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1.1 Definition Of Standard Used In Measurement

Measurement Standard is a measurement devices or measurement system that define,

create and protect the quantity value for comparison with other measurement device.

1.2 Type Of Standard Measurement

i) International Standard

International Standard are define by international agreements. These standards

are maintained at the International Organization for Standardization. They are
periodically evaluated and checked by absolute measurements in term of the
fundamental units of physics. They represent certain units of measurement to
the closest possible accuracy attained by the science and technology of
measurement and used for comparison with primary standards.


SI base units[7]:23[8][9]

Unit Unit Dimension Quantity

name symbol symbol name

metre m L length

kilogram[n 2] kg M mass
second s T time
ampere A I electric current
kelvin K Θ thermodynamic temperature

mole mol N amount of substance

candela cd J luminous intensity

SI prefixes

Prefix Base Base English word Adoption[nb

Decimal 1]
Name Symbol 1000 10 Short scale Long scale
yotta Y 10008 1024 1000000000000000000000000 septillion quadrillion 1991
zetta Z 10007 1021 1000000000000000000000 sextillion trilliard 1991
exa E 10006 1018 1000000000000000000 quintillion trillion 1975
peta P 10005 1015 1000000000000000 quadrillion billiard 1975
tera T 10004 1012 1000000000000 trillion billion 1960
giga G 10003 109 1000000000 billion milliard 1960
mega M 10002 106 1000000 million 1873
kilo k 10001 103 1000 thousand 1795
hecto h 10002/3 102 100 hundred 1795
deca da 10001/3 101 10 ten 1795
10000 100 1 one –
deci d 1000−1/3 10−1 0.1 tenth 1795
centi c 1000−2/3 10−2 0.01 hundredth 1795
milli m 1000−1 10−3 0.001 thousandth 1795
micro μ 1000−2 10−6 0.000001 millionth 1873
nano n 1000−3 10−9 0.000000001 billionth milliardth 1960
pico p 1000−4 10−12 0.000000000001 trillionth billionth 1960
femto f 1000−5 10−15 0.000000000000001 quadrillionth billiardth 1964
atto a 1000−6 10−18 0.000000000000000001 quintillionth trillionth 1964
zepto z 1000−7 10−21 0.000000000000000000001 sextillionth trilliardth 1991
yocto y 1000−8 10−24 0.000000000000000000000001 septillionth quadrillionth 1991

ii) Primary Standard

The Standard is maintained at institution in various countries around the

world, such as the National Bureau of Standard on Washington D.C, SIRIM in
Malaysia. The primary standards are not available for use outside the national
laboratories. Their principle function is to calibrate and verify the secondary

international prototype kilogram (IPK) which is the master kilogram and the
primary mass standard for the International System of Units (SI). The IPK is a
one kilogram mass of a platinum-iridium alloy maintained by the International
Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in Sèvres, France.Another example
is the unit of electrical potential, the volt. Formerly it was defined in terms of
standard cell electrochemical batteries, which limited the stability and
precision of the definition.
iii) Secondary Standard

Used as the basic reference standards used by measurement & calibration

laboratories in the industry. Each industrial laboratory is completely
responsible for its own secondary standards. Each laboratory sends its
secondary standards to the national standards ( primary standards) laboratory
for calibration. After calibration, the secondary standards are returned to the
industrial uses with the certification and checked periodically.

SIRIM, local universiti and industries

iv) Working Standard

Working standard is the principle tools of a measurement laboratory and the

lowest level of standards. They are used to check and calibrate the instruments
used in the laboratory or to make comparison measurement in industrial

As example,
the standard resistor, capacitors and inductor.