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# FISIK(A)

AWAN
2

OUR BRAINS
MEET OUR AWESOME PRESENTERS

## Anistia Malinda Hidayat Iga Rusmala Yoga Wahyu Pradana

ABSEN 1 ABSEN 10 ABSEN 24
ATURAN MAIN

EMPAT
PERHATIAN dari anda adalah bentuk APRESIASI bagi
kami

SATU
Jika kami terlalu CEPAT dalam penyampaian materi,
kalian boleh mengajukan INTERUPSI.

TIGA
Sesi pertanyaan, sanggahan, kritik, dan masukan
akan DIBUKA seusai presentasi SELESAI

DUA
Jika kami KURANG JELAS dalam menjelaskan, teman-
teman boleh meminta kami untuk MENGULANG
penjelasan
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Our Topics

1 3 5

Building Concept of
Buoyant Force Stability Criteria for
Meteorology
Moist Air

2 4

4
Our Topics

6 8 10

7 9

5
Our Topics

11 13 15

## Geostrophic wind and Symmetric Instability Quizzzz

geostrophic windshear

## Slantwise Displacement Baroclinic Instability

12 14

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BUILDING MINDSET AS METEOROLOGIST

## Quantifying the influence of atmospheric stability on air pollution in Lazhou,

2015 2 China using a Radon-Based stability monitor

## Assesing the impact of atmospheric stability on a locally and remotely sourced

2016 3 aerosols at Richmod, Australia using Radon-222

## 2018 5 Study of air pollution and atmospheric stability in Ciuc Basin-Romania

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Parcel Buoyancy and Atmospheric Stability
Hydrostatic Balance
No net force on the vertical direction

∂p = -ρg∂z

𝜕𝑝
= -ρg
𝜕𝑧

𝑑𝑝 𝑔
=- dz
𝑝 𝑅′ 𝑇
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DRY ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE

## Mathematical Formulation Magnitude

Because the air parcel undergoes only adiabatic
𝑔
transformations (dq = 0) and the atmosphere is 𝛤𝑑 =
𝑐𝑝𝑑
in hydrostatic equilibrium

9,8 𝑚𝑠 −2
=
1004 𝐽 𝐾 −1 𝑘𝑔−1
d(CpT + ф) = 0
𝐾 𝐾
= 0,0098 = 0,98
𝑚 𝑘𝑚
Jika dibagi dengan dz, kemudian menjadi:

𝑑𝑇 𝑔
=− = −Г𝑑
𝑑𝑧 𝑐𝑝𝑑 10
If all of the condensation products immediately fall out of the air parcel, the process is
irreversible, and not strictly adiabatic, because the condensation products carry some heat.

## Persamaan pseudoadiabatik lapse rate (saturated adiabatic):

𝐿𝑊𝑆
𝑑𝑇 1+
𝑅′𝑇
𝛤𝑑 ≅ − =Г
𝑑𝑧 𝐿2 𝜀𝑊𝑆
1+
𝑅′𝑐𝑝𝑑 𝑇 2
Typical values:
4 K/km near ground in warm humid air masses
6 – 7 K/km in middle troposphere
Near tropopause, Г𝑠 only slightly smaller than Г 11
GAYA ANGKAT
Buoyant force on a parcel of air

ρ′ − ρ 𝑇 − 𝑇′
𝐹 =𝑔𝑥 =𝑔𝑥
ρ 𝑇′

Parsel udara kering yang memiliki volume V, suhu T, dan massa jenis ρ akan menggantikan posisi
udara luar dengan volume yang sama yang memiliki suhu T’ dan massa jenis ρ’. Gaya yang
mengarah ke bawah adalah sama dengan ρgV, sedangkan gaya yang mengarah keatas besarnya
ρ’Gv. Gaya yang mengarah ke atas besarnya sama untuk parsel udara dan udara luar yang
tergantikan, yaitu -V(∂p/∂z). Sehingga gaya apung total yang bekerja pada parsel udara tersebut

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GAYA ANGKAT PARSEL UDARA

## Suhu Parsel > lingkungan

• Buoyancy (+)
• Parsel naik atau melambat jika sebelumnya turun

## Suhu parsel < lingkungan

• Buoyancy (-)
• Parsel turun atau melambat jika sebelumnya naik

## Suhu Parsel = lingkungan

• Buoyancy 0 (nol)
• Parsel tetap jika sebelumnya tidak bergerak
• Parsel ke samping jika sebelumnya bergerak 13
Credit to: Miming Saepudin, M.Si
KRITERIA STABILITAS PARSEL UDARA KERING

## Parcel executes a buoyancy oscillation about its equilibrium

Ambient lapse rate:
𝜕𝑇 level z with amplitude equal to its initial displacement z’(0).
− =𝛾
𝜕𝑧 𝑑2 𝑧 𝑔
= - (Гd - Г) z’
𝑑𝑡 2 𝑡
Kriteria berdasar lapse rate:
γ<Г STABIL / positive stable stability
𝑑2 𝑧
- 𝑁 2z′ = 0
γ =Г NETRAL 𝑑𝑡 2

## γ>Г LABIL / negative static instability

𝑔
N= (Г𝑑 − Г)
Kriteria berdasar perubahan laju suhu potensial: 𝑇

## 𝜕𝜃 Brunt-Vaisälä frequency is a measure of the static stability:

>0 STABIL
𝜕𝑧
the higher the frequency, the greater the ambient stability
𝜕𝜃
=0 NETRAL
𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝜃
<0 LABIL 14
𝜕𝑧
KRITERIA STABILITAS PARSEL UDARA BASAH

“If a parcel of air is saturated, its temperature will decrease with height at the saturated

## 𝛾 ′ < 𝛤𝑠 : atmosfer stabil mutlak

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KONDISI STABILITAS
Terdapat dua cara menentukan stabilitas atmosfer melalui diagram sounding

SATU DUA
Mengkaji Stabilitas parsel Mengkaji stabilitas lapisan

## Melihat profil parsel udara Melihat profil suhu lingkungan

jenuh dan menentukan nilai dan menentukan bentuk
stabilitasnya stabilitasnya terhadap lapse
rate.

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## • Suhu parsel < suhu lingkungan

• Gerak vertikal minimal
• Non turbulen (laminar)
• Mendukung pembentukan awan stratiform

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Credit to: Miming Saepudin, M.Si
STABIL

## • Suhu parcel > suhu lingkungan

• Gerak vertikal kuat
• Sangat turbulen
• Mendukung pembentukan awan
kumuliform
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Credit to: Miming Saepudin, M.Si

## • Netral kering = parallel dengan adiabatis kering

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Credit to: Miming Saepudin, M.Si
STABIL BERSYARAT

## • Suhu parcel = suhu

lingkungan
• Netral jenuh = parallel
jenuh
• Netral kering =
parallel dengan
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Credit to: Miming Saepudin, M.Si
Tidak Stabil
Bersyarat

## The Power of PowerPoint | thepopp.com 23

CONVECTIVE INSTABILITY

## A column of air which is rendered

unstable by lifting to saturation is
said to be convectively unstable. (Some
books use the term potentially
unstable).

𝜕𝜃𝑤
A. >0 convectively stable
𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝜃𝑤
B. =0 convectively neutral
𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝜃𝑤
C. <0 convectively unstable
𝜕𝑧
HORIZONTAL RESTORING FORCE
The major horizontal forces in the atmosphere are the CORIOLIS FORCE and the horizontal PRESSURE

## CORIOLIS FORCE HORIZONTAL PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE

(𝑃1 −𝑃2) 1 𝜕𝑝
𝐶𝐹𝑋 = 2Ω𝑠𝑖𝑛∅𝑣 = 𝑓𝑣 PGF = =
𝜌𝑙 ρ 𝜕𝑥
𝐶𝐹𝑦 = −2Ω𝑠𝑖𝑛∅𝑢 = −𝑓𝑢 PGF increase -> acceleration increase ->
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stronger wind
GEOPOTENTIAL
“The work that must be done against the Earth’s gravitational field to raise a mass of 1 kg from sea
level to that point. Depends only on the height not on the path through which the unit mass is taken into
that point”

Formulation
dф = - αdp

𝑑𝑝 𝑑𝑝
dф = - αdp = -RT =- 𝑅𝑑 𝑇𝑣
𝑝 𝑝

Tinggi geopotensial (Z) diukur dengan satuan “geopotensial meter” sebagai berikut:
φ(𝑧) 1 𝑧 ḡ
𝑔𝑝𝑚 𝑧 = = න 𝑔𝑑𝑧 = 𝑧
𝑔0 𝑔0 0 𝑔0
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GEOSTROPHIC WIND AND GEOSTROPHIC WIND SHEAR

## Geostrophic wind shear

Geostrophic wind
Because of its dependence on the horizontal gradient of temperature, the
Coriolis force exactly balances the horizontal
vector difference between the geostrophic wind at two levels is called the
pressure gradient force. THERMAL WIND.
1 𝜕𝑝 𝜕𝑣𝑔 𝜕 1 𝜕𝑝 𝑔 𝜕𝜃
− = −𝐶𝐹𝑥 = −𝑓𝑣𝑔 −𝑓
𝜕𝑧
=
𝜕𝑧

𝜌 𝜕𝑥
=−
𝜃 𝜕𝑥
𝜌 𝜕𝑥
1 𝜕𝑝 𝜕𝑢𝑔 𝜕 1 𝜕𝑝 𝑔 𝜕𝜃
− = −𝐶𝐹𝑦 = +𝑓𝑢𝑔 −𝑓
𝜕𝑧
=
𝜕𝑧

𝜌 𝜕𝑦
=−
𝜃 𝜕𝑦
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𝜌 𝜕𝑦
SLANTWISE DISPLACEMENT
Slantwise convection can occur in baroclinic flows in which the slantwise-upward displacement of air parcel, elongated in the
direction of the thermal wind, results in a vector combination of buoyancy and coriolis (or centrifugal) and pressure
gradient accelerations that drive the parcel in the same direction as the displacement (AMS Glossary, 2018)

Symmetric
Baroclinic
instability
instability
• Can exist for an air parcel that is displaced along an isentrophic
surface • Another type of slantwise instability can occur if only the
• The buoyancy force VANISHES generalized BUOYANCY FORCE is INCLUDED.
• Related to VORTICITY • The CRITERIA for baroclinic instability are generally met in
• Responsible for the MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEM, the atmosphere at MIDLATITUDES
MESOSCALE STRUCTURE OF RAINBANDS in tropical cyclones,
• Responsible for the formation of MIDLATITUDE CYCLONES
MESOSCALE BANDED STRUCTURE of precipitation associated with
midlatitude FRONTAL CYCLONE (Bennetts and Sharp, 1982; and the associated widespread cloud and precipitation
Seltzer et al., 1985) (Charney, 1947 dan Eady (1949) 28
potensial maka temperatur di titik B adalah:

SLANTWISE 𝑇+
𝑑𝑇
𝑑𝑝
𝑑𝑝 = 𝑇 +
𝑘𝑇 𝜕𝑝
𝑝 𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑦 +
𝜕𝑝
𝜕𝑧
𝜕𝑧

## DISPLACEMENT Temperatur ambient di B diberikan oleh:

𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇
𝑇+ 𝛿𝑦 + 𝛿𝑧
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝑇 𝜕𝜃 𝑘𝑇 𝜕𝑝 𝑇 𝜕𝜃 𝑘𝑇 𝜕𝑝
=𝑇+ + 𝛿𝑦 + + 𝛿𝑧
𝜃 𝜕𝑦 𝑝 𝜕𝑦 𝜃 𝜕𝑧 𝑝 𝜕𝑧
Sehingga sisa temperatur pada parsel yang
dipindahkan ke udara ambient adalah:
1 𝜕𝜃 1 𝜕𝜃
−𝑇 𝛿𝑧 + 𝛿𝑦
𝜃 𝜕𝑧 𝜃 𝜕𝑦
Dan persamaan dari gaya apung pada parsel yang
1 𝜕𝜃 1 𝜕𝜃
𝐹𝐵 = −𝑔 𝛿𝑧 + 𝛿𝑦
𝜃 𝜕𝑍 𝜃 𝜕𝑦

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Total gaya pemulih horizontal 𝐹𝐻 di titik B ditunjukkan dengan
perbedaan perubahan kenaikan antara gaya koriolis dan gaya
gradien tekanan horizontal, yaitu:
𝜕𝑢𝑔 𝜕𝑢𝑔
𝐹𝐻 = 𝑓 𝛿𝑧 − 𝑓 − 𝛿𝑦
𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑦

## Persamaan gerak parsel sepanjang arah dengan perpindahan,

dengan jarak dilambangkan dengan ∆ yaitu:

SLANTWISE 𝑑2∆
𝑑𝑡 2
= 𝐹𝐵 sin 𝛽 + 𝐹𝐻 cos 𝛽

DISPLACEMENT = −𝑔 ቈ
1 𝜕𝜃
𝜃 𝜕𝑧
𝛿𝑧

1 𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝑢𝑔 𝜕𝑢𝑔
+ 𝛿𝑦቉ sin 𝛽 + 𝑓 𝛿𝑧 − 𝑓 − 𝛿𝑦 cos 𝛽
𝜃 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑦

## Ini adalah persamaan umum perpindahan parsel, yang dapat

menjadi persamaan gerak untuk perpindahan vertical, dengan
aturan 𝛿𝑦 = 0 dan 𝛽 = 90°.
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SYMMETRIC INSTABILITY
“A type of slantwise instability, called symmetric instability, can exist for an air parcel that is
displaced along an isentropic surface. The BUOYANCY FORCE then vanishes and the
restoring force is given only by FH.”

## kemiringan pada permukaan isentropik

Vortisitas parsel udara
𝜕𝑢𝑔
𝑓−
𝑑2 ∆ 𝜕𝑢𝑔 𝛿𝑧 𝜕𝑦
2
= 𝑓𝛿𝑦 cos 𝛽 −
𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑧 𝛿𝑦 𝜕𝑢𝑔
𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝑢𝑔
Jika > 0 dan hasil perhitungan dalam kurung bernilai negative -> STABIL
𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝑢𝑔
Jika > 0 dan hasil perhitungan dalam kurung bernilai positif -> UNSTABLE
𝜕𝑧

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Vorticity
Vorticity is a measure of the local rotational characteristics of a fluid.

## a. Earth Vorticity/ Planetary Vorticity

The vorticity of the atmosphere due to the rotation of the earth equals f (Coriolis parameter) .Counterclockwise
rotations are termed "positive (or cyclonic)" and clockwise "negative (anticyclonic)". This rotation is due to the earth's
rotation.
b. Relative Vorticity
Vorticity can also be imparted to air parcels because of the characteristics of the flow around them. The relative vorticity
of the
𝜕𝑢𝑔
westerly component of the geostrophic wind, 𝑢𝑔 , has two components. Its y component is and its z component is -
𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝑢𝑔 𝜕𝑢𝑔
, so that the z-component of the absolute vorticity is f - .
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

c. Absolute Vorticity
Absolute vorticity = planetary vorticity + relative vorticity 32
Symmetric instability
𝜕𝑢𝑔
𝑓−
𝑑2 ∆ 𝜕𝑢𝑔 𝛿𝑧 𝜕𝑦
2
= 𝑓𝛿𝑦 cos 𝛽 −
𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑧 𝛿𝑦 𝜕𝑢𝑔
𝜕𝑧

## Kemiringan permukaan isentropik < kemiringan vektor vortisitas absolut STABIL

Kemiringan permukaan isentropik = kemiringan vektor vortisitas absolut NETRAL
Kemiringan permukaan isentropik > kemiringan vektor vortisitas absolut TIDAK STABIL

## The Power of PowerPoint | thepopp.com 33

Baroclinic Instability
Another type of slantwise instability can occur if only the generalized BUOYANCY FORCE is INCLUDED.

## Kemiringan permukaan isentropik

𝜕𝜃
𝑑2 ∆ 1 𝜕𝜃 𝛿𝑧 𝜕𝑦
= −𝑔 𝛿𝑦 sin 𝛽 − −
𝑑𝑡 2 𝜃 𝜕𝑧 𝛿𝑦 𝜕𝜃
𝜕𝑧

## Kemiringan permukaan isentropik < kemiringan perpindahan parsel STABIL

Kemiringan permukaan isentropik = kemiringan perpindahan parsel NETRAL
Kemiringan permukaan isentropik > kemiringan perpindahan parsel TIDAK STABIL

TEBAK, YUK!

ISOTERMAL
STATOSFER

TROPOPAUSE

STABIL

TROPOSFER

NETRAL

STABIL
ISOTERMAL CAP

LBA
LABIL
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THANK YOU
Any Questions?