insignia

17. Usurpation of authority or official functions


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 177
People v. Cortez, 73 OG 10056
Gigantoni v. People, 162 SCRA 158 (1988)

18. Using fictitious name and concealing true name


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 178
Commonwealth Act No. 142 (1936)
Rep. Act No. 6085 (1969)
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
Legamia v. Intermediate Appellate Court, 131 SCRA 478 (1984)

19. Illegal use of uniforms or insignia


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 179
Rep. Act No. 75 (1946)
Rep. Act No. 493 (1950)
29

False testimony

20. False testimony against a defendant


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 180
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

21. False testimony favorable to the defendant


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 181
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

22. False testimony in civil cases


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 182
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

23. False testimony in other cases and perjury in solemn affirmation


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 183
Diaz v. People, 191 SCRA 86 (1990)

24. Offering false testimony in evidence


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 184

C. Frauds

Machinations, monopolies and combinations

25. Machinations in public auctions


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 185
Ouano v. Court of Appeals, 188 SCRA 799 (1990)

26. Monopolies and combinations in restraint of trade


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 186
Rep. Act No. 10667 (2014)

Frauds in commerce and industry

27. Importation and disposition of falsely marked articles or


merchandise made of gold, silver, or other precious metals or their
alloys
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 187
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

28. Substituting and altering trade marks and trade names or service
marks
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 188

29. Unfair competition and fraudulent registration of trade mark or


trade name, or service mark; fraudulent designation of origin, and
false description
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 189

30. Offenses under the Intellectual Property Code of the


Philippines
Rep. Act No. 8293 (1997), secs. 4.1, 21, 84, 121-122, 155-
157, 163, 168 - 170, 172, 177, 216-217, 239.1
30

V. CRIMES RELATIVE TO OPIUM AND OTHER PROHIBITED DRUGS

Republic Act No. 9165 (2002) or the Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002
Republic Act No. 7659, sec. 13-19
Republic Act No. 10640 (2013)
People v. Lo Ho Wing, G.R. No. 88017, 21 January 1991
People v. Mariacos, G.R. No. 188611, 16 June 2010
People v. Hedishi Suzuki, G.R. No. 120670, 23 October 2003
People v. Collado, G.R. No. 185719, 17 June 2013
People v. Maongco, G.R. No. 196966, 23 October 2013
People v. Jay Montevirgen, G.R. No. G.R. No. 189840, 11 December 2013
People v. Garry dela Cruz, G.R. No. 205821, 1 October 2014
People v. Dennis Sumili, G.R. No. 212160, 4 February 2015
People v. Eric Rosauro, G.R. No. 209588, 18 February 2015
Jaime dela Cruz v. People, G.R. No. 200748, 23 July 2014
Social Justice Society v. Dangerous Drugs Board, G.R. Nos.
157870, 158633, and 161658 3 November 2008
Salvador Estipona v. Frank E. Lobrigo, G.R. No. 226679, 15
August 2017
A.M. No. 18-03-16-SC, 10 April 2018, Adoption of the Plea
Bargaining Framework in Drug Cases

VI. CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC MORALS

A. Gambling and Betting


Pres. Decre No. 1602 (1978)
Letter of Instruction 816 (1979)
Rep. Act No. 9287 (2004)
United States v. Salaveria, G.R. No. L-13678, 12 November
1918
Mayor Pablo Magtajas v. Pryce Properties Corp., G.R. No. 111097,
20 July 1994

1. Importation, sale and possession of lottery tickets or


advertisements
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 196

2. Betting in sports contests


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 197
Presidential Decree No. 483 (1974)

3. Illegal betting on horse races

4. Illegal cockfighting
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 199
Presidential Decree No. 449 (1974)

B. Offenses Against Decency and Good Customs

5. Grave scandal
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 200
31

6. Immoral doctrines, obscene publications and exhibitions,


and indecent shows
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 201
Pres. Decree No. 960 (1976), as amended by Pres. Decree No. 969
(1976)
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
People v. Kottinger, 45 Phil. 352 (1924)
People v. Aparici, 52 OG 249 (1953)
People v. Padan, 101 Phil 749 (1957)

7. Vagrants and prostitutes


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 202
Pres. Decree No. 1563 (1978)
Rep. Act No. 10158 (2012)
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
People v. Siton, supra

VII. CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC OFFICERS

A. Malfeasance and Misfeasance in Office

Dereliction of duty

1. Knowingly rendering unjust judgment


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 204

2. Judgment rendered through negligence


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 205

3. Unjust interlocutory order


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 206

4. Malicious delay in the administration of justice


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 207

5. Prosecution of offenses; negligence and tolerance


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 208

6. Betrayal of trust by an attorney or solicitor; Revelation of


secrets
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 209
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

Bribery

7. Direct bribery
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 201

8. Indirect bribery
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 211

9. Qualified bribery
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 211-A

10. Corruption of public officials


32

REV. PEN. CODE, art. 212

Manipon v. Sandiganbayan, 143 SCRA 267 (1986)


Dacumas v. Sandiganbayan, 195 SCRA 833 (1991)
Pres. Decree No. 46 (1972)
Pres. Decree No. 749 (1975)

11. Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act

Rep. Act No. 3019 (1960)


See also Rep. Act No. 6713 (1989)
Jesus Morfe v. Amelito Mutuc, G.R. No. L-20387, 31 January 1968
Lauro Soriano, Jr. v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. L-65952 July 31,
1984
Jaravata v. Sandiganbayan, 127 SCRA 363 (1984)
Trieste v. Sandiganbayan, 145 SCRA 508 (1986)
Mejorada v. Sandiganbayan, 151 SCRA 399 (1989)
Isabelo Braza v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 195032, 20 February
2013
Jose P. Dans Jr. v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 127073, 29 January
1998
Henry T. Go v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 172602, 3 September
2007
People v. Henry Go, G.R. No. 168539, 25 March 2014

12. Plunder

Rep. Act No. 7080 (1991)


Estrada v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 148560, 19 November 2001
Jose “Jinggoy” Estrada v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 148965, 26
February 2002
The Wellex Group Inc. v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 187951,
25 June 2012
Lilia B. Organo v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 133535, 9 September
1999
Fleurdeliz B. Organo v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 136916, 14
December 1999
Juan Ponce Enrile v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 213847, 18 August
2015
People v. Sandiganbayan and Jose “Jinggoy” Estrada, G.R. No.
158754, 10 August 2007

13. Forfeiture

Rep. Act No. 1379 (1955)


Almeda v. Perez, 5 SCRA 970 (1962)
Cabal v. Kapunan, 6 SCRA 1059 (1962)
Republic v. IAC, 172 SCRA 296 (1989)

14. Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2001


Rep. Act No. 9160 (2001)

15. Anti-Red Tape Act of 2007


Rep. Act No. 9485 (2007)
33

B. Frauds and Illegal Exactions and Transactions

16. Frauds against the public treasury and similar offenses


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 213
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

17. Other frauds


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 214

18. Prohibited transactions


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 215
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

19. Possession of prohibited interest by a public officer


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 216
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

C. Malversation of Public Funds or Property

20. Malversation of public funds or property


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 217
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
Labatagos v. Sandiganbayan, 183 SCRA 415 (1990)
Estepa v. Sandiganbayan, 182 SCRA 269 (1990)
Ilogon v. Sandiganbayan, 218 SCRA 766 (1993)
Azarcon v. Sandiganbayan, 268 SCRA 747 (1997)

21. Failure of accountable officer to render accounts


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 218
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

22. Failure of a responsible public officer to render accounts


before leaving the country
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 219
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

23. Illegal use of public funds or property


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 220

24. Failure to make delivery of public funds or property


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 221
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

D. Infidelity of Public Officers

Infidelity in the custody of prisoners

25. Conniving with or consenting to evasion


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 223
Rodillas v. Sandiganbayan, 161 SCRA 347 (1988)

26. Evasion through negligence


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 224
34

27. Escape of prisoner under the custody of a person not a


public officer
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 225

Infidelity in the custody of documents

28. Removal, concealment or destruction of documents


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 226
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

29. Officer breaking seal


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 227
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

30. Opening of closed documents


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 228
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

Revelation of secrets

31. Revelation of secrets by an officer


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 229
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

32. Public officer revealing secrets of private individual


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 230
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

E. Other Offenses or Irregularities by Public Officers

Disobedience, refusal of assistance and maltreatment of


prisoners

33. Open disobedience


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 231
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

34. Disobedience to order of superior officer, when said order


was suspended by inferior officer
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 232

35. Refusal of assistance


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 233
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

36. Refusal to discharge elective office


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 234
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

37. Maltreatment of prisoners


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 235
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
35

Anticipation, prolongation and abandonment of the duties and


powers of public office

38. Anticipation of duties of a public office


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 236
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

39. Prolonging performance of duties and powers


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 237
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

40. Abandonment of office or position


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 238

Usurpation of powers and unlawful appointments

41. Usurpation of legislative powers


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 239
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

42. Usurpation of executive functions


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 240

43. Usurpation of judicial functions


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 214

44. Disobeying request for disqualification


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 242
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

45. Orders or requests by executive officers to any judicial


authority
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 243
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

46. Unlawful appointments


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 244
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

Abuses against chastity

47. Abuses against chastity


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 245

VIII. CRIMES AGAINST PERSONS

A. Destruction of Life

Parricide, murder, homicide

1. Parricide
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 246 & 250
People v. Jesus Paycana, Jr., G.R. No. 179035, 16 April 2008
People v. Manuel Macal, G.R. No. 211062, 13 January 2016
People v. Embalido, 58 Phil. 154 (1933)
36

2. Death or physical injuries inflicted under exceptional


circumstances
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 247
People v. Abarca, 153 SCRA 735 (1987)
People v. Jimmy Talisic, G.R. No. 97961, 5 September 1997
People v. Manolito Oyanib, G.R. Nos. 130634-35, 12 March 2001
People v. Gonzales, 69 Phil. 66 (1939)
People v. Manuel Macal, supra

3. Murder
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 248 & 250
REP. ACT NO. 7610, sec. 10
People v. Wilson Lab-eo, G.R. No. 133438, 16 January 2002
Miguel Cirera v. People, G.R. No. 181843, 14 July 2014
People v. Sancholes, G.R. No. 110999, 18 April 1997

4. Homicide
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 249 & 250
REP. ACT NO. 7610, sec. 10
Giovanni Serrano v. People, G.R. No. 175023, 5 July 2010

5. Death caused in a tumultuous affray


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 251
Guillermo Waco v. People, G.R. No. 213792, 22 June 2015

6. Physical injuries inflicted in a tumultuous affray


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 252

7. Giving assistance to suicide


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 253

8. Discharge of firearms
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 254

Infanticide and abortion

9. Infanticide
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 255

10. Intentional abortion


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 256

11. Unintentional abortion


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 257
People v. Salufrania, 159 SCRA 439 (1988)
People v. Jesus Paycana, Jr., supra

12. Abortion practiced by the woman herself or by her parents


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 258

13. Abortion practiced by a physician or midwife and dispensing


of abortives
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 259
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
37

Duel

14. Duel
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 260

15. Challenging to a duel


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 261

B. Physical Injuries

16. Mutilation
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 262

17. Serious physical injuries


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 263

18. Administering injurious substances or beverages


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 264

19. Less serious physical injuries


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 265
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

20. Slight physical injuries and maltreatment


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 266
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

C. Rape

21. Rape
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 266-A, 266-B, 266-C and 266-D
Rep. Act No. 8353 (1997)
People v. Hernandez, supra
People v. Erinia, supra
People v. Orita, supra
People v. Villapana, 161 SCRA 72 (1988)
People v. Severino Gondaway Dulay, G.R. Nos. 144344-68, 23 July
2002
People v. Ernesto dela Cerna, G.R. Nos. 136899-904, 9 October
2002
People v. Armando Chingh, G.R. No. 178323, 16 March 2011
People v. Bernesto Dela Cruz, G.R. No. 183091, 19 June 2013
People vs. Caoile, GR No. 203041, 25 June 2013
People v. Edgar Jumawan, G.R. No. 187495, 21 April 2014
Richard Ricalde v. People, G.R. No. 211002, 21 January 2015
People vs. Tionloc, GR No. 212193, 15 February 2017
People vs. Amarela, GR No. 225642, 17 January 2018

D. Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation and


Discrimination Act
Rep. Act No. 7610 (1992)
Rep. Act No. 9231 (2003)
Malto vs. People, GR No. 164733, 21 Sept 2007
38

Bongalon vs. People, GR No. 169533, 20 March 2013


Felina Rosaldes v. People, G.R. No. 173988, 8 October 2014
Quimvel vs. People, GR No. 214497, 18 April 2017

E. Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995


Rep. Act No. 7877 (1995)
Aquino v. Acosta, A.M. No. CTA-01-1, 2 April 2002
Ma. Lourdes Domingo v. Rogelio Rayala, G.R. No. 155831, 18
February 2008

F. Ant-Violence Against Women and Children Act of 2004


Rep. Act No. 9262 (2004)
People v. Genosa, supra
Ang vs. Court of Appeals, GR No. 182835, 20 April 2010
Jesus Garcia v. Ray Alan Drilon, G.R. No. 179267, 25 June 2013
Republic vs. Yahon, 726 SCRA 438 (2014)
Del Socorro v. Van Wilsen, 744 SCRA 516 (2014)
Dinampling vs. People, GR No. 199522, 22 June 2015

G. Hazing
Rep. Act No. 8049 (1995)
Republic Act No. 11053 (2018)
Dandy Dungo v. People, G.R. No. 209464, 1 July 2015
People v. Ltsg. Dominador Bayabos, G.R. No. 171222, 18 February
2015

H. Trafficking

Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003


Rep. Act No. 9208 (2003)
Rep. Act No. 10364 (Expanded Anti-Trafficking Act)
Rep. Act No. 8042 (Migrant Workers Act and Overseas Filipinos
Act)
Republic Act No. 10022 (Act Amending Republic Act 8042)

IX. CRIMES AGAINST PERSONAL LIBERTY AND SECURITY

A. Crimes Against Liberty

Illegal detention

1. Kidnapping and serious illegal detention


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 267
People v. Tomio, 202 SCRA 77 (1991)
People v. Mercado, 131 SCRA 501 (1984)
People v. Del Socorro, 182 SCRA 359 (1990)
People v. Padica, 221 SCRA 362 (1993)
People v. Ramos, G.R. No. 118570, 12 October 12, 1998

2. Slight illegal detention


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 268
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

3. Unlawful arrest
39

REV. PEN. CODE, art. 269


Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

Kidnapping of minors

4. Kidnapping and failure to return a minor


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 270
People v. Aida Marquez, G.R. No. 181440, 13 April 2011

5. Inducing a minor to abandon his home


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 271
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

Slavery and servitude

6. Slavery
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 272

7. Exploitation of child labor


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 273

8. Services rendered under compulsion in payment of debts


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 274

B. Crimes Against Security

Abandonment of helpless persons and exploitation of minors

9. Abandonment of persons in danger and abandonment of


one's own victim
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 275
Lamera v. Court of Appeals, 198 SCRA 186 (1991)

10. Abandoning a minor


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 276
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

11. Abandonment of minor by person entrusted with his


custody; indifference of parents
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 277
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

12. Exploitation of minors


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 278
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

Trespass to dwelling

13. Qualified trespass to dwelling


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 280
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

14. Other forms of trespass


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 281
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
40

Threats and coercion

15. Grave threats


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 282
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
Timoner v. People, 125 SCRA 830 (1983)
Lee v. Court of Appeals, 201 SCRA 405 (1991)

16. Light threats


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 245

17. Other light threats


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 285
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

18. Grave coercions


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 286
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

19. Light coercions


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 287
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

Unjust vexation
Melchor Maderazo v. People, G.R. No. 165065, 26 September 2006

20. Other similar coercions


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 288
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

21. Formation, maintenance and prohibition of combination of


capital or labor through violence or threats
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 289
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

C. Discovery and Revelation of Secrets

22. Discovering secrets through seizure of correspondence


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 290
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

23. Revealing secrets with abuse of office


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 291
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

24. Revelation of industrial secrets


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 292
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

X. CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY

A. Robbery in General

1. Robbery with violence against or intimidation of persons


41

REV. PEN. CODE, art. 294

2. Robbery with physical injuries, committed in an uninhabited


place and by a band, or with the use of firearm on a street,
road or alley
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 295

3. Attempted and frustrated robbery committed under certain


circumstances
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 297

4. Execution of deeds by means of violence or intimidation


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 298

5. Robbery in an inhabited house or public building or edifice


devoted to worship
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 299
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

6. Robbery in an uninhabited place and by a band


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 300

7. Robbery in an uninhabited place or in a private building


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 302
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

8. Robbery of cereals, fruits, or firewood in an uninhabited


place or private building
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 303

Robbery
Napolis v. Court of Appeals, 43 SCRA 301 (1972)
People v. Biruar, 130 SCRA 513 (1984)

Robbery with homicide


People v. Mangulabnan, 99 Phil. 992 (1956)
People v. Calixtro, 123 SCRA 369 (1983)
People v. Pecato, 151 SCRA 14 (1987)
People v. Tapales, 93 SCRA 134 (1979)
People v. Quiñones, 183 SCRA 747 (1993)

Robbery with rape


People v. Patola, 141 SCRA 401 (1986)
People v. Dinola, 183 SCRA 493 (1990)
People v. Moreno, 220 SCRA 292 (1993)

Robbery with physical injuries


People v. Salvilla, supra

Robbery in band
People v. Apduhan, 24 SCRA 798 (1968)

Robbery by use of force upon things


People v. Jaranilla, 55 SCRA 563 (1974)
42

9. Possession of picklocks or similar tools


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 304

10. False keys


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 305

B. Brigandage

11. Brigandage
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 306

12. Aiding and abetting a band of brigands


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 307

Highway Robbery
Pres. Decree No. 532
People v. Puno, supra
People v. Pulusan, G.R. No. 110037, May 21, 1998

C. Theft

13. Theft
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 308
People v. Gulinao, 179 SCRA 774 (1989)
Santos v. People, 181 SCRA 487 (1990)
Valenzuela v. People, supra

14. Qualified Theft


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 310
Empelis v. IAC, 132 SCRA 398 (1984)

Carnapping
Rep. Act No. 10883 (2015), New Anti-Carnapping Law
People v. De la Cruz, 183 SCRA 763 (1990)
Izon v. People, 107 SCRA 118 (1981)
People vs. Luisito Bustinera, G.R. No. 148233, 28 June 2004
People vs. Renato Lagat, G.R. No. 187044, 14 September 2011

Cattle rustling
Pres. Decree No. 533 (1974)
Taer v. Court of Appeals, 186 SCRA 598 (1990)
Ordonio v. Court of Appeals, 199 SCRA 873 (1991)

Theft of electricity; illegal water, electric or telephone


connections
Pres. Decree No. 401 (1974)
Rep. Act No. 7832 (1994)
Rep. Act No. 8041

Illegal fishing
Rep. Act No. 8550 (1998), sec. 86
Hizon v. Court of Appeals, 265 SCRA 517 (1996)

Illegal logging
Pres. Decree No. 330 (1973)
43

Pres. Decree No. 705 (1975), sec. 68


Mustang Lumber, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 104988, June
19, 1996

Anti-Fencing Act
Pres. Decree No. 1612 (1979)

15. Theft of the property of the National Library and National


Museum
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 311
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

D. Usurpation

16. Occupation of real property or usurpation of real rights in


property
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 312
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

17. Altering boundaries or landmarks


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 313
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

E. Culpable Insolvency

18. Fraudulent insolvency


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 314

E. Swindling and Other Deceits

19. Swindling (Estafa)


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 315
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

Through unfaithfulness or abuse of confidence


Saddul v. Court of Appeals, 192 SCRA 277 (1990)

Trust receipts
Pres. Decree No. 115 (1973)
Allied Banking Corp. v. Ordoñez, 192 SCRA 246 (1990)
Lee v. Rodil, 175 SCRA 100 (1989)

Through false pretenses, fraudulent acts or means


Celino v. Court of Appeals, 163 SCRA 97 (1988)
Abejuela v. People, 200 SCRA 806 (1991)
Koh Tieck Heng v. People, 192 SCRA 533 (1990)
People v. Ong, 204 SCRA 942 (1991)

Bouncing checks
Batas Pambansa Blg. 22 (1979)
Lozano v. Martinez, supra
Nierras v. Dacuycuy, 181 SCRA 1 (1990)
People v. Gorospe, 157 SCRA 154 (1988)
Que v. People, 154 SCRA 160 (1987)
People v. Nitafan, 215 SCRA 79 (1992)
44

Lim Lao v. Court of Appeals, 274 SCRA 572 (1997)


Idos v. CA, G.R. No. 110782, Sept. 25, 1998

20. Other forms of swindling


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 316

21. Swindling a minor


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 317

22. Other deceits


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 318
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
Villaflor v. Court of Appeals, 192 SCRA 680 (1990)
Veloso v. Sandiganbayan, 187 SCRA 504 (1990)

Swindling by syndicate
Pres. Decree No. 1689 (1980)
Galvez vs. Court of Appeals and AUB, GR No. 187819, 25 April
2012
People v. Palmy Tibayan, G.R. Nos. 209655-60, 14 January 2015

F. Chattel Mortgage

23. Removal, sale or pledge of mortgaged property


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 319

G. Arson and Other Crimes Involving Destruction

24. Destructive arson


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 320
Presidential Decree No. 1613 (1979), Anti-Arson Law

25. Other forms of arson


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 321

26. Cases of arson not included in the preceding articles


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 322

27. Arson of property of small value


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 323

28. Crimes involving destruction


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 324

29. Burning one's own property as means to commit arson


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 225

30. Setting fire to property exclusively owned by the offender


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 326

31. In cases where death resulted as a consequence of arson


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 326-A
45

H. Malicious Mischief

32. Malicious mischief


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 327
Pres. Decree No. 1728 (1980)
Caballes v. DAR, 168 SCRA 247 (1988)
Robert Taguinod v. People, G.R. No. 185833, 12 October 2011

33. Special cases of malicious mischief


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 328
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

34. Other mischiefs


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 329
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

35. Damage and obstruction to means of communication


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 330

36. Destroying or damaging statues, public monuments or


paintings
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 331
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

XI. CRIMES AGAINST CHASTITY

A. Adultery and Concubinage

1. Adultery
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 333
People v. Zapata, 88 Phil. 688 (1951)
United States v. Topiño and Guzman, 35 Phil. 901 (1916)
Pilapil v. Ibay-Somera, 174 SCRA 653 (1989)
People v. Infante, 57 Phil. 138 (1921)
Milagros Donio-Teves and Manuel Moreno v. Vamenta, Jr., G.R.
No. L-38308, 26 December 1984

2. Concubinage
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 334
United States v. Macabagbag, 31 Phil. 257 (1915)
United States v. Campos Rueda, 35 Phil. 51 (1916)
People v. Pitoc, 43 Phil. 760 (1922)

B. Acts of Lasciviousness

3. Acts of lasciviousness
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 336
Norberto Cruz v. People, G.R. No. 166441, 8 October 2014

C. Seduction, Corruption of Minors, and White Slave Trade

4. Qualified seduction
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 337
People v. Fontanilla, 23 SCRA 1227 (1968)
Babanto v. Zoza 120 SCRA 844 (1983)
46

Perez v. Court of Appeals, 168 SCRA 236 (1988)

5. Simple seduction
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 338

6. Acts of lasciviousness with the consent of the offended party


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 339

7. Corruption of minors
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 340
Rep. Act No. 7610, sec. 5 and 6

8. White slave trade


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 341

D. Abduction

9. Forcible abduction
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 342

10. Consented abduction


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 343

Abduction; forcible abduction with rape


People v. Sunpongco, 163 SCRA 222 (1988)
People v. Jose, 37 SCRA 450 (1971)
People v. Alburo, 184 SCRA 655 (1990)
People v. Marvin Cayanan, G.R. No. 200080, 18 September 2013

Prosecution of private offenses


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 344
Pilapil v. Ibay-Somera, supra
People v. Elmer Yparraguire, G.R. No. 124391, 5 July 2000

XII. CRIMES AGAINST THE CIVIL STATUS OF PERSONS

A. Simulation of Births and Usurpation of Civil Status

1. Simulation of births, substitution of one child for another and


concealment or abandonment of a legitimate child
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 347
Rep. Act No. 8552 (1998), sec. 3(j) and 21(b)
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
People v. Sangalang, 74 OG 5977

2. Usurpation of civil status


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 348

B. Illegal Marriages

3. Bigamy
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 349
FAMILY CODE, art. 40
People v. Aragon, 100 Phil. 1033 (1954)
Mercado v. Tan, 337 SCRA 122 (2000)
47

Morigo v. People, 422 SCRA 376 (2004)


Tenebro v. Court of Appeals, 423 SCRA 272 (2004)
People v. Edgardo Odtuhan, G.R. No. 191566, 17 July 2013
Leonila Santiago v. People, G.R. No. 200233, 15 July 2015
Norberto Vitangcol v. People, G.R. No. 207406, 13 January 2016
James Walter Capili v. People, G.R. No. 183805, 3 July 2013

4. Marriage contracted against provisions of law


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 350
Cosca v. Palaypayon, 237 SCRA 249 (1994)
Sermonia v. Court of Appeals, 233 SCRA 155 (1994)
Villasanta v. Peralta, 101 Phil. 313 (1957)

5. Premature marriage
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 351
Republic Act No. 101655 (2015)

6. Performance of illegal marriage ceremony


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 352

XIII.CRIMES AGAINST HONOR

A. Libel

1. Libel by means of writings or similar means


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 355-355, 360-362
Administrative Circular No. 08-2008, Supreme Court, 25 January
2008
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
Vasquez v. Court of Appeals, 314 SCRA 460 (1999)
Brillante v. Court of Appeals, 440 SCRA 541 (2004)
Alonzo v. Court of Appeals, 241 SCRA 51 (1995)
Gonzales v. Arcilla, 203 SCRA 609 (1991)
Sazon v. Court of Appeals, 255 SCRA 692 (1996)
Flor v. People, 454 SCRA 440 (2005)
Santos v. Court of Appeals, 203 SCRA 110 (1991)
Agustin v. Pamintuan, 467 SCRA 601 (2005)
Wonina M. Bonifacio v. Regional Trial Court, Makati City, Branch
149, G.R. No. 184800, 5 May 2010

2. Internet Libel
Rep. Act No. 10175 (2012), sec. 4(c)(4)
Jose Jesus M. Disini, Jr. v. The Secretary of Justice, G.R. Nos.
203335, 11 February 2014

3. Threatening to publish and offer to prevent such publication for a


compensation
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 356
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

4. Prohibited publication of acts referred to in the course of official


proceedings
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 357
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
48

5. Slander
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 358
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
Victorio v. Court of Appeals, 173 SCRA 645 (1989)
Gonzales v. Arcilla, supra

6. Slander by deed
REV. PEN. CODE, art. 359
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)

B. Incriminatory Machinations

7. Incriminating innocent person


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 363
People v. Alagao, 16 SCRA 879 (1966)
David Campanano, Jr. v. Jose Antonio Datuin, G.R. No. 172142,
17 October 2007

8. Intriguing against honor


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 364
Betguen v. Masangcay, 238 SCRA 475 (1994)

9. Anti-Wiretapping Act
Rep. Act No. 4200 (1965)
Rep. Act No. 9372, secs. 7-16
Ganaan v. Intermediate Appellate Court, 145 SCRA 112 (1986)
Ramirez v. Court of Appeals, 248 SCRA 590 (1995)

10. Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009


Rep. Act No. 9775 (2009)

11. Anti-Photo and Video Voyeurism Act of 2009


Rep. Act No. 9995 (2009)

12. Data Privacy Act of 2012


Rep. Act No. 10173 (2012), secs. 25-36

13. Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012


Rep. Act No. 10175 (2012)
Executive Order No. 189 (2015)
Jose Jesus M. Disini, Jr. v. The Secretary of Justice, supra

XIV. QUASI-OFFENSES

1. Imprudence and negligence


REV. PEN. CODE, art. 3 and 365
Batas Pambansa Blg. 129 (1980), sec. 32, par. 2
Rep. Act No. 10951 (2016)
Quizon v. The Justice of the Peace of Pampanga, et.al., 97 Phil.
342 (1955)
People v. Faller, 67 Phil. 529 (1939)
Carillo v. People, 229 SCRA 386 (1994)
Gan v. Court of Appeals, 165 SCRA 378 (1988)
Ibabao v. People, 132 SCRA 217 (1984)
People v. Buan, 22 SCRA 1383 (1968)
49

Buerano v. Court of Appeals, 115 SCRA 217 (1982)


Cuyos v. Garcia, 160 SCRA 302 (1988)
Jason Ivler v. Maria Rowena Modesto-San Pedro, G.R. No. 172716,
17 November 2010
Venancio Sevilla v. People, G.R. No. 194390, 13 August 2014
Rogelio Gonzaga v. People, G.R. No. 19567121 January 2015