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CM3110

Transport I
Part II: Heat Transfer

Radiation Heat Transfer

Professor Faith Morrison

Department of Chemical Engineering
Michigan Technological University
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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

CM3110
Transport Processes and Unit Operations I
Part 2: Heat Transfer

Summary
Within homogeneous phases:
• Microscopic Energy Balances ⋅
• Steady solutions
rectangular: conduction

cylindrical:

ln

• Temperature and Newton’s law of cooling boundary conditions


(if is supplied)
• Unsteady solutions (from literature)
 Carslaw and Jeager
 Heisler charts
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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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CM3110
Transport Processes and Unit Operations I
Part 2: Heat Transfer

Summary

Across phase boundaries:


• Microscopic Energy, Momentum, and Mass Balances

Micro momentum: ⋅

Micro energy: ⋅

• Simultaneous effects (complex)


• Solutions are difficult to obtain (and often not really necessary)
use to obtain
• Data correlations for:
 forced convection
 natural convection
radiation
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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Radiation versus Conduction and Convection


Continuum view
Conduction is caused by macroscopic temperature gradients
Convection is caused by macroscopic flow
Radiation? NO CONTINUUM EXPLANATION

There is, of course, a


molecular explanation of
these effects, since we
Molecular view know that matter is made
of atoms and molecules
Conduction?
Convection?
Radiation is caused by changes in electron energy states in
molecules and atoms

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Heat transfer due to radiation

•in atoms and molecules electrons can


exist in multiple, discrete energy states
•transfers between energy states are
accompanied by an emission of
radiation

Sienko and Plane, Chemistry: Principles and


Applications, McGraw Hill, 1979

discrete
energy
levels

Energy

Quantum Mechanics

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Continuum versus Molecular description of matter

Real matter is not a continuum; at


small enough length scales,
molecules are discrete.

A continuum is
infinitely divisible

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Individual molecules carry:
•chemical identity
•macroscopic velocity (speed and direction)
•internal energy (Brownian velocity)

When they undergo Brownian


motion within an
inhomogeneous mixture, they
cause:

•diffusion (mass transport)


•exchange of momentum
(momentum transport)
•conduction (energy transport)
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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Kinetic Theory J. C. Maxwell, L. Boltzmann, 1860

•Molecules are in constant motion (Brownian motion)


•Temperature is related to Ek,av of the molecules

Simplest model More realistic model


no particle volume finite particle volume
no intermolecular forces intermolecular forces

1
potential function
Intermolecular

0.5

 r
0
0 1 2 3
-0.5

-1

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Kinetic Theory

Is based on Brownian motion (molecules in constant motion


proportional to their temperature)

Predicts that properties that are carried by individual molecules


(chemical identity, momentum, average kinetic energy) will be
transported DOWN gradients in these quantities.

=> Transport laws are due to Brownian motion

Heat Transfer by Radiation

Is due to the release of energy stored in molecules that is NOT related to


average kinetic energy (temperature), but rather to the population of
excited states.

==> Radiation is NOT a Brownian effect

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Radiation
•does not require a medium to transfer energy (works in a
vacuum)
•travels at the speed of light, c = 3 X 1010 cm/s
•travels as a wave; differs from x-rays, light, only by wavelength,
l
•radiation is important when temperatures are high

examples:
•the sun
•home radiator
hot •hot walls in vacuum oven
surface •heat exchanger walls when DT is
high and a vapor film has formed

q
T4 Note: absolute
temperature units
A
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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Why does radiation flux scale with temperature, which is
related to average kinetic energy?

As a molecule gains energy, it both speeds up


(increases average kinetic energy) and increases its
population of excited states.
The increase in average kinetic energy is reflected in
temperature (directly proportional).
The increase in number of electrons in excited states is
reflected in increased radiation flux. Electrons enter
excited states in proportion to absolute T4.

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

10-14
Electromagnetic Wavelength l, m
Gamma 10-13
Spectrum rays 10-12
10-11
X rays 10-10
10-9 =1nm
Ultraviolet 10-8
10-7
visible thermal
10-6 =1mm
radiation
Infrared 10-5
10-4 0.1m    10 m
10-3 =1mm
10-2
Short radio waves
10-1
100
FM radio, TV
101
from P. A. Tipler, Physics, Worth, 1976
102 AM radio 12
© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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What causes energy transfer by radiation?

•energy hits surface


•pushes some molecules into an excited state
•when the molecules/atoms relax from the excited state, they
emit radiation

incident

hot absorbs,
body T increases
reflects

emits radiation
emits
qemit   absorptivity
T4
A qabsorbed
 1
qincident 13
© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Absorption
  absorptivity In general, a is a function of wavelength
q
  absorbed  1
qincident     

qincident

qreflected absorbs,
T increases

qabsorbed
qemitted

gray body: a body for which a is constant (does not depend on )


black body: a body for which = 1, i.e. absorbs all incident radiation
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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Emission
  emissivity
gray body: a body for which a is constant
qemitted
 1 black body: a body for which = 1
qemitted ,black body
  absorptivity
qabsorbed
qemitted  1
qincident

Kirchhoff’s Law: emissivity equals absorptivity at the


same temperature
true for
black and  
non-black
the relative amount of
solid the fraction of
energy emitted from that
surfaces energy absorbed
by a material
= material compared to a
black body

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

  emissivity
qemitted
 1
qemitted ,black body
Black Bodies

Stefan-Boltzmann Law: the amount of


energy emitted by a black body is
proportional to T4

qemitted ,black body


 T4
A absolute
temperature
BTU
  0.1712 10 8
h ft 2 R 4
W
 5.676 10 8 2 4
qemitted m K

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Non-Black Bodies

  emissivity qemitted
qemitted
 Stefan-Boltzmann:
qemitted ,black body
qemitted ,non black body qemitted ,black body
  qemitted ,black body  T4
A A
 T 4

Energy emitted by a non-black body

qemitted ,non black body


 T4
A
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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

How does this relate to chemical engineering?

Consider a furnace with an internal blower:

There is heat transfer due to


convection: surface temp

qconvection  hconv ATs  Tb 


Bulk temp

There is also heat transfer due to


radiation:

qradiation  hrad ATs  Tb 

qtotal  qconv  qrad


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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Where do we get hrad?

Tb Ts

using Kirchhoff’s
object in furnace: qemitted ,non black body  A T  T b
4 law
b


energy emitted by walls, which are acting
as a black body

emissivity at Ts
net energy absorbed:
qtransfered  A T  Ts4  Tb4
s
 
to body
assuming  T  T
s b

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Finally, calculate hrad

net energy absorbed:


qtransfered  A T  Ts4  Tb4
s
 
to body
assuming  T  T
s b

 
equating with
expression for : A T  Ts4  Tb4  hrad ATs  Tb 
s

  T Ts4  Tb4 
hrad  s

Ts  Tb Geankoplis 4th ed., eqn 4.10-10 p304

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Example: Geankoplis 4.10-3
A horizontal oxidized steel pipe carrying steam and having an OD
of 0.1683m has a surface temperature of 374.9 K and is exposed
to air at 297.1 K in a large enclosure. Calculate the heat loss for
0.305 m of pipe from natural convection plus radiation. For the
steel pipe, use an emissivity of 0.79.

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Example: Geankoplis 4.10-3


A horizontal oxidized steel pipe carrying steam and having an OD
of 0.1683m has a surface temperature of 374.9 K and is exposed
to air at 297.1 K in a large enclosure. Calculate the heat loss for
0.305 m of pipe from natural convection plus radiation. For the
steel pipe, use an emissivity of 0.79.

Answers:

6.9 /
6.1 /
163

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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One final topic: Radiation Heat Transfer Between Two Infinite Plates

Consider a quantity
of radiation energy
that is emitted from Left plate at Right plate at
surface 1.
T1 T2
1 emit

2 reflect 3 absorb

4 emit
See: Geankoplis, 6 absorb 5 reflect
section 4.11B
Also: Bird, Stewart,
and Lightfoot,
7 emit
“Transport
Phenomena” 1960
Wiley PP446-448
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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Radiation Heat Transfer


First round – surface
Between Two Infinite Plates
2

Quantity of energy q1 2


incident at surface 2:   1 T14
A
Quantity of energy
absorbed at surface 2: 2
 q1 2 

 A   2  1 T1 A
4

 A 
2  2

1   2  1 A T14 
Quantity of energy reflected
from surface 2:

fraction incident
reflected energy
This energy goes
back to surface 1.
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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Radiation Heat Transfer
Second round – surface
Between Two Infinite Plates
1

Quantity of energy
absorbed at surface 1 1 1     A T 
2 1 1
4

(second round):
fraction incident energy
absorbed

1  1  1   2  1 A T14 


Quantity of energy reflected
from surface 1
(second round):
fraction incident energy
reflected

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Radiation Heat Transfer


Third round – surface 2
Between Two Infinite Plates

Quantity of energy
absorbed at surface 2 2 1   1     A T 
1 2 1 1
4

(third round):
fraction incident energy
absorbed

1   2  1  1 1   2  1 A T14 


Quantity of energy reflected
from surface 2
(third round):
fraction incident energy
reflected

There is a pattern.

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Radiation Heat Transfer
Between Two Infinite Plates

Now, calculate the radiation energy


going from surface 1 to surface 2: Later, calculate energy from 2
to 1; then subtract to obtain
net energy transferred.

 energy from   energy absorbed 


q1 2       
 1  2   at surface 2 

  2  1 A T14 

  2 1   1 1   2   1 A T14 

  2 1   1  1   2   1 A T14
2 2


   2 1   1  1   2   1 A T14  
n n

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Radiation Heat Transfer


Between Two Infinite Plates

Radiation energy going from


surface 1 to surface 2:


q1 2   1 2 A T14  1    1   
n n
1 2
n 0


How can we calculate
x
n 0
n ?
Answer: S 
1
1 x

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Radiation Heat Transfer
Between Two Infinite Plates

Radiation energy going from


surface 1 to surface 2:

 1 2 A T14
q1 2 
1  1   1 1   2 

 1 2 A T14  1 2 A T14
 
1  1   1   2   1 2   1   2   1 2
q1 2  T14

A 1 1
 1
1 2 Final Result

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Radiation Heat Transfer


Between Two Infinite Plates

Radiation energy going from q1 2  T14


surface 1 to surface 2: 
A 1 1
 1
1 2

Radiation energy going from q21  T24


surface 2 to surface 1: 
A 1 1
 1
1 2

NET Radiation energy going q1 2  q21  T14  T24



 
from surface 1 to surface 2: A 1 1 
   1
 1  2 
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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan

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Radiation Shields

Radiation Shield

Left plate at Right plate at


T1 T2 T3

Purpose of Heat Shields:


To reduce the amount of
energy transfer from (hotter)
plate at T1 to second (cooler)
plate at T3.

Note:
qnet ,12  qnet , 23  q 31
© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Analysis of Radiation Shields Radiation Shield

We will assume that the


emissivity is the same for all
surfaces.

T1 T2 T3
qnet ,12  T14  T24 

A 1 1 
   1
   Now we eliminate
T2 between these
qnet , 23  T24  T34  equations.

A 1 1 
   1
   Note:
qnet ,12  qnet , 23  q
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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Analysis of Radiation Shields Radiation Shield


q  T14  T24

 
q  T24  T34


A 2  A 2 
  1   1
    T1 T2 T3
q 2 
T24    1  T3
4

A   
q 2  q 2 
  1  T1    1  T3
4 4

A    A   
2q  2 
  1  T1  T3
4 4

A   

q  1   T14  T34
 

A  2  2   1 33
© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Analysis of Radiation Shields Radiation Shield

1 Heat 
q  1   T14  T34
 

A  2  2   1
Shield

With one heat shield present,


T1 T2 T3
q falls by half compared to no
heat shield.

by the same analysis,

N Heat q  1   T14  T34


 
  With N heat shields
present, q falls by a factor
A  N  1  2   1
Shields of 1/N compared to no heat
shield.

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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CM3110
Transport Processes and Unit Operations I

Part 2:

Professor Faith Morrison


Department of Chemical Engineering
Michigan Technological University

CM3110 - Momentum and Heat Transport


CM3120 – Heat and Mass Transport

www.chem.mtu.edu/~fmorriso/cm310/cm310.html
35
© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

CM3110
Transport Processes and Unit Operations I
Part 2: Heat Transfer

Summary
Within homogeneous phases:
• Microscopic Energy Balances ⋅
• Steady solutions
rectangular:

cylindrical:

ln

• Temperature and Newton’s law of cooling boundary conditions


(if is supplied)
• Unsteady solutions (from literature)
 Carslaw and Jeager
 Heisler charts 36

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

18
CM3110
Transport Processes and Unit Operations I
Part 2: Heat Transfer

Summary

Across phase boundaries:


• Microscopic Energy, Momentum, and Mass Balances

Micro momentum: ⋅

Micro energy: ⋅

• Simultaneous effects (complex)


• Solutions are difficult to obtain (and often not really necessary)
use to obtain
• Data correlations for:
 forced convection,
 natural convection (use in design)
 radiation
37
© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

CM3110
Transport Processes and Unit Operations I
Part 2: Heat Transfer

Summary

Heat Transfer Unit Operations


• Macroscopic energy balances
• Heat Exchangers
 double pipe (Δ
 Shell-and-tube
 Heat exchanger effectiveness
• Evaporators/ Condensers

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© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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CM3110
Transport Processes and Unit Operations I

Professor Faith Morrison


Department of Chemical Engineering
Michigan Technological University

CM3110 - Momentum and Heat Transport


CM3120 – Heat and Mass Transport

www.chem.mtu.edu/~fmorriso/cm310/cm310.html
39
© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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