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HISTORY OF PLANNING 27 B.C. – 334 A.D.

AUGUSTUS:

• Was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus

• A roman statesman and military leader

• The first roman emperor

• Controlled the roman empire from 27 b.c. – 14 a.d.

ROMAN EMPIRE:

 The Roman Empire began in 27 BCE when Augustus became the sole ruler of
Rome.
 Augustus and his successors tried to maintain the imagery and language of
the Roman Republic to justify and preserve their personal power.
 Beginning with Augustus, emperors built far more monumental structures,
which transformed the city of Rome.

ARCHITECTURE

• AQUEDUCTS

– CONSISTED OF CONDUITS, TUNNELS AND PIPELINES BRINGING WATER FROM FAR-


AWAY SPRINGS AND MOUNTAINS INTO CITIES AND TOWNS.

– ROMAN AQUEDUCTS USED GRAVITY, NOT PUMPS, WITH A SLIGHT DOWNWARD


INCLINATION FOR THE WATER TO FLOW

– USED ARCADES TO TRANSPORT WATER OVER VALLEYS AND LOW-LYING TERRAIN,


WITH THE EXTENSIVE USE OF CONCRETE AND WATERPROOF CEMENT LININGS

• BRIDGES

– BRIDGES HAD ARCHES CONSISTING OF INDIVIDUAL ARCH STONES (LONGER ON ONE


END THAN THE OTHER) CALLED VOUSSOIRS, WHICH EFFICIENTLY DISTRIBUTED
THE BRIDGES’ WEIGHT

• TUNNELS

– THE ROMANS DUG TUNNELS AS WELL FOR THEIR WATER AQUEDUCTS AND ROADS
WHENEVER THEY ENCOUNTERED OBSTACLES SUCH AS HILLS OR MOUNTAINS

• ROADS

– CONSIDERED THE MOST ADVANCED ROADS BUILT UNTIL THE 19TH CENTURY

– THE SYSTEMS OF ROADWAYS FACILITATED MILITARY POLICING, COMMUNICATIONS


AND TRADE

– RESISTANT TO FLOODS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS

• MATERIALS

– THE ROMANS MADE FIRED CLAY BRICKS FROM ABOUT THE BEGINNING OF THE
EMPIRE, REPLACING EARLIER SUN-DRIED MUD-BRICK.

– ROMAN ARCHITECTS PERFECTED ROMAN CONCRETE AND USED IT IN BUILDINGS


WHERE IT COULD STAND ON ITS OWN AND SUPPORT A GREAT DEAL OF WEIGHT
PREVAILING INFLUENCES

• AMBITION TO SET UP A ONE WORLD EMPIRE

• MILITARY DOMINATION

• SEED OF THE LIFE AND TEACHING OF CHRIST

• GREEK ARCHITECTURE
DOMINATING IDEOLOGY

• ROMAN CONCEPT OF ONE WORLD ORDER OF DIFFERENT PEOPLES SHARING THE SAME LAWS
AND LEADER: THE ROMAN EMPIRE IMPERIALISM; SYNCRETISM
DEVELOPMENT ORIENTATION [(POLICIES)]

• WORLD CONQUEST AND THEIR EVENTUAL INTEGRATION TO ROME; EMPEROR-DEITY


DECISION- MAKER

• PLANNER-ENGINEER

PLANNERS OF INFLUENCE / STATURE ON RECORD

• VITRUVIUS- A ROMAN ARCHITECT AND ENGINEER


INFLUENTIAL PLANNING WORKS

• ASSIMILATED THE TREATISES WRITTEN BY HIS CONTEMPORARIES AND FORMULATED A


NUMBER OF BOOKS IN ARCHITECTURE
PLANNING CONCERN OUTCOMES

• ROMAN CITIES WERE TYPICALLY FOCUSED ON THE FORUM (A LARGE OPEN PLAZA,
SURROUNDED BY IMPORTANT BUILDINGS)

• STRUCTURES SURROUNDING THE FORUM:

• BASILICA

• CURIA

• DOMUS

• INSULAE

• THE FORUM'S BASILICAS DURING THE IMPERIAL PERIOD—THE BASILICA AEMILIA ON THE
NORTH AND THE BASILICA JULIA ON THE SOUTH—DEFINED ITS LONG SIDES AND ITS
FINAL FORM

• CASTRUM OR ARMY CAMP MODEL FOR PLANNED ROMAN SETTLEMENTS BEGINNING AS


COLONIAL OR GARRISON TOWNS

• BOUNDED BY RECTANGULAR WALLS WITH GRIDDED LAYOUT OF RESIDENTIAL AREAS


DIVIDED INTO FOUR QUARTERS BY TWO MAIN STREETS WHICH CROSSED THE FORUM AND
ENDED IN FOUR GATES; BRIDGES; AQUEDUCTS; HIGHWAYS; APARTMENT BLOCKS, EIGHT-
STORY BUILDINGS WITH 70FT HEIGHT LIMIT: FIRST ZONING GRAND FORUMS OF
EMPERORS

• POPULTAION OF ROME : [250 000 – 2 000 000]