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An Investigation on Stressing and Breakage Response of a Prestressing Stands Using an Efficint Finite Element

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Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

strand using an efficient finite element model

A.B.M. Abdullah ⇑, Jennifer A. Rice, H.R. Hamilton, Gary R. Consolazio

Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The mechanical response of a wire strand is inherently complex because the helical wires undergo

Received 11 March 2015 evolving stress and contact conditions as the strand is loaded. Further complications are added to the

Revised 8 October 2015 strand behavior if one or more of the wires break due to strand degradation over time. Although a

Accepted 16 May 2016

detailed investigation on strand behavior is critically important for predicting the capacity of a broken

Available online 11 June 2016

strand as well as developing new monitoring approaches for wire break detection, there is little study

available in the literature on wire breakage in a stressed strand. This paper provides an extensive

Keywords:

investigation on stressing and post-breakage dynamic behavior of a prestressing strand. A finite element

Wire rope

Stranded cable

model is generally useful to study the global strand response, along with many localized phenomena that

Prestressing strand have strong influence on its performance, but are difficult to capture either experimentally or through

Wire breakage closed-form analytical models. Investigations on certain behaviors, such as wire breaks, however, require

Frictional contact a relatively large or even a full-scale model to adequately develop contact and frictional conditions.

Finite element Moreover, such a sizeable model can account for any deviation points and may avoid edge effects.

Cable behavior Consequently, several finite element parameters, such as the load ramp profile and duration, effects of

damping and interwire friction, become critical for an accurate and efficient model. This paper first

presents the use of a parametrized model to study strand behavior and evaluates the effects of these

modeling parameters on strand response; load distribution and redistribution among the wires at the

onset of interwire motion are also considered. The model is then used to simulate wire breakage in a

prestressing strand, so that various aspects of post-breakage response can be examined. Numerical

results show that a linear load ramp or stressing too quickly may lead to an inaccurate axial tension

developed in the strand, whereas the inclusion of nominal mass-based damping has been found effective

in achieving a quasi-static solution at a reasonable computational cost. In addition, the wire break sim-

ulation results indicate that breakage of an outer wire results in greater prestress loss than breakage of

the center wire, which might have important implications for non-destructive wire breakage detection.

Ó 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction of tension, torsion, flexure, and shear along with multiple nonlinear

phenomena such as interwire motion (the relative movement

Wire strands and ropes often find unique engineering between wires), contact, friction, plasticity, and large deformation.

applications because of their high tensile capacity coupled with Studies on cable mechanics, therefore, have received significant

workable bending flexibility. Accordingly, they are widely used in research attention for well over half a century. Presently, developing

diverse engineering systems ranging from major transportation a better understanding of strand response to wire breaks is critical

structures, such as bridges and aerial cableways, to various hoisting for the development of wire break detection techniques.

equipment like elevators and cranes. The mechanical behavior of Several theoretical models have been proposed in the literature

steel cable, however, is complicated by its intricate geometric pat- to explain the mechanical characteristics of wire strands and ropes,

tern. While being subjected to pretensioning or in-service loading, where strands consist of a layer of wires twisted around a center

a complicated stress-state condition arises that combines the effects wire and ropes consist of strands twisted around a straight core.

Costello and Phillips [1] examined the sensitivity of strand stiffness

to the change in helix angle as loading progresses, as well as inves-

⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 352 392 9537x1503. tigated its dependency on initial helix angle and end conditions.

E-mail addresses: abm.abdullah@ufl.edu (A.B.M. Abdullah), jrice@ce.ufl.edu (J.A. Their study, however, neglected the effect of friction and wire

Rice), hrh@ce.ufl.edu (H.R. Hamilton), grc@ce.ufl.edu (G.R. Consolazio).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2016.05.030

0141-0296/Ó 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

214 A.B.M. Abdullah et al. / Engineering Structures 123 (2016) 213–224

flattening to make the closed-form solution tractable. To obtain the rope with a polymeric fiber core. A FE model of length equal to

static response of complex wire ropes with less computational 1/16 of helical pitch was used to examine the load distribution

effort, Velinsky et al. [2] linearized the nonlinear equations of among wires in the elastic regime as well as the redistribution of

equilibrium. The reduction of effective Young’s modulus with addi- load with the evolution of plastic deformation.

tion of strands was demonstrated by analyzing a rope with an To reduce the computational demand, many of the previously

independent core. Later, Velinsky [3] compared these results with proposed models either make simplifying assumptions or only

nonlinear theory and found them identical in practical load ranges. consider a small segment of rope geometry (partial length and/or

Utting and Jones [4,5] conducted a series of experiments on partial cross section) for analyzing stressed strands. However, a

seven-wire strands under tensile loads and proposed an analytical relatively large model with high mesh resolution is needed to

model that indicates insignificant effects of interwire friction and study various phenomena, such as the strand response after a wire

contact deformation on the overall strand response. Chaplin [6], breakage, so that the contact and frictional conditions may

however, reported that these phenomena, along with other factors, adequately develop. In addition, the representative lengths used

affect the failure mechanisms of wire ropes. Raoof and Kraincanic in existing models are often too short to observe interwire pivoting

[7] considered the effects of interwire friction in their theoretical [24] or stick/slip friction [25,26] and the effects of such phenomena

model and obtained the upper and lower bounds of rope’s effective on load redistribution among wires while stressing. The require-

stiffness that correspond to the no-slip and full-slip condition, ment of a sufficiently large model, combined with high material

respectively. Unlike the classical discrete modeling approach and boundary nonlinearities, make the use of an explicit analysis

[1–3] where each wire is treated as individual helical rod, Jolicoeur scheme a favorable candidate.

and Cardou [8] presented an alternative approach in which each In analyzing complicated contact problems like wire strands

layer of wires is represented by an orthotropic hollow circular and similar structures, explicit time integration has proven

cylinder. This semi-continuous model was applied to several types successful for its computational efficiency, robustness, and solu-

of cable, concluding that this approach tends to produce more tion stability (i.e., lack of convergence difficulty) [17,20,22,27].

satisfactory results for cables with larger number of wires. Elata However, simulating strand stressing in a quasi-static manner

et al. [9] considered the twisted wires in the outer layer of a rope when using an explicit dynamic procedure requires special

and analyzed two extreme kinematic conditions: zero and infinite considerations such as proper selection of loading rate, time varia-

friction between adjacent wires. However, the flexural and tion of applied load, and energy dissipation mechanisms other than

torsional rigidity of wires were neglected. frictional sliding, which become extremely critical in large models.

In general, most of the aforementioned analytical models have The first part of this paper examines the role of these parameters in

made approximations and simplifying assumptions to obtain a achieving an accurate model, and investigates the redistribution of

closed-form solution. Although these models can be used to load among wires at the stick/slip transition.

predict the global response of a cable, they are unable to provide The second part of this paper deals with simulating a wire break

a comprehensive description on many localized phenomena, such in a prestressing strand and investigates post-breakage response.

as yielding along contact lines, uneven bending of outer wires, Although wire breaks in a rope or strand are quite common,

and stress redistribution among wires. With the rapid advancement occurring primarily due to corrosion, to date there have been few

of computing technology, finite element (FE) methods have been attempts to conduct a detailed study on this topic [27–35];

developed over the past few decades to examine these characteris- comprehensive investigation of the behavior of a broken strand is

tics in addition to other critical aspects of wire ropes, such as still an open problem. The use of monostrand tendons in building

microstructural characterization during manufacturing process construction and the recent interest in flexible fillers for

[10] and the mechanisms controlling their ductility [11]. multi-strand post-tensioned tendons in U.S. bridges facilitates

Chiang [12] conducted a FE-based parametric study to show the new monitoring methods for wire break detection [36–38]. Wire

individual and combined effects of different geometric, boundary, breaks in unbonded tendons allow changes in global strand and

and contact conditions on stress response of a strand. By utilizing anchor response, which further highlights the necessity of a

the helical symmetry of geometry and loading, Jiang et al. [13] thorough investigation on strand behavior after the occurrence of

developed a concise FE model of a seven-wire strand. The model any breakage. This paper considers various breakage scenarios,

was further extended [14] to analyze a three-layered 19-wire such as breakages of center or outer wires, varying confinement

strand by updating the constraint equations and boundary conditions, successive wire breaks, and the effect of friction on

conditions. Nawrocki and Labrosse [15] considered different post-breakage response.

interwire motions, namely, sliding, rolling and pivoting, and

showed that pivoting and sliding governs the axial and bending

behavior, respectively. Contrasting the conventional assumption 2. Model geometric and material properties

of contact occurrence only between the center and outer wires,

Jiang et al. [16] demonstrated that the contact also takes place 2.1. Geometric features

between neighboring outer wires.

Erdönmez and Imrak analyzed the behavior of a curved strand Although the construction of wire strands varies in different

[17] and later considered a rope to examine the load distribution parameters, such as wire diameter, helix angle, number of wires,

among wires [18]. Stanova et al. derived parametric equations for group pattern, and lays [39,40], the basic geometry of all these

geometric models of complex wire ropes [19] and implemented strands consists of a straight wire surrounded by a layer of helical

them in a FE program [20]. Zhou and Tian [21] proposed a FE model wires [15]. The cable investigated in this paper is a seven-wire

for single-layered strand based on geometric compatibility and strand (Fig. 1), which is commonly used in prestressed concrete

material elasticity theory. Nodal constraint relations between core (PC) structures. The ASTM A416 Grade 270 strand [41] is made of

and helical wires were obtained for axial tension and bending. six helical wires encasing the center wire. The helix angle and wire

However, the model did not account for the effect of interwire diameters have been chosen such that, in the undeformed configu-

friction or sliding. Kmet et al. [22] investigated a rope deviated ration, each helical wire barely touches its two neighboring helical

over a saddle and observed non-uniform stress distribution among wires in addition to touching the straight center wire [16]. Details of

wires. Fontanari et al. [23] studied the elasto-plastic response of a the geometric and material data are listed in Table 1.

A.B.M. Abdullah et al. / Engineering Structures 123 (2016) 213–224 215

Table 1

Geometric and material properties of a seven-wire prestressing strand [41,42].

Geometry Material

Strand diameter, ds 15.240 mm (0.6 in.) Young’s modulus 198.5 GPa (28,800 ksi)

Center wire diameter, dc 5.150 mm (0.2028 in.) Poisson’s ratio 0.3

Outer wire diameter, do 5.045 mm (0.1986 in.) Yield strain 0.0085

Helical wire pitch, p 190.5 mm (7.5 in.) Yield stress 1687.8 MPa (244.8 ksi)

Helix angle, a 80.46° Rupture strain 0.07

Lay angle, b 9.54° Rupture stress 1857.4 MPa (269.4 ksi)

2.2. Material characterization contact area between wires. Fig. 2 shows that with mesh

refinement, the moduli obtained from FE analyses using different

The material behavior has been characterized by an elastic–plas- mesh densities approach the target modulus. Considering accuracy

tic model with isotropic hardening. Similar assumptions were made (about 98% of target modulus) and computational cost (saving 3/4

in earlier studies and were found reasonable for metallic materials of CPU time by compromising only 0.5% accuracy), the characteris-

[23]. The stress–strain curve for seven-wire prestressing strand in tic radial and circumferential element dimensions were chosen to

the PCI Design Handbook [42] has been considered. The effective be 1/10 of wire diameter, d, and the longitudinal dimension to be

Young’s modulus of the strand, however, is expected to be some- 1/100 of helical pitch, p.

what less than the individual wire modulus because of the change

in helix angle under load [1]. Therefore, the input material modulus 3.2. Boundary conditions and loading

of elasticity was adjusted following Costello’s model [39] so that the

calculated strand modulus matches the target strand modulus in Translation along the strand’s longitudinal axis was restrained

[42]; the difference between wire and strand moduli (207.2 GPa at one end (dead end) but permitted at the other end (live end)

and 198.5 GPa, respectively) was found to be approximately 4.5%. for applying displacement-controlled loading. This loading process

It is noted, however, that because of minor difference between

center and outer wire diameters (Table 1), the size effect on tensile

properties of individual wires [23] is expected to be insignificant

and therefore has not been taken into account.

3. Model development

hexahedral elements that use reduced integration and hourglass

control, which have been successfully implemented in other

studies involving steel cables [12–14,16,17,20,22,23]. A mesh

convergence study was conducted using these elements with the

aim of numerically simulating the effective strand modulus of

elasticity in PCI Design Handbook [42]. For computational effi-

ciency, a relatively short strand length of 190.5 mm (7.5 in.), which

is equal to the length of one helical pitch of the strand (Table 1),

was considered for the mesh convergence study; other modeling

parameters are described in the following section. As anticipated,

a high-resolution mesh was required to effectively model the Fig. 2. Mesh convergence study.

216 A.B.M. Abdullah et al. / Engineering Structures 123 (2016) 213–224

was approximated by imposing a moving boundary along the produce reasonably accurate solutions in other similar applications

strand axis on all wires at the live end. After fully stressing the [16]. Friction was characterized by an isotropic Coulomb friction

strand, the axial translation was prohibited at both terminations model.

to prepare the strand for simulating wire breaks. It is noted that,

in practice, the strands are gripped at the ends by wedges (two- 3.4. Model verification

or three-piece slotted cones to hold the strands in their serrated

teeth) that restrain the elongated strands from returning to their To verify the accuracy of the model, finite element analysis

original lengths. While some slip may occur between the strand (FEA) results were compared with Costello’s theory [39], which is

and wedge at the dead and live end at the beginning of stressing valid only up to the elastic limit. Therefore, to evaluate the analysis

and immediately after removing the stressing jack, respectively, results beyond material yielding, the complete stress–strain curve

the strands are ultimately locked and held in place by the wedges. obtained from FEA was also compared with the curve provided in

In addition, although the wedge grips only the outer wires, the PCI Design Handbook [42]. The minor mismatch between the

applied load is transmitted to the center wire through friction analytical and FEA curve (difference in moduli less than 2.5%), as

under high normal pressure exerted by the wedging mechanism. can be seen in Fig. 4, is in part because of mesh resolution

Thus, the gripping of the strands by the wedges was modeled by (Fig. 2) and also due to the fact that contact deformation was

directly restraining all the wires from moving along the strand’s neglected in Costello’s model.

axis. To prevent unwinding of helical wires, the ends must be con-

strained from axial rotation; this was achieved by restraining the 4. Sensitivity analysis of FE parameters

circumferential motion (U(t) = Fixed). Furthermore, radial contrac-

tion (during stressing) and expansion (after breakage) of wires due This section investigates the sensitivity of strand response to

to Poisson effect were allowed at both ends (U(r) = Free). The several FE parameters, namely, load ramp profile and duration,

details of imposed boundary and loading conditions are shown in friction model, and damping. Appropriate parameters have been

Fig. 3. determined for an accurate and efficient model to be used in

analyzing strand behavior as well as simulating wire breakages

3.3. Interwire friction in the subsequent sections. The modeling parameters used in

different studies are shown in Table 2.

The FE model must also address friction at the contact points

between wires. Therefore, the model is required to account for 4.1. Load ramp profile

all the complex mechanical phenomena originating from contact

nonlinearities. The wire-to-wire contact interactions were The time variation of prescribed displacement at the live end,

considered as deformable-to-deformable contact pairs. Finite slid- which is the strand’s total elongation, has a notable effect on strand

ing formulation was used to account for possible large interwire response during simulation of prestressing. A linear displacement

motion after wire breaks as well as at the end of sticking phase ramp with time (Fig. 5a) produces an oscillatory response (Fig. 5b)

while stressing. Surface-to-surface contact discretization was used because of sudden application of velocity, which also causes the

as it reduces the likelihood of large localized penetrations of kinetic energy to fluctuate throughout the ramp duration (Fig. 6).

master nodes into slave surface and also reduces the sensitivity The time lag of response (tL ) observed in the inset of Fig. 5b (time

of results to master/slave roles [43]. Penalty functions were used vs. strand prestressing force plot) is the time required by the stress

to enforce the impenetrability requirement. Although the exact ful- wave to traverse the strand length. In estimating the transit time of

fillment of the constraint condition is compromised, this approach propagated wave, the dilatational wave speed was determined by

does not increase the number of unknowns (hence computational computing simplified effective moduli from the material’s consti-

demand) like other algorithms, such as Lagrange multiplier or tutive response [43]. A quasi-static response is obtained (indicated

augmented Lagrangian formulations, but has been shown to by the elongation vs. strand prestressing force plot in Fig. 5b),

A.B.M. Abdullah et al. / Engineering Structures 123 (2016) 213–224 217

Fig. 4. Stress–strain curves for strand. Fig. 6. Kinetic energy history for linear and smooth load ramp.

(dU=dt) is zero at the beginning, then increases smoothly until over the loading process with a peak at the middle, confirming the

the middle of the step, followed by decreasing over the rest of consistency of the applied procedure. It is noted that the ramp

the time and finally return to zero (Fig. 5a) [43]. Following the speed (or loading rate) was kept sufficiently slow during both lin-

velocity profile, the kinetic energy history (Fig. 6) varies smoothly ear and smooth load ramp to avoid any unwanted dynamic effect.

Table 2

Parameters for analyzing strand response during stressing.

Model ID Section Variable Length (mm) l Load ramp profile n (%) Load ramp duration

S1 3.1 Mesh resolution 190.5 0.1 Smooth 10 10Tn

S2 4.1 Load ramp profile 190.5 0.1 – 0 10Tn

S3 4.2 Load ramp duration 190.5 0.1 Smooth 10 –

S4 4.3 Friction model 952.5 – Smooth 10 10Tn

S5 4.4 Damping 952.5 0.1 Smooth – 10Tn

S6 5 Localized response 190.5 0.1 Smooth 10 10Tn

S6 6 Load redistribution among wires 190.5 0.1 Smooth 10 10Tn

S7 6 Load redistribution among wires 952.5 0.1 Smooth 10 10Tn

l: Friction coefficient; n: Fraction of mass critical damping (damping ratio) corresponding to the fundamental longitudinal mode of vibration; Tn: natural period of the

fundamental longitudinal mode of vibration (estimated Tn for 190.5 mm and 952.5 mm long strands are 0.15 ms and 0.75 ms, respectively [47]).

Fig. 5. Time variation of applied loads: (a) ramp profile; (b) developed force vs. elongation.

218 A.B.M. Abdullah et al. / Engineering Structures 123 (2016) 213–224

operation of a prestressing strand is relatively long (at least in the

order of few seconds). Stressing a long strand in such a physical

timescale, however, is often not feasible in FEA due to very small

time increment (generally, in the order of nanoseconds in this type

of analysis) caused by the extra fine mesh. Therefore, a parametric

study has been conducted with various ramp durations to obtain

an economical solution while not being significantly affected by

inertial effects. Analysis results show that a load ramp duration of

at least three times the natural period of the fundamental longitudi-

nal (axial) mode of vibration, Tn, is adequate for this particular anal-

ysis to achieve a static response (Fig. 7). A higher loading rate results

in non-uniform stress distribution along the strand, which indicates

the inadequacy of the analysis. Moreover, the higher-than-static

forces suggest the presence of dynamic effects.

Fig. 9. Occurrence of interwire slip.

In the literature, apart from theoretical models that consider

either or both the two extreme cases of zero and infinite friction

[1,3,7–9], the interwire frictional effect has been predominantly As expected, Fig. 10 shows that strand responses from the models

modeled with a constant friction coefficient (considered for other with a constant friction coefficient (l ¼ 0:1) and an exponential

analyses reported in this paper) lying between 0.1 and 0.2 decay friction model (ls ¼ 0:2; lk ¼ 0:1) mostly overlap, indicating

[13,14,16–18,20,22,23]. In this section, these two values are taken that the two responses are quite identical, including the onset of

as lower and upper bounds of friction, respectively, and are defined slip. Thus, Coulomb friction model with a constant friction coeffi-

as kinetic (lk ) and static (ls ) friction coefficients with an cient has been found adequate for the range of friction coefficients

exponential decay model (Fig. 8) [43]. [13,14,16–18,20,22,23] generally considered in analyzing strand

Fig. 9 illustrates the transition from interwire sticking state to response. A constant friction equal to the kinetic friction coefficient

slipping as the loading progresses. The onset of interwire slip can is, therefore, used in the rest of the analyses for simplicity.

be also confirmed by the sliding energy history. It is noteworthy

that this stick/slip transition was not obvious in shorter strand

models (S1, S2, or S3 in Table 2), which appears to be because of 4.4. Damping

edge effects, but became evident in relatively long strand of length

equal to five times the helical pitch (952.5 mm). As observed in previous plots (Figs. 5b, 6, and 9), linear load

The final prestressing force at the end of stressing, as well as the ramp or stick/slip transition during stressing induces dynamic

post-breakage response, however, are mostly governed by effects in the model, which resulted in an oscillatory response.

the slipping portion of frictional condition. Although shifting of Although the vibration energy was dissipated through frictional

the onset of slip is possible, the magnitude of friction coefficient sliding, it required significant computation time for the oscillation

in the sticking phase is not expected to significantly affect the to die out. This is because the sliding energy was relatively small

strand response because of the lack of interwire motion [39,40]. [24]. Therefore, an additional energy dissipation mechanism was

A.B.M. Abdullah et al. / Engineering Structures 123 (2016) 213–224 219

Fig. 12. Addition of mass damping to damp the oscillation originating from

interwire slip.

response in a tractable timescale. The analysis results show that an developed at the end of stressing. Similar trend of strain

addition of nominal damping (10% of the critical mass damping distribution was obtained in a study on Warrington-Seale rope

corresponding to the fundamental longitudinal mode of vibration) [23]. The Mises stress distribution in the wires is illustrated in

was effective in damping the oscillation (Figs. 11 and 12). Fig. 13b. As expected, the maximum stress was observed along

the contact lines between the center and outer wires. The model

also accounted for other critical phenomena, such as energy dissi-

5. Evolution of strand’s localized response with stressing

pation through frictional sliding, which has been discussed in the

following section.

Apart from global strand response (i.e., prestress loss due to

wire breaks, described later), the model also provides insights into

several localized phenomena such as contact pressure, frictional 6. Load redistribution among wires

sliding, and yielding. The contact pressure developed along six

helical contact lines on the straight center wire and along a single The center wire has greater axial stiffness than the outer wires

contact line on helical outer wires. The contact pressure increased because of its larger diameter (Table 1) as well as the frictional

with strand elongation, which introduced plasticity in the wires contact provided by the surrounding wires. In addition, although

along contact lines when the strand was elongated about 0.75% the displacement of the outer wires along their own axes is larger

of its original length. The material yielding started developing than that in the center wire, which is reduced proportionally to the

around the mid-length region and then gradually extended toward updated lay angle (Fig. 1), the axial strain in outer wires is smaller

the terminations. Fig. 13a shows the equivalent plastic strain than that in the center wire [1]. This is because, when the strand is

Fig. 11. Effect of damping on linear load ramp: (a) developed force; (b) kinetic energy.

220 A.B.M. Abdullah et al. / Engineering Structures 123 (2016) 213–224

Fig. 13. Strand response at 0.8% elongation: (a) equivalent plastic strain; (b) Mises stress (ksi).

under uniaxial load, the center wire displaces along the strand axis

while the outer wires progressively align with the axis [23]. As a

result, the center wire carries a larger share of axial force than

the outer wires, provided that there is no significant interwire

motion. Such a condition is observed in a relatively short strand

model, i.e., model S6 in Fig. 14, where the relative motion between

the wires is restricted by edge effects.

The interwire motion, however, becomes more pronounced in a

relatively long strand (model S7) when the wires experience a post-

slip state of friction. As expected, the center wire initially carries a

greater share of axial force as long as the material remains elastic

and there is no considerable relative motion (Fig. 15). After the

stick/slip transition occurs, a portion of the system energy is dissi-

pated through frictional sliding. Because the center wire has more

contact areas than the outer wires, the sliding energy dissipation

associated with the center wire is higher than the outer wires. In

addition, the onset of yielding along the contact helices primarily

affects the center wire, which contributes further to redistribute

the load to the outer wires [23]. Thus, the initial load distribution

Fig. 14. Comparison of load distribution among wires in a long- and short-strand. is finally reversed and the outer wires carry a larger share (Table 3).

Fig. 15. Load redistribution among wires with the onset of slip.

A.B.M. Abdullah et al. / Engineering Structures 123 (2016) 213–224 221

Table 3

Final load distribution among wires.

S6 209.5 31.3 kN 14.94% 29.7 kN 14.18%

S7 209.0 29.0 kN 13.90% 30.0 kN 14.35%

wire break, a wire break in a confined strand, and successive

multiple wire breaks (Table 4). Such investigation has practical

significance because it enables the analysis of the impact of wire

breaks on structural performance and can inform the development

of wire breakage detection methods. Of particular interest is the

change in prestressing force that occurs when wires break.

Fig. 16. Typical stressing profile and post-breakage response.

(0.80 Fu, where Fu represents the specified tensile strength of pre-

stressing steel) [41,44,45]. Because a wire break commonly occurs Table 5

Prestress loss due to wire breaks.

in an aged strand due to corrosion, the load was then ramped down

to 0.60 Fu to obtain the final effective force, excluding the prestress Model ID (Table 4) Prestress loss (%)

losses, such as elastic shortening, shrinkage, and creep of concrete, B1 6.6

relaxation of steel, anchor set [46] that commonly occur in PC B2 17.4

structures. The complete stressing history was necessary to B3 15.3

account for the plasticity that forms in the contact areas between

the wires when the strand experiences higher stresses. Once the

pretensioning step was completed, the stiffness and strength of a 7.2. Post-breakage response

target element group, consists of the elements in a wire located

at a position where the break was intended, were artificially 7.2.1. Center and outer wire breaks

reduced to locally increase the effective strain within these An analysis was conducted to compare the load loss due to

elements. Thus, the length over which damage was imposed was breakages in center and outer wires. The results show that break-

equal to the dimension of an element along the wire axis. To intro- age in an outer wire caused approximately 17.4% prestress loss in

duce damage in the element group, a certain value of equivalent the strand, whereas breakage in the core wire resulted in only 6.6%

plastic strain, around 5.15% in this simulation, was set as damage loss (Table 5). This greater load loss due to an outer wire break was

initiation criterion. Once this criterion was reached, the material expected because the center and adjacent wires partially lost their

was progressively led to failure following a linear law for damage frictional contact area and radial pressure in addition to lose of the

evolution with effective plastic displacement [43]. The failure broken wire’s share of the total force (Table 3). In addition, the

mechanism was then completed when the effective plastic smaller load loss in case of the core wire break is attributed to

displacement reached a predetermined ultimate value (6.15%) the fact that it was under much higher radial pressure than the

and finally, the fully degraded elements were deleted from the outer wires, which resulted in greater frictional resistance.

discretized geometry. It can be noted that the low-relaxation pre-

stressing strand is typically stretched and annealed to reduce

residual stresses induced by the cold-drawing process. Moreover, 7.2.2. Outer wire breaks in a confined strand

the generated wire break was not caused by strand rupture due In practice, a mono-strand tendon is generally placed in a plastic

to overstressing. Thus the effect of residual stresses left by the sheath for corrosion protection. Similarly, in a multi-strand system,

manufacturing process is expected to be marginal on the overall a bundle of strands is usually contained inside a duct. The plastic

strand response, and therefore has not been taken into account. sheath in mono-strand tendons and the presence of duct and other

Fig. 16 shows a complete stressing profile with a typical strands in a multi-strand setting may potentially limit a wire’s

post-breakage response. lateral movement after breakage. This situation has been simulated

Table 4

Wire breakage simulation matrix.

Model ID Section Broken wire Length (mm) Break location from dead end (mm) Confinement condition Friction coefficient, l

B1 7.2.1 Center 952.5 857.25 Bare 0.1

B2 7.2.1 Outer 952.5 857.25 Bare 0.1

B3 7.2.2 Outer 952.5 857.25 Confined 0.1

B4 7.2.3 Center 952.5 857.25 Bare -Varies-

B5 7.2.3 Outer 3352.8 3048.0 Bare -Varies-

B6 7.2.4 Outer 19,812.0 -Varies- Bare 0.3

B7 7.2.5 Outer (multiple) 952.5 857.25 Bare 0.1

222 A.B.M. Abdullah et al. / Engineering Structures 123 (2016) 213–224

no confining pressure has been applied to the cylinder. As listed

in Table 5, a wire break in confined condition contains greater

prestressing force after breakage compared to the bare condition.

This is because the broken wire is restricted from being separated

from its neighboring wires in confined condition, which results in

greater frictional resistance to prestress loss.

7.2.3. Center and outer wire breaks in a strand with various friction

coefficients

Force loss due to wire breakage in an aged, partially corroded

strand is expected to be different from that in a new, uncorroded

strand. A parametric study was conducted on strands with various

friction coefficients (using Coulomb friction model with a constant

friction coefficient), in which a lower coefficient represented a

newer strand, whereas a higher coefficient characterized a corroded

strand. The study also helped examine the effect of lubrication on

Fig. 17. FE model of strand with radial confinement (rigid elements). strand response in the presence of different filler materials used

in post-tensioning ducts. Fig. 18 shows the remaining prestressing

force after an outer wire breakage in an approximately 3.4 m-long

strand (Table 4) with different friction coefficients. A similar study

was performed with shorter strand length (952.5 mm) for core wire

breaks. Force loss was significantly less due to breakage in core wire

even with shorter length, which is because the core wire was under

much higher radial pressure exerted by the helical wires. The

results indicate that the total prestressing force may remain almost

unaffected by a breakage in the core wire in an aging strand. Fig. 18

illustrates mild nonlinearity in the relationship between force loss

and friction coefficient, for both center and outer wire breaks. This

nonlinearity appears to be due to the effect of friction on formation

of birdcaging (Fig. 19), which was formed at about 2.4 m away from

the wire break in model B5 with a friction coefficient of 0.1, as well

as the loss of contact between broken wire and the rest of the strand

around break location.

A parametric study was conducted where wire breaks were

simulated at different locations along the length of a nearly

20 m-long strand. A coarser mesh (d/4 d/4 p/37.5 or

Fig. 18. Effect of friction coefficient on remaining strand prestressing force. 1.27 mm 1.27 mm 5.08 mm) was used to keep the problem

size tractable, and a relatively high friction coefficient (l ¼ 0:3)

was used to emphasize the effect of break location on prestress loss

by modeling a cylindrical container around the strand with the in a partially corroded strand.

cylinder barely touching the strand in an unloaded state (Fig. 17). As expected, Fig. 20 shows that the prestressing force was less

To minimize additional computational expense, the cylindrical affected when the breakage occurred away from the dead end. It

geometry has been discretized with rigid elements. The interaction is noteworthy that parameters such as birdcage location and size,

A.B.M. Abdullah et al. / Engineering Structures 123 (2016) 213–224 223

Table 6

Frequency decrease with wire breaks.

Hz Decrease (%)

Unbroken strand 754.1 –

First wire break 719.6 4.6

Third wire break 612.5 18.8

along with the length around the breakage location over which the

broken wire remains completely separated from the strand, vary

with the break length because the strain energy stored by wires

changes along the length. As a result, the force loss was non-

proportional (somewhat nonlinearly related) to the break length

due to complex interaction of multiple factors, such as, friction,

birdcaging as well as the separation length around break location.

After analyzing various wire break conditions and their effects

on prestressing force in the earlier sections, this section investigates

Fig. 20. Remaining prestressing force due to wire breaks at different locations in a the dynamic post-breakage behavior of strand. Such investigation

long strand. can be useful in developing new breakage detection methods that

continuously monitor the strand response at the end anchors to

capture any change in strand dynamics. A multiple wire break con-

dition (Fig. 21) has been considered and natural frequencies of the

contributing vibration modes were extracted from time history

after each wire breaks. Fig. 22 shows the magnitude spectra of

the vibration response of the strand after the first and third wire

breaks. The obtained frequencies (determined by peaks in the spec-

tra) were compared (Table 6) with the frequency of unbroken

strand estimated through an Eigen analysis as well as an analytical

prediction [47]. It is observed that the frequencies, as well as the

respective magnitudes, decrease with successive wire breaks. This

decrease of frequency is because of the reduced tension in the

strand and also because of the decreasing strand stiffness with wire

breaks due to cumulative loss of broken wire cross-sectional area

along with reduction in confinement. In addition, the damping

(estimated by half-power bandwidth) tends to increase with the

number of wire breaks because of greater interactions among the

Fig. 21. Multiple wire breaks. broken wires.

8. Conclusions

detailed analysis of its mechanical behavior. The analysis facilitates

a comprehensive understanding of both static and dynamic

response of the strand, and captures useful information on strand

behavior for developing wire break detection methods. The model

considers an accurate representation of material, geometric, and

frictional conditions that enables the investigation on interwire

motion during stressing as well as the strand response after a wire

breakage. A sensitivity study of several FE parameters, such as load

ramp profile, load ramp duration, friction model (Coulomb friction

model with a constant friction coefficient and an exponential decay

friction model with both static and kinetic friction coefficients) and

damping, has been conducted first to determine the appropriate

parameters for an efficient model. After validating the analysis

results with available analytical works in the literature, the model

was then used to conduct a detailed investigation on load distribu-

tion among wires, followed by various parametric studies on wire

breaks.

The analysis results show that a linear load ramp profile or

ramp duration less than three times the fundamental longitudinal

period of the strand induces unwanted dynamic effects into the

Fig. 22. Frequency shift with successive wire breaks. system. The results also demonstrate that the interwire friction

224 A.B.M. Abdullah et al. / Engineering Structures 123 (2016) 213–224

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