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Penulisan Abstrak Bahasa Inggris

Abstrak dalam versi Bahasa Inggris harus ditulis dengan memenuhi kaidah penulisan Bahasa Inggris yang baik untuk
abstrak pada tulisan ilmiah. Kalimat-kalimat pada abstrak harus ditulis dengan tipe kalimat (tenses) yang sesuai.

Berikut adalah panduan tenses yang digunakan di dalam abstrak berserta contoh kalimatnya.

Type of Information Tenses Examples


The industry is already well
Giving backgrounddetails Present tense known for its efforts to improve
the eco-efficiency of its processes.

The study focused on 2 main


Describing the research Simple past tense, areas.
activity present perfect tense The framework for life cycle
analysis has been developed.

We carried out a series of field


Simple past tense tests.
Describing the methods
(active or passive) A large number of samples were
tested for fracturing.

Results indicated that the problem


is even more serious than
Reporting results Simple past tense previously predicted.
The third model proved to be more
durable than the other four.

Present tense
This indicates that there are, in
verbs indicating fact, several factors contributing
tentativeness: is to the decrease.
possible; is likely; It appears that the incidence of
Stating conclusions appears; seems; might. human error cannot be eliminated
at any stage.
Modal auxiliary verbs: There might be a need for revising
can; may; could; might. the list of criteria within the next
5-10 years.