by Kenneth W. Shushkewich
A simplified procedure for determining working stresses in I. reinforced concrete beams (singly reinforced, dou-
cracked reinforced concrete and partially prestressed concrete sec- bly reinforced, or T-beams)
tions is presented. Designers will find this method useful because one
2. reinforced concrete columns under eccentric load
simple set of equations can be applied to a wide range of practical
problems. These include reinforced concrete beams (singly rein- (rectangular or !-shaped columns)
forced, doubly reinforced, or T-beams), reinforced concrete columns 3. partially prestressed concrete beams (slabs or 1-
under eccentric load (rectangular or !-shaped columns), and pre- beams)
stressed concrete beams (slabs or T-beams). Three numerical exam- The method results in a cubic equation that can be
ples illustrate the versatility of the procedure. A flow chart is in-
easily solved with a few cycles of Newton-Raphson it-
cluded for implementing the method on a programmable calculator
or microcomputer. eration. An advantage of the method is that the form
of the cubic equation always remains the same. For the
Keywords: axial loads; bending moments; columns (supports); cracking (frac- special case of no axial force or prestressing (i.e., rein-
turing; partial prestressing; prestressed concrete; reinforced concrete; service-
ability; stress analysis; structural analysis. forced concrete beams), a simple expression replaces
the cubic equation. Another of the method's advan-
Although ultimate limit states are the most impor- tages is that the stresses can be determined directly
tant considerations in the design of a reinforced or pre- without the intermediate calculation of the section
stressed concrete member, serviceability limit states are properties. Although the method is intended for analy-
also necessary for the following reasons: sis, it can be used for design by trying different areas
I. Fatigue-Maximum stress range in the reinforcing of steel and checking stresses. Still another advantage
and prestressing due to the application of live load must of the method is that a number of different values of
be less than a specified value to guarantee the required axial force and bending moment can be considered
fatigue life. without reformulating the problem. The method can be
2. Crack widths-Maximum crack width under full used with either the U.S. Customary or SI system of
service load must be limited to a specified value to pre- units; in fact, it can be used with any consistent set of
vent corrosion of the reinforcement and insure water- units.
tightness of bridge decks and reservoirs. The versatility of the method is illustrated by three
3. Deformations-Short- and long-term deforma- numerical examples taken from standard textbooks.
tions under service load must be within specified limits. Stresses are determined in an eccentrically loaded rect-
Traditional methods of analysis under service load angular column and a partially prestressed T -beam
treat reinforced concrete members separately from pre- while cracked moments of inertia are found for a con-
stressed concrete members and reinforced concrete tinuous reinforced concrete beam. The method can
beams differently than reinforced concrete columns. In easily be coded for a programmable calculator or mi-
fact, different formulas are given in texts depending on crocomputer, and a flow chart is included as a guide.
whether a section is singly reinforced, doubly rein-
forced, or a T-beam. This requires that the design en- ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
gineer have a large number of programs for his calcu- General case
lator to handle all these cases. The most general case (Fig. I) is of a flanged section
For this reason, a simplified procedure for determin- having both compressive and tensile conventional rein-
ing stresses in cracked reinforced concrete and partially forcing in addition to prestressing. The section is sub-
prestressed concrete sections has been developed. The
Received Nov. II, 1982, and reviewed under Institute publication policies.
method is completely general, and one simple set of Copyright © 1983, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved, includin!l
equations can be used to handle the following wide the making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copynght propri-
etors. Pertinent discussion will be published in the September-October 1984 ACI
range of problems: JouRNAL if received by June l, 1984.
Let b be the stem width, b' the flange width, and d'
the flange thickness. Furthermore, let A,', A., and AP npAp
be the areas of the compressive reinforcing, tensile F
reinforcing, and prestressing, respectively, having ns As
modular ratios n,', n., and np and distances from the
top of the section of d,', d" and dp. Fig. ]-General cracked transformed section
It is convenient to relate all forces and dimensions to
the top of the section. Consequently, the resultant
forces N and M at the top of the section are given by The steel stresses in the compressive reinforcement,
the equations tensile reinforcement, and prestressing are respectively
found by proportion.
N = N' + F (l)
d's - y
= M' - N' y, - F dp
J: = n; y
fc (6)
M (2)
One advantage of the method is that the form of the (; VJbY+'Y (II)
cubic equation always remains the same. By including
various terms in the factors a, (3, and "f, a wide range Ycr Qc/Acr (12)
of problems may be solved. For instance, only the third
term would be required for a singly reinforced beam (, (; - Acr Yc} (13)
while the second and third term would be included for
a doubly reinforced beam. A T-beam would have the Here Ycr is the distance from the centroid of the cracked
first and third terms. The fourth term would be in- transformed section to the top of the section while Am
cluded for prestressing steel and so on. Qcr> and (, are the area, first moment of area, and sec-
The Newton-Raphson method (with a starting value ond moment of area (moment of inertia) of the cracked
of y = 0) is suggested for solving the cubic equation. It transformed section, respectively.
has been found by experience that 3 to 4 iterations are
usually sufficient to achieve an accuracy of 0.1 percent. Special case
Once the neutral axis has been found the concrete For the special case of no axial force or prestressing,
stress can be determined with the equation the cubic equation reduces to a quadratic, and the neu-
tral axis is given by the following equation.
My
(5)
'Y - (3y - ~b y3 y = [(a 2 + 2b(3)Y' - a]! b (14)
1
'Y
•• •• X 21.37 2 + 0 = 17890
14 a-•1o
• • '/, bN y 3 + Y2 bM y 2
2.63~ 1.1.
11 11
a
a
(b' -b) d'
12 X 5 + 0
+ (n; - 1)A; + nsAs + nPAP
+ 12.61 + 6.46 = 79.06 .-2-7---,
11 ,--2~ - -- ------
cracked neutral axis
{3 Y2 (b' - b) d' 2 + (n; - 1) A; d;
+ nsAsds + npApdp
{3 Y2 X 12 X 52 + 0 + 12.61 X 27 + 6.46
X 25 = 651.8
"-----"'L fs
ns
'Y Y3 (b'- b)d' 3 + (n;- I)A; d; 2
(b) cracked transformed (c) concrete stresses
+ ns As d/ + np Ap d/ cross section
'Y YJ X 12 X 53 + 0 - 12.61 X 27 2
+ 6.46 X 25 2 = 13730 Fig. 3-Partial/y prestressed T-beam
r~1·====================~-~~
1 4.5"
~------------'-~ 'Y
+ ns As d/ + np Ap d/
0 + 8 X 5.08 X 2.602 + 9 X 4.54 X 36.65 2
+0 = 55160
Section at midspan
N 0
M 0
b 18 in. b' 90 in. d' 4.5 in.
n; 0 A; 0 in. 2 d; 0 in.
(b) elevation ns 9.0 As 9.62 in. 2 ds 36.80 in.
np 0 Ap 0 in. 2 dp 0 in.
Determine factors
+ n. A. d/ + n" A" d/
'Y I!J72 X 4.5 3 + 0 + 9
X X 9.62 X 36.802
+0 = 119400
11
36.8 Determine neutral axis of cracked section. (Because
N = 0, use simplified formulas rather than solving cu-
bic.)
J. 18 , .I LnAs=9(9.62l y [(a 2+ 2 b(3)'~' - a]lb
y [(410.6 2 + 2 X 18 X 3915)"' - 410.6]/18
(d) midspan 8.098 in.
Fig. 4-Continuous reinforced concrete beam
Determine cracked moment of inertia
Determine factors
'Y- {3y- ~by3
119400-3915 X 8.098- ~X 18 X 8.098 3
a= (b'- b)d' + (n; -I)A; + nsAs+ nPAP 86140 in.•
a = 0 + 8 X 5.08 + 9 X 4.54 + 0 = 81.50
Section at right support
{3 Vz (b' - b) d' 2 + (n; - I) A; d; Calculation is similar to that for left support.
+ ns As ds + np Apd p Note that if a non-zero value of bending moment M
{3 0 + 8 X 5.08 X 2.60 + 9 X 4.54 X 36.65 is used in these calculations, the stresses can be found
+0 = 1603 with Eq. (5) to (8).
530 ACI JOURNAL I November-December 1983
NOTES ON COMPUTATION I START I
The flow chart shown in Fig. 5 illustrates the relative
ease with which the procedure can be coded on a small (Road problem title J
_!_ yes
< N•O?
their effect on the stresses can be rapidly evaluated
without redescribing the problem.
If the resultant axial force N is zero (i.e., no axial
L
F1nd neutral axis
eqn (3) J I Find neutral
oan (14)
ox11
I
_! yes
force or prestressing), the neutral axis can be found di- <; M•O?
Tno
rectly with Eq. (14) rather than with cubic Eq. (3).
Similarly, the moment of inertia can be found with Eq. I Find atresses
eqns (5) to (8) I
(15) instead of using Eq. (10) to (13). If the resultant _I_ yes
bending moment M is zero, the section cannot crack < N•O?
sults for an uncracked section, this should be verified yes Different steel areas?>
yno
before proceeding with the method. yes
Different problem ? :>