You are on page 1of 36

FISIK(A)

AWAN
2

OUR BRAINS
MEET OUR AWESOME PRESENTERS

Anistia Malinda Hidayat Iga Rusmala Yoga Wahyu Pradana


ABSEN 1 ABSEN 10 ABSEN 24
ATURAN MAIN

EMPAT
PERHATIAN dari anda adalah bentuk APRESIASI bagi
kami

SATU
Jika kami terlalu CEPAT dalam penyampaian materi,
kalian boleh mengajukan INTERUPSI.

TIGA
Sesi pertanyaan, sanggahan, kritik, dan masukan
akan DIBUKA seusai presentasi SELESAI

DUA
Jika kami KURANG JELAS dalam menjelaskan, teman-
teman boleh meminta kami untuk MENGULANG
penjelasan
3
Our Topics

1 3 5

Building Concept of
Buoyant Force Stability Criteria for
Meteorology
Moist Air

Hydrostatic Equilibrium Stability Criteria for Dry Air

2 4

4
Our Topics

6 8 10

Convective Instability Pseudoadiabatic Lapse Rate Geopotential

Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate Horizontal Restoring Force

7 9

5
Our Topics

11 13 15

Geostrophic wind and Symmetric Instability Quizzzz


geostrophic windshear

Slantwise Displacement Baroclinic Instability

12 14

6
BUILDING MINDSET AS METEOROLOGIST

2013 1 Effect of atmospheric stability on urban pollutant concentration

Quantifying the influence of atmospheric stability on air pollution in Lazhou,


2015 2 China using a Radon-Based stability monitor

Assesing the impact of atmospheric stability on a locally and remotely sourced


2016 3 aerosols at Richmod, Australia using Radon-222

2017 4 Pembentukan fungsi pengaruh Gauss menggunakan software R

2018 5 Study of air pollution and atmospheric stability in Ciuc Basin-Romania

7
Parcel Buoyancy and Atmospheric Stability
Hydrostatic Balance
No net force on the vertical direction

∂p = -ρg∂z

𝜕𝑝
= -ρg
𝜕𝑧

𝑑𝑝 𝑔
=- dz
𝑝 𝑅′ 𝑇
9
DRY ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE

Mathematical Formulation Magnitude


Because the air parcel undergoes only adiabatic
𝑔
transformations (dq = 0) and the atmosphere is 𝛤𝑑 =
𝑐𝑝𝑑
in hydrostatic equilibrium

9,8 𝑚𝑠 −2
=
1004 𝐽 𝐾 −1 𝑘𝑔−1
d(CpT + ф) = 0
𝐾 𝐾
= 0,0098 = 0,98
𝑚 𝑘𝑚
Jika dibagi dengan dz, kemudian menjadi:

𝑑𝑇 𝑔
=− = −Г𝑑
𝑑𝑧 𝑐𝑝𝑑 10
PSEUDOADIABATIC LAPSE RATE
If all of the condensation products immediately fall out of the air parcel, the process is
irreversible, and not strictly adiabatic, because the condensation products carry some heat.

Persamaan pseudoadiabatik lapse rate (saturated adiabatic):

𝐿𝑊𝑆
𝑑𝑇 1+
𝑅′𝑇
𝛤𝑑 ≅ − =Г
𝑑𝑧 𝐿2 𝜀𝑊𝑆
1+
𝑅′𝑐𝑝𝑑 𝑇 2
Typical values:
4 K/km near ground in warm humid air masses
6 – 7 K/km in middle troposphere
Near tropopause, Г𝑠 only slightly smaller than Г 11
GAYA ANGKAT
Buoyant force on a parcel of air

ρ′ − ρ 𝑇 − 𝑇′
𝐹 =𝑔𝑥 =𝑔𝑥
ρ 𝑇′

Parsel udara kering yang memiliki volume V, suhu T, dan massa jenis ρ akan menggantikan posisi
udara luar dengan volume yang sama yang memiliki suhu T’ dan massa jenis ρ’. Gaya yang
mengarah ke bawah adalah sama dengan ρgV, sedangkan gaya yang mengarah keatas besarnya
ρ’Gv. Gaya yang mengarah ke atas besarnya sama untuk parsel udara dan udara luar yang
tergantikan, yaitu -V(∂p/∂z). Sehingga gaya apung total yang bekerja pada parsel udara tersebut
adalah Vg(ρ’-ρ).

12
GAYA ANGKAT PARSEL UDARA

Suhu Parsel > lingkungan


• Buoyancy (+)
• Parsel naik atau melambat jika sebelumnya turun

Suhu parsel < lingkungan


• Buoyancy (-)
• Parsel turun atau melambat jika sebelumnya naik

Suhu Parsel = lingkungan


• Buoyancy 0 (nol)
• Parsel tetap jika sebelumnya tidak bergerak
• Parsel ke samping jika sebelumnya bergerak 13
Credit to: Miming Saepudin, M.Si
KRITERIA STABILITAS PARSEL UDARA KERING

Parcel executes a buoyancy oscillation about its equilibrium


Ambient lapse rate:
𝜕𝑇 level z with amplitude equal to its initial displacement z’(0).
− =𝛾
𝜕𝑧 𝑑2 𝑧 𝑔
= - (Гd - Г) z’
𝑑𝑡 2 𝑡
Kriteria berdasar lapse rate:
γ<Г STABIL / positive stable stability
𝑑2 𝑧
- 𝑁 2z′ = 0
γ =Г NETRAL 𝑑𝑡 2

γ>Г LABIL / negative static instability

𝑔
N= (Г𝑑 − Г)
Kriteria berdasar perubahan laju suhu potensial: 𝑇

𝜕𝜃 Brunt-Vaisälä frequency is a measure of the static stability:


>0 STABIL
𝜕𝑧
the higher the frequency, the greater the ambient stability
𝜕𝜃
=0 NETRAL
𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝜃
<0 LABIL 14
𝜕𝑧
KRITERIA STABILITAS PARSEL UDARA BASAH

“If a parcel of air is saturated, its temperature will decrease with height at the saturated
adiabatic lapse rate.”

𝛾 ′ > 𝛤𝑑 : atmosfer labil mutlak

𝛾 ′ = 𝛤𝑑 : atmosfer netral kering

𝛾 ′ = 𝛤𝑠 : atmosfer netral jenuh

𝛤𝑑 < 𝛾 ′ < 𝛤𝑠 : atmosfer labil bersyarat

𝛾 ′ < 𝛤𝑠 : atmosfer stabil mutlak


15
KONDISI STABILITAS
Terdapat dua cara menentukan stabilitas atmosfer melalui diagram sounding

SATU DUA
Mengkaji Stabilitas parsel Mengkaji stabilitas lapisan

Melihat profil parsel udara Melihat profil suhu lingkungan


jenuh dan menentukan nilai dan menentukan bentuk
stabilitasnya stabilitasnya terhadap lapse
rate.

Credit to: Miming Saepudin, M.Si


16
PADA KONDISI STABIL

• Suhu parsel < suhu lingkungan


• Gerak vertikal minimal
• Non turbulen (laminar)
• Mendukung pembentukan awan stratiform

17
Credit to: Miming Saepudin, M.Si
PADA KONDISI TIDAK
STABIL

• Suhu parcel > suhu lingkungan


• Gerak vertikal kuat
• Sangat turbulen
• Mendukung pembentukan awan
kumuliform
19
Credit to: Miming Saepudin, M.Si
PADA KONDISI NETRAL

• Suhu parcel = suhu lingkungan

• Netral jenuh = parallel dengan adiabatis jenuh

• Netral kering = parallel dengan adiabatis kering


21
Credit to: Miming Saepudin, M.Si
PADA KONDISI TIDAK
STABIL BERSYARAT

• Suhu parcel = suhu


lingkungan
• Netral jenuh = parallel
dengan adiabatis
jenuh
• Netral kering =
parallel dengan
adiabatis kering
22
Credit to: Miming Saepudin, M.Si
Tidak Stabil
Bersyarat

The Power of PowerPoint | thepopp.com 23


CONVECTIVE INSTABILITY

A column of air which is rendered


unstable by lifting to saturation is
said to be convectively unstable. (Some
books use the term potentially
unstable).

𝜕𝜃𝑤
A. >0 convectively stable
𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝜃𝑤
B. =0 convectively neutral
𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝜃𝑤
C. <0 convectively unstable
𝜕𝑧
HORIZONTAL RESTORING FORCE
The major horizontal forces in the atmosphere are the CORIOLIS FORCE and the horizontal PRESSURE
GRADIENT FORCE.

CORIOLIS FORCE HORIZONTAL PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE

(𝑃1 −𝑃2) 1 𝜕𝑝
𝐶𝐹𝑋 = 2Ω𝑠𝑖𝑛∅𝑣 = 𝑓𝑣 PGF = =
𝜌𝑙 ρ 𝜕𝑥
𝐶𝐹𝑦 = −2Ω𝑠𝑖𝑛∅𝑢 = −𝑓𝑢 PGF increase -> acceleration increase ->
25
stronger wind
GEOPOTENTIAL
“The work that must be done against the Earth’s gravitational field to raise a mass of 1 kg from sea
level to that point. Depends only on the height not on the path through which the unit mass is taken into
that point”

Formulation
dф = - αdp

𝑑𝑝 𝑑𝑝
dф = - αdp = -RT =- 𝑅𝑑 𝑇𝑣
𝑝 𝑝

Tinggi geopotensial (Z) diukur dengan satuan “geopotensial meter” sebagai berikut:
φ(𝑧) 1 𝑧 ḡ
𝑔𝑝𝑚 𝑧 = = න 𝑔𝑑𝑧 = 𝑧
𝑔0 𝑔0 0 𝑔0
26
GEOSTROPHIC WIND AND GEOSTROPHIC WIND SHEAR

Geostrophic wind shear

Geostrophic wind
Because of its dependence on the horizontal gradient of temperature, the
Coriolis force exactly balances the horizontal
vector difference between the geostrophic wind at two levels is called the
pressure gradient force. THERMAL WIND.
1 𝜕𝑝 𝜕𝑣𝑔 𝜕 1 𝜕𝑝 𝑔 𝜕𝜃
− = −𝐶𝐹𝑥 = −𝑓𝑣𝑔 −𝑓
𝜕𝑧
=
𝜕𝑧

𝜌 𝜕𝑥
=−
𝜃 𝜕𝑥
𝜌 𝜕𝑥
1 𝜕𝑝 𝜕𝑢𝑔 𝜕 1 𝜕𝑝 𝑔 𝜕𝜃
− = −𝐶𝐹𝑦 = +𝑓𝑢𝑔 −𝑓
𝜕𝑧
=
𝜕𝑧

𝜌 𝜕𝑦
=−
𝜃 𝜕𝑦
27
𝜌 𝜕𝑦
SLANTWISE DISPLACEMENT
Slantwise convection can occur in baroclinic flows in which the slantwise-upward displacement of air parcel, elongated in the
direction of the thermal wind, results in a vector combination of buoyancy and coriolis (or centrifugal) and pressure
gradient accelerations that drive the parcel in the same direction as the displacement (AMS Glossary, 2018)

Symmetric
Baroclinic
instability
instability
• Can exist for an air parcel that is displaced along an isentrophic
surface • Another type of slantwise instability can occur if only the
• The buoyancy force VANISHES generalized BUOYANCY FORCE is INCLUDED.
• Related to VORTICITY • The CRITERIA for baroclinic instability are generally met in
• Responsible for the MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEM, the atmosphere at MIDLATITUDES
MESOSCALE STRUCTURE OF RAINBANDS in tropical cyclones,
• Responsible for the formation of MIDLATITUDE CYCLONES
MESOSCALE BANDED STRUCTURE of precipitation associated with
midlatitude FRONTAL CYCLONE (Bennetts and Sharp, 1982; and the associated widespread cloud and precipitation
Seltzer et al., 1985) (Charney, 1947 dan Eady (1949) 28
Jika kondensasi tidak terjadi pada temperatur
potensial maka temperatur di titik B adalah:

SLANTWISE 𝑇+
𝑑𝑇
𝑑𝑝
𝑑𝑝 = 𝑇 +
𝑘𝑇 𝜕𝑝
𝑝 𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑦 +
𝜕𝑝
𝜕𝑧
𝜕𝑧

DISPLACEMENT Temperatur ambient di B diberikan oleh:


𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇
𝑇+ 𝛿𝑦 + 𝛿𝑧
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝑇 𝜕𝜃 𝑘𝑇 𝜕𝑝 𝑇 𝜕𝜃 𝑘𝑇 𝜕𝑝
=𝑇+ + 𝛿𝑦 + + 𝛿𝑧
𝜃 𝜕𝑦 𝑝 𝜕𝑦 𝜃 𝜕𝑧 𝑝 𝜕𝑧
Sehingga sisa temperatur pada parsel yang
dipindahkan ke udara ambient adalah:
1 𝜕𝜃 1 𝜕𝜃
−𝑇 𝛿𝑧 + 𝛿𝑦
𝜃 𝜕𝑧 𝜃 𝜕𝑦
Dan persamaan dari gaya apung pada parsel yang
dipindahkan adalah:
1 𝜕𝜃 1 𝜕𝜃
𝐹𝐵 = −𝑔 𝛿𝑧 + 𝛿𝑦
𝜃 𝜕𝑍 𝜃 𝜕𝑦

29
Total gaya pemulih horizontal 𝐹𝐻 di titik B ditunjukkan dengan
perbedaan perubahan kenaikan antara gaya koriolis dan gaya
gradien tekanan horizontal, yaitu:
𝜕𝑢𝑔 𝜕𝑢𝑔
𝐹𝐻 = 𝑓 𝛿𝑧 − 𝑓 − 𝛿𝑦
𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑦

Persamaan gerak parsel sepanjang arah dengan perpindahan,


dengan jarak dilambangkan dengan ∆ yaitu:

SLANTWISE 𝑑2∆
𝑑𝑡 2
= 𝐹𝐵 sin 𝛽 + 𝐹𝐻 cos 𝛽

DISPLACEMENT = −𝑔 ቈ
1 𝜕𝜃
𝜃 𝜕𝑧
𝛿𝑧

1 𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝑢𝑔 𝜕𝑢𝑔
+ 𝛿𝑦቉ sin 𝛽 + 𝑓 𝛿𝑧 − 𝑓 − 𝛿𝑦 cos 𝛽
𝜃 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑦

Ini adalah persamaan umum perpindahan parsel, yang dapat


menjadi persamaan gerak untuk perpindahan vertical, dengan
aturan 𝛿𝑦 = 0 dan 𝛽 = 90°.
30
SYMMETRIC INSTABILITY
“A type of slantwise instability, called symmetric instability, can exist for an air parcel that is
displaced along an isentropic surface. The BUOYANCY FORCE then vanishes and the
restoring force is given only by FH.”

kemiringan pada permukaan isentropik


Persamaan keadaan menjadi:
Vortisitas parsel udara
𝜕𝑢𝑔
𝑓−
𝑑2 ∆ 𝜕𝑢𝑔 𝛿𝑧 𝜕𝑦
2
= 𝑓𝛿𝑦 cos 𝛽 −
𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑧 𝛿𝑦 𝜕𝑢𝑔
𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝑢𝑔
Jika > 0 dan hasil perhitungan dalam kurung bernilai negative -> STABIL
𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝑢𝑔
Jika > 0 dan hasil perhitungan dalam kurung bernilai positif -> UNSTABLE
𝜕𝑧

31
Vorticity
Vorticity is a measure of the local rotational characteristics of a fluid.

a. Earth Vorticity/ Planetary Vorticity


The vorticity of the atmosphere due to the rotation of the earth equals f (Coriolis parameter) .Counterclockwise
rotations are termed "positive (or cyclonic)" and clockwise "negative (anticyclonic)". This rotation is due to the earth's
rotation.
b. Relative Vorticity
Vorticity can also be imparted to air parcels because of the characteristics of the flow around them. The relative vorticity
of the
𝜕𝑢𝑔
westerly component of the geostrophic wind, 𝑢𝑔 , has two components. Its y component is and its z component is -
𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝑢𝑔 𝜕𝑢𝑔
, so that the z-component of the absolute vorticity is f - .
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

c. Absolute Vorticity
Absolute vorticity = planetary vorticity + relative vorticity 32
Symmetric instability
𝜕𝑢𝑔
𝑓−
𝑑2 ∆ 𝜕𝑢𝑔 𝛿𝑧 𝜕𝑦
2
= 𝑓𝛿𝑦 cos 𝛽 −
𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑧 𝛿𝑦 𝜕𝑢𝑔
𝜕𝑧

Kondisi stabilitas untuk ketidakstabilan simetris dapat dijabarkan sebagai berikut:

Kemiringan permukaan isentropik < kemiringan vektor vortisitas absolut STABIL


Kemiringan permukaan isentropik = kemiringan vektor vortisitas absolut NETRAL
Kemiringan permukaan isentropik > kemiringan vektor vortisitas absolut TIDAK STABIL

The Power of PowerPoint | thepopp.com 33


Baroclinic Instability
Another type of slantwise instability can occur if only the generalized BUOYANCY FORCE is INCLUDED.

Persamaan gerak parsel udara Kemiringan perpindahan parsel udara

Kemiringan permukaan isentropik


𝜕𝜃
𝑑2 ∆ 1 𝜕𝜃 𝛿𝑧 𝜕𝑦
= −𝑔 𝛿𝑦 sin 𝛽 − −
𝑑𝑡 2 𝜃 𝜕𝑧 𝛿𝑦 𝜕𝜃
𝜕𝑧

Kemiringan permukaan isentropik < kemiringan perpindahan parsel STABIL


Kemiringan permukaan isentropik = kemiringan perpindahan parsel NETRAL
Kemiringan permukaan isentropik > kemiringan perpindahan parsel TIDAK STABIL

The Power of PowerPoint | thepopp.com 34


TEBAK, YUK!

ISOTERMAL
STATOSFER

TROPOPAUSE

STABIL

TROPOSFER

NETRAL

STABIL
ISOTERMAL CAP

LBA
LABIL
35
THANK YOU
Any Questions?

Template presentation made by Jun Akizaki - http://thepopp.com