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A review of cracking of partially prestressed concrete members

AND M. EL SHAHAWI
B. DEV. BATCHELOR
Department of Civil Engineerirrg, Queen's University, Kingston, Ont., Car~cldnK7L 3N6
Received May 2, 1984
Revised manuscript accepted May 23, 1985

A selective review of cracking of partially prestressed concrete members is presented. The main studies, together with the
resulting methods for calculating maximum crack width, are critically examined. From an analysis of published test results
it is shown that, in the light of the sparse data available, there is no point in using a complicated crack width formula for partially
prestressed members. A simple expression for calculating crack width is proposed, which involves only the calculation of stress
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in the non-prestressed reinforcement. A strong case is made for further research in this area so that effects of the controlling
parameters may be considered, where necessary.
Key words: concrete (prestressed), cracking, crack width, partial prestressing.

L'article prCsente une selection de fissures d'CICments en bCton partiellement prkcontraint. Les analyses ainsi que les
mCthodes de calcul des largeurs des fissures sont examinees. A partir de I'Ctude de rksultats d'essais publiCs, on montre, qu'i
la lueur des donntes clairsemCes disponibles, il est superflu d'utiliser des formules compliquCes pour prCdire la largeur des
fissures dans des Cltments partiellement prCcontraints. Une formule trks simple, ne nkcessitant que le calcul des contraintes
dans le renforcement non prkcontraint, est proposCe. L'article propose ensuite un projet de recherche afin de pouvoir
Cventuellement Ctudier les effets des diffkrents paramktres importants.
Mots clbs: btton (prCcontraint), fissure, largeur des fissures, prkcontrainte partielle.
[Traduit par la revue]

Can. J . Civ. Eng. 12. 645-652 (1985)


For personal use only.

Introduction the steel. A high stress jump can result in internal cracks
In the design of partially prestressed concrete at the ribs of reinforcing steel (Goto 1971), thus con-
members, the limit state of cracking is an extremely tributing to crack width. The magnitude of the jump can
important criterion to be considered. In such members be reduced considerably with the use of prestressing,
the prestress acts in conjunction with the bonded rein- and depends on the reinforcement ratio and the eccen-
forcement to limit cracking and deformation. Consid- tricity of the prestressing force. Generally, the presence
eration of the limit state of cracking requires that good of a prestressing force leads to a lowering of the neutral
estimates of maximum crack width be made. It is well axis, thereby ensuring lower tensile strain at the cracked
known that the primary factor in crack control is not the face and hence reduced crack widths.
number of cracks formed, but rather the maximum This paper critically examines existing methods for
width of the cracks. calculating crack widths in partially prestressed con-
Although many studies have been conducted on the crete members. Published tests results are used to com-
cracking of ordinary reinforced concrete members, pare the accuracy of existing crack width equations, and
comparatively few investigations have dealt with the to develop a simple expression that simplifies calcu-
cracking of partially prestressed members. As in ordi- lation but gives results that are no less reliable than the
nary reinforced concrete, crack width in partially pre- more complicated methods in use.
stressed concrete is regarded to be influenced by the
increase in stress in the tensioned reinforcement after Methods for calculating crack width
initial cracking, as well as by the bond characteristics, The methods currently available for determining
concrete cover, and distribution of the untensioned crack widths in partially prestressed concrete members
reinforcement. may be divided into two categories, namely: (a)
At first cracking of a partially prestressed concrete methods relating crack width to the tensile stress in
section, the tensile force, which was previously carried the untensioned reinforcement and (b) methods relating
by the concrete, is suddenly transferred to the reinforc- crack width to a fictitious tensile stress in the concrete.
ing steel, thereby causing a sudden transfer of stress in The first method is based on the change in the steel
stress from the stage of decompression (Fig. 1) of the
NOTE:Written discussion of this paper is welcomed and extreme tension fibre up to the loading level at which
will be received by the Editor until December 3 1, 1985 (ad- the crack width is being determined. This method has
dress inside front cover). the advantage of being consistent with those already in
646 CAN. J . CIV. ENG . VOL. 12, 1985

sion was proposed for determining the mean width of


major cracks, W, (mm):

where E,, is the total strain in the untensioned reinforce-


ment occurring after the decompression of concrete at
the level of the tendons (Fig. I); A€,, is the additional
strain in the untensioned reinforcement, occurring be-
tween the stage of decompression of concrete at the
tensile face and decompression at the level of tendons;
d, is the minimum concrete cover to the centroid of
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untensioned reinforcement (mm), K I is a constant de-


pending on the type of the untensioned steel and has a
0 Decompression at the tensile concrete face value of 3.8 for deformed bars and strand reinforce-
ment, and 5.0 for crimped wires; and K? is a constant
a Decompression at level of tendon
depending on the type of untensioned steel and has a
0- After decompression a t level of tendon value of 20 for deformed bars and strand, and 30 for
FIG. 1 . Decompression states. crimped wire reinforcement. Equation [ I ] predicts that
crack width is directly related to cover, and not directly
use for reinforced concrete. Bennett and Chandrasekhar related to the amount of tensioned reinforcement.
(197 1a , b) have shown that conventional reinforced Bennett and Chandrasekhar stated that after removal
concrete theory for compression and bending gives a of the design load, complete closure of cracks occurred
close approximation to the actual stress in the rein- only in beams in which at least 50% of the total steel is
forcement of a partially prestressed beam; however, the tensioned.
For personal use only.

calculation involved is lengthy. Bennett and Dave ( 1969) proposed an expression for
The second method for calculating crack width was predicting the maximum crack width, W,,,,, (mm), as
first proposed by Abeles (1967) and involves the calcu- follows:
lation of a fictitious or nominal stress at the tensile face
of the supposedly uncracked concrete. This method is
simple to apply when compared with a method re-
quiring the calculation of the stress in the untensioned
where the units are in terms of mm or MPa; Af,,, is the
reinforcement. Abeles determined values for the fic-
additional stress in tensioned steel after cracking; Kb is
titious tensile stress in partially prestressed beams at
a bond coefficient, for which the following values were
crack widths of 0.13 and 0.25 mm. He suggested that
suggested: 2.8 X lo-' mm4/N for 5 mm smooth wires,
these limits be used in design, depending on the degree
1.4 X 1 0 - h m 4 / N for 5 mm rusted wires, 1.3 X
of exposure. The fictitious stress method has also been
lo-' mm4/N for 8 mm strand; d, is the effective depth
used by Bennett and Chandrasekhar (1971), Beeby and
based on tensioned steel; and A,,, A, are, respectively,
Taylor ( 1 970), and Beeby et al. (1972).
the area of tensioned and untensioned reinforcement.
Both methods for calculating crack width require the
Equation [2] was derived from an experimental study
calculation of the effective prestress. The question of
in which 40 partially prestressed rectangular concrete
accuracy arises, particularly with the use of the fic-
beams were tested. The total amount of steel and the
titious stress method. It is known that crack width is
level of prestress were varied in the study, which in-
closely related to the stress in the steel after cracking,
cluded tests under short-term, sustained, and repeated
which is in turn largely dependent on the total area of
loadings.
steel. However, the value of the fictitious tensile stress
Bennett and Dave concluded that crack width is
is calculated using the complete cross section and is
significantly influenced by the additional stress in the
therefore quite insensitive to the actual steel area. Pub-
tensioned reinforcement after first cracking, by the
lished formulae, based on both methods for calculating
bond characteristics and distribution of the untensioned
crack width, are now presented.
reinforcement, and by the level of prestress. Also, it
was concluded that the greatest increase in crack width
Methods based on steel stress occurs with repeated rather than with sustained loading.
Bennett and Chandrasekhar (1971a, b) studied the Bennett and Veerasubramanian (1972) proposed an
cracking behaviour of 20 partially prestressed concrete expression, given in [3], for determining maximum
beams. Based on the test results, the following expres- crack width. This formula was based on the results of
BATCHELOR A N D EL SHAHAWI 647

testing of 34 partially prestressed concrete beams of pc is the ratio of untensioned reinforcement (= A,/A);
three different cross sections (rectangular, I, and T): and A is the effective concrete area in tension, having
a depth equal to twice the distance from the extreme
concrete tension fibre to the centroid of the bonded
where PI and p, are constants related to the character- reinforcement.
istics of the non-prestressed reinforcement (PI = 0.02 In a study by Meier (1979) it was found that the
mm and p2 = 6.5 mm for deformed bars) and AE:, application of [6] is questionable and further investi-
represents the increase in strain in the untensioned rein- gation of this expression was recommended.
forcement beyond the stage of decompression of con- In 1978, CEB-FIP recommended the following
crete at the tensile face of the beam (see Fig. I). It was equation for both reinforced and partially prestressed
found that crack width is related to the increase of stress concrete beams:
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in the non-prestressed reinforcement, but is otherwise


independent of the shape of the cross section.
I t should be noted that no recommendations were where S,, is the average crack spacing calculated from:
made by Bennett and Veerasubramanian (1972) for
strands or wires. For such cases, further studies are
needed, since the values of the constants in [3] may
require some modification. in which S = reinforcing bar spacing centre-to-centre
The recommendations of the ComitC europCen du across the tension face but not greater than 14dh(mm);
btton - FtdCration internationale de la precontrainte a , = 0.8 for plain bars and 0.4 for deformed bars; a, =
(CEB-FIP 1970) for maximum crack width, W,,, 0.125 for bending and 0.25 for axial tension; and p, =
(mm), in partially prestressed concrete members are as area of tension reinforcement divided by an effective
follows: concrete area defined for purposes of crack calculation
(a) For beams subjected to nonrepetitive loads: (CEB - FIP 1978); only non-prestressed reinforcement
For personal use only.

and directly bonded prestressing tendons are used in


calculating the value of p,.
(b) For loads repeated more than 100 times at their In [7], E,, is the average strain in the tensile rein-
maximum values: forcement, taking into account the stiffening effect of
the concrete between cracks, and is given by

where Af,, (MPa) is the change in untensioned steel


stress occurring after decompression at the extreme
tensile fibre. where E, = modulus of elasticity of steel (MPa), b ,
A study by Bennett and Chandrasekhar (I97 I b ) indi- = 0 . 4 / a I , and 6, = I .O at first loading, and 0.5 for
cated that crack widths were underestimated by [4], and repeated loading.
that the formula [5] for repeated loads was more satis- Nawy and Potyondy (197 1 ) studied the cracking be-
factory when applied to nonrepetitive loads on beams haviour of a series of partially prestressed concrete 1-
reinforced with deformed bars and provided with large and T-beams and suggested an expression for predicting
concrete cover. Otherwise 151 - - was found to under- the maximum crack width W,,, (in.) as follows:
estimate the crack width, especially with repeated
loading. Indications are that a careful parametric study
of cracking of partially prestressed concrete members
under repeated and static loading is necessary. Such a where a ,= a dimensional constant; A,, = the total area
study is now being conducted by the authors. of steel (prestressed and non-prestressed) (sq. in.);f,i=
The CEB-FIP eqs. [4] and [5] do not explicitly (fp, - fds - 3.75) (ksi);f p s = stress in prestressing steel
account for the influences of concrete cover and bond at a given load level (ksi); f,, = stress in prestressing
properties. A modified formula, [6], for beams with steel at stage of decompression of the concrete at the
ribbed bars was proposed by Comite Euro-International tensile face (ksi); S, = 1.2AIC 0 (in.); and C 0 = sum
du BCton (1977): of perimeters of non-prestressed steel (in.). ( 1 in. =
25.4 mm; 1 sq. in. = 645 mm', 1 ksi = 6.89 MPa.)
[6] W,,, = 1.05 It was observed that stabilization of cracks in T-
beams occurred at about 0.8 of the ultimate load, as
where d b is the diameter of reinforcing bar; f,,, is the compared with the I-beams, which had gradual crack
stress in untensioned steel immediately after cracking; development up to ultimate load.
648 CAN. I . CIV. ENG. VOL. 12. 1985

Again, the proposed expression [8] neglects the ef- Dean and Park concluded that [lo] appears to be a
fect of cover and accounts for bond characteristics realistic expression for the design of partially pre-
through the ratio AIA,, and the quantity S,. stressed concrete beams, and pointed out that it is
Nawy and Huang (1977) conducted an analytical and reasonably consistent with the CEB-FIP approach.
experimental study of flexural cracking and deflection However, when checked against the cracking observed
behaviour up to failure of pretensioned 1- and T-beams. in the test of four beam sections, [lo] was found to
Deformed bars were used as untensioned reinforce- overestimate crack width and to represent an upper
ment, and the main parameter in the study was the ratio bound. Even after repeated loading, the maximum
between prestressed and non-prestressed reinforcement. measured crack widths generally did not exceed 80% of
The expression proposed for evaluating the max- the prediction.
imum crack width at the level of the untensioned In the use of [lo], Dean and Park assumed that only
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steel is the non-prestressed reinforcement is effective for crack


control, i.e., the term A, was calculated ignoring the
prestressed reinforcement; however, the strain distribu-
where W,,, is expressed in inches; Ri is the ratio of tion for the section was calculated, including the effect
distances from the neutral axis to the extreme tension of prestressed and non-prestressed reinforcement.
fibre and to the centroid of untensioned reinforcement;
Af s is the tensile stress (psi) in the non-prestressed steel Methods based on the fictitious tensile stress in
at any load level, the decompression load being taken as concrete
the reference point; decompression here refers to the Abeles and Czuprynski (1966) related crack width to
stage at which the concrete stress is zero at the level of the fictitious flexural tensile concrete stress, f,,, and
the-prestressed reinforcement; and a is a dimensional showed that the value off,, is dependent on many
constant depending on the bond characteristics of factors, such as the reinforcing steel properties and
the prestressed tendons. (1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 psi = distribution, and concrete cover. They suggested the
For personal use only.

6.89 kPa.) following relationship:


Nawy and Huang concluded that it is advantageous to
place the non-prestressed steel below the prestressed [ I l l f,, = K3 + K4(p - 0.3)
tendons, thereby resulting in more evenly distributed where p = the steel percentage related to the overall
cracks and, hence, smaller crack spacing and crack depth of the beam and K,, K4 are constants dependent o n
width. the untensioned steel properties. The major disadvan-
The proposed eq. [9] has the advantage of taking into tage of this expression is the lack of generality in pre-
account most of the parameters found to be important dicting the maximum crack width for a given set of
in the cracking behaviour of reinforced concrete conditions. More general expressions have been devel-
members, but neglects the influence of cover. It is also oped by other investigators reflecting more clearly the
assumed that the steel stress is essentially in the linear parameters influencing crack width.
elastic range. Using the fictitious tensile stress concept, Beeby and
Dean and Park (1981) conducted a study of four Taylor (1970) and Beeby et al. (1972) suggested the
rectangular partially prestressed concrete beams con- following relationship for the maximum crack width:
taining grouted posttensioned tendons and non-pre-
stressed deformed bars. They suggested the use of [lo] - c) (h
[12] W,,, = 2.75f,,-
to predict the maximum crack width (mm): Ec
where c = depth from the extreme compression fibre to
the neutral axis, computed for a cracked section sub-
jected to compression and bending (in.) and E, = the
where A , = area of concrete surrounding the tension modulus of elasticity of concrete (psi). (I in. =
reinforcement and having the same centroid as that rein- 2.54 mm, 1 psi = 6.89 kPa.) Much of the apparent
forcement, divided by the number of bars; h , = dis- simplicity of this method is, however, lost because of
tance from the centroid of the tension reinforcement to the necessity to determine the quantity c.
the neutral axis; and h2 = distance from the extreme Equation [I21 was found to be acceptable for beams
tension fibre to the neutral axis. containing deformed bars with specified minimum cov-
Equation [lo] is similar to that recommended by er, but there is a loss of accuracy when strand or wire
ACI Committee 224 (1980) for the prediction of the is used as untensioned reinforcement, or when the cover
most probable maximum crack width in reinforced con- is increased beyond the specified minimum.
crete members. This form was proposed originally by Krishna (1971) and Krishna et al. (1973, 1975) test-
Gergely and Lutz (1968). ed a number of partially prestressed pretensioned beams
BATCHELOR AND EL SHAHAWI

= NAWY 8 POTYONDY
0 = NAWY 8 HUANG
a = NAWY 8 CHIANG
+
_
E
l .oo
= DEAN 8 PARK
X = OKADA E T A L .

-I
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NON- PRESTRESSED STEEL STRESS (MPA)


FIG.2. Relationship between maximum crack width and stress in non-prestressed steel.
For personal use only.

containing mild steel as supplementary reinforcement cracking behaviour, it is advantageous to place the un-
and suggested the following relationship for W,, (mm): tensioned reinforcement below the prestressed steel in
order to reduce cracking and to distribute cracks.
As an alternative to [I], Bennett and Chandrasekhar
( 197 1 b ) suggested an expression for W,,, (mm) as
in which f,,is expressed in MPa, and R l is a factor follows:
depending upon the type of reinforcement. The in-
vestigators reported that [12], which was proposed by
Beeby et al., underestimates crack width. in which K is a constant depending on the type of
Meier and Gergely (1981) conducted a comparison of untensioned reinforcement, and has a value of 435 X
crack formulae using existing data. They proposed two mm2/N for deformed bars, 725 x mm2/N for
expressions for the prediction of the maximum crack strand, and 1160 x mm2/N for crimped wire.
width in partially prestressed concrete as follows: The simplified eq. [I61 contains terms K and d, to
With non-prestressed reinforcement nearest to the allow for reinforcement characteristics and concrete
tensile face, cover, and was shown by the investigators to give ac-
ceptable accuracy. However, much better accuracy was
obtained with the use of the more involved eq. [I],
With prestressed steel nearest to tensile face, which is based on calculated strains, and hence stresses
in the reinforcement.

where W,,, is in units of (in. X lo-'); C I , C2 are bond Examination of published results
coefficients; for deformed bars, C I = 12, C2 = 8.4 and Published test results by Dean and Park (1981),
for strands, C, = 16, C2 = 12; and E,, = fictitious Nawy and Potyondy (1971), Nawy and Huang (1977),
concrete tensile strain at the tensile face, assuming that Nawy and Chiang (l980), and Okada et al. (1983) were
the section is uncracked. (1 in. = 25.4 mm.) The bond used by the authors to develop a data base for crack
coefficients in [I41 and [15] provide for an increase in widths in partially prestressed concrete members.
crack width for strands over that for deformed bars. Figure 2 shows the 255 data points plotted for Wmax
Meier and Gergely (198 1 ) also suggested that, owing versus A f,,.Also shown is the least-squares regression
to the influence of the bond of deformed bars on line, which is represented by
CAN. J. CIV. El(G. VOL. 12. 1985

0 :MODIFIED C E B - F I P
O = CFR-FIP
TABLE1. Statistics of crack width data (Fig. 2)

Maximum crack Non-prestressed


width steel stress
W,,, (mm) Af,. (MPa)
Multiple
Standard Standard No. of regression
Mean deviation Mean deviation points coefficient

in partially prestressed concrete members, there is no


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justification for using complicated prediction formulae.


Rather, the use of a simple formula, [17], is proposed,
which is easy to apply in design. Equation 1171 predicts
maximum crack width in terms of the increase in stress
in the non-prestressed reinforcement beyond decom-
NON-PRESTRESSED S T E E L STRESS ( M P A ) pression at the tensile fibre.
The proposed equation compares very closely with
FIG.3. Crack width predictions for T-section the original CEB-FIP eq. [4], which can be used as an
alternative to [ 171.
1171 W,,, = (0.96Af,, - 46) x 10' (mm)
ABELES, P. W. 1967. Designof partially prestressed concrete
The important statistics of the data are given in Table 1.
beams. Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 64(10),
It should be noted that the form of 1171 was selected pp. 669-677.
For personal use only.

only after statistical analysis of crack width versus other ABELES,P. W., and CZUPRYNSKI, L. 1966. Partial pre-
relevant beam parameters. The very large scatter ob- stressing: Its history, research, application and future
served for the data does not justify the development of development. Cement and Concrete Association, London,
complicated expessions for predicting crack width in England.
partially prestressed members. Indeed, the analysis of ACI COMMITTEE 224. 1980. Control of cracking in concrete
the limited data supports the use, for the time being, of structures. Concrete International: Design & Construction,
an expression that is easy to apply. 2(10), pp. 35-76.
A comparison of predicted values of W,,,,, versus Af,, BEEBY,A. W., and TAYLOR, H. P. J. 1970. Cracking in
is shown in Fig. 3 for a section that is currently being partially prestressed members. Preliminary publication,
Sixth FtdCration internationale de la prkcontrainte Con-
tested by the authors. It is seen that [I71 gives predic- gress, Prague, Czechoslovakia, pp. 6- 13.
tions very close to those given by the original CEB- BEEBY,A. W . , KEYDER,E., and TAYLOR,H. P. J.
FIP format given in 141. From an examination of Figs. 2 1972. Cracking and deformations of partially prestressed
and 3, it is recommended that the CEB-FIP eq. [4] is concrete beams. Technical Report, Cement and Concrete
acceptable for static loads. The authors are currently Association, London, England.
conducting a comprehensive study which should pro- BENNETT, E. W., and CHANDRASEKHAR, C. S. 1 9 7 1 ~ .
vide information as to how this prediction should be Stresses in the tendons and supplementary reinforcement of
modified with repeated loading. "class 3" prestressed concrete beams. Building Science, 6,
Obviously, further investigation, covering an ex- pp. 123-131.
panded range of major variables and providing a larger 197 1 b. Calculation of the width of cracks in class 3
prestressed beams. Proceedings of the institution of Civil
data base, is required before significant advances can be Engineers, 49, pp. 333-346.
made in predicting crack widths in partially prestressed BENNETT, E. W., and DAVE,N. J . 1969. Test performances
concrete members. In the meantime, a simple ex- and design of concrete beams with limited prestress. Struc-
pression such as 141, which reflects the trend of the tural Engineer, 47(12), pp. 487-496.
data, should be used. BENNEI-~, E. W., and VEERASUBRAMANIAN, N. 1972. Be-
haviour of nonrectangular beams with limited prestress
Conclusions and recommendations after flexural cracking. Journal of the American Concrete
Institute, 69(9), pp. 533-542.
A review of crack width formulae has been presented COMITE EURO-INTERNATIONAL DU BETON. 1977. Model code
in this paper, and their predictions compared with pub- for concrete structures. Final draft, Paris, France.
lished experimental data. The resulting wide scatter of CEB-FIP Joint International Committee. 1970. Recom-
data points reflects the large variation in experimental mendations for the design and construction of concrete
data. In the absence of a more detailed study of cracking structures. Cement and Concrete Association, London,
BATCHELOR P

England, pp. 1 - 80. width of compression face of member


CEB-FIP Model Code for Concrete Structures. 1978. Inter- equal to 0 . 4 / a I
national recommendations. 3rd ed. Cement and Concrete equal to 1.0 at first loading and 0.5 for
Association, London, England, 348 p. repeated loading
DEAN,J. A., and PARK,R. 1981. The observed and predicted
distance from extreme compression fibre
cracking behaviour of four partially prestressed concrete
beam sections. Journal of the New Zealand Institution of to neutral axis
Engineers, 8(3), pp. 65-76. bond coefficients, which depend on the
GERGELY, P., and LUTZ,L. A. 1968. Maximum crack widths type of steel nearest to the tension face
in reinforced flexural members. ACI Publications SP-20, diameter of reinforcing bar
American Concrete Institute, Detroit. MI, pp. 87- 117. the minimum concrete cover to the cen-
GOTO,Y. 1971. Cracks formed in concrete around deformed troid of untensioned reinforcement
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tension bars. Journal of the American Concrete Institute, distance from extreme compression fibre
68(4), pp. 244-25 I. to centroid of tensioned steel
KRISHNA, R. 1971. Limit state design for structural concrete. distance from extreme compression fibre
Journal of the lnsitution of Engineers (India), 51(2), pp.
to centroid of untensioned steel
138- 143.
KRISHNA, R., BASAVARAJAIAH, B. S., and KUTTY,A. 1973. modulus of elasticity of concrete
Flexural behaviour of pretensioned concrete beams with modulus of elasticity of steel
limited prestress. Building Science, 8, pp. 179- 185. stress in the prestressing steel at decom-
KRISHNA, R., BASAVARAJAIAH, B. S., and PRAKASH, A. N. pression of the concrete at the tensile face
1975. Limit state behaviour of pretensioned I beams with stress in prestressed reinforcement at a
limited prestress. Indian Concrete Journal, pp. 213-218. given load level
MEIER,S. W. 1979. Prediction of maximum flexural crack tensile stress in the untensioned reinforce-
width in partially prestressed concrete beams. Master of ment
Science thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. equal to (f,, - fds - 3.75) (ksi)
MEIER,S. W . , and GERGELY, P. 1981. Flexural crack width
For personal use only.

the stress carried by the steel upon


in prestressed concrete beams. ASCE Journal of the Struc-
tural Division, 107(ST2), pp. 429-432. cracking of the section
NAWY,E. G., and CHIANG, J. Y. 1980. Serviceability behav- fin the nominal (fictitious) flexural tensile
iour of post-tensioned beams. Prestressed Concrete Insti- concrete stress
tute Journal, 25(1), pp. 74-95. overall depth of beam
NAWY,E. G., and HUANG, P. T. 1977. Crack and deflection distance from centroid of the tension rein-
control of pretcnsioned prestressed beams. Prestressed forcement to neutral axis
Concrete Institute Journal, 22(3), pp. 30-47. distance from extreme tension fibre to
NAWY,E. G., and POTYONDY, J. G. 197 1. Flexural cracking neutral axis
behaviour of pretensioned, prestressed concrete I and T
K2 constants depending on the type of the un-
beams. Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 68(5), tensioned reinforcement
pp. 355-360.
OKADA, K., KOBAYASHI, K., MIYAGAWA, T., and OISHI,R. constants dependent on the untensioned
1983. Cracking, inelastic and time-dependent behaviour steel properties
of partially prestressed concrete beams. International a bond coefficient
Symposium on Nonlinearity and Continuity in Prestressed a factor depending upon the type of
Concrete, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., Vol. 1, reinforcement
pp. 87- 104. ratio of distances from the neutral axis to
the extreme tension fibre and from the
List of symbols neutral axis to the centroid of untensioned
a I equal to 0.8 for plain bars and 0 . 4 for de- reinforcement
formed bars reinforcing bar spacing centre-to-centre
a2 equal to 0.125 for bending and 0 . 2 5 for across the tension face but not greater than
axial loading 14db
A effective concrete area in tension, having equal to 1.2AIC 0
a depth equal to twice the distance from average crack spacing
the extreme concrete tension fibre to the mean width of major cracks
centroid of reinforcement maximum crack width
A, effective concrete area per bar a dimensional constant depending on the
A,, cross-sectional area of tensioned steel bond characteristics of the prestressed
As cross-sectional area of untensioned steel tendons
41 total area of tensile steel (= A, + A,,) a dimensional constant
C A N . J . CIV. ENC. VOL. 12. 1985

a dimensional constant having a value of tensile face, assuming that the section is
0.02 mm for deformed bars uncracked
a constant depending on the characteristics Ernl average strain in the tensile reinforcement
of the untensioned steel and equal to 6.5 taking account of the stiffening effect of
for deformed bars the concrete between cracks
the tensile stress in the untensioned steel at E,u the total strain in the untensioned rein-
any load level with the decompression forcement occurring after the decom-
load, at level of tendons, being taken as the pression of concrete at the level of tendons
reference point P the steel percentage related to the overall
change in steel stress from decompression depth of the beam
at the extreme fibre PC the ratio of untensioned reinforcement =
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jump in steel stress upon cracking ASIA


the additional strain in the untensioned re- Pr area of tension reinforcement divided by
inforcement occurring between the stage of the concrete area lying within 7.5db from
decompression of concrete at the tensile the outer bar centres of the reinforcement
face and decompression at level of tendons group and the tensile concrete face. Only
the increase in strain in non-prestressed untensioned steel and directly bonded
steel beyond the stage of decompression of prestressing tendons are included in the p,
concrete at the tensile face of the beam ratio
fictitious concrete tensile strain at the C0 sum of perimeters of reinforcing elements
For personal use only.