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Transport I

Part II: Heat Transfer

Professor Faith Morrison

Department of Chemical Engineering

Michigan Technological University

1

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

CM3110

Transport Processes and Unit Operations I

Part 2: Heat Transfer

Summary

Within homogeneous phases:

• Microscopic Energy Balances ⋅

• Steady solutions

rectangular: conduction

cylindrical:

ln

(if is supplied)

• Unsteady solutions (from literature)

Carslaw and Jeager

Heisler charts

2

1

CM3110

Transport Processes and Unit Operations I

Part 2: Heat Transfer

Summary

• Microscopic Energy, Momentum, and Mass Balances

Micro momentum: ⋅

Micro energy: ⋅

• Solutions are difficult to obtain (and often not really necessary)

use to obtain

• Data correlations for:

forced convection

natural convection

radiation

3

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Continuum view

Conduction is caused by macroscopic temperature gradients

Convection is caused by macroscopic flow

Radiation? NO CONTINUUM EXPLANATION

molecular explanation of

these effects, since we

Molecular view know that matter is made

of atoms and molecules

Conduction?

Convection?

Radiation is caused by changes in electron energy states in

molecules and atoms

4

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

2

Heat transfer due to radiation

exist in multiple, discrete energy states

•transfers between energy states are

accompanied by an emission of

radiation

Applications, McGraw Hill, 1979

discrete

energy

levels

Energy

Quantum Mechanics

5

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

small enough length scales,

molecules are discrete.

A continuum is

infinitely divisible

6

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

3

Individual molecules carry:

•chemical identity

•macroscopic velocity (speed and direction)

•internal energy (Brownian velocity)

motion within an

inhomogeneous mixture, they

cause:

•exchange of momentum

(momentum transport)

•conduction (energy transport)

7

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

•Temperature is related to Ek,av of the molecules

no particle volume finite particle volume

no intermolecular forces intermolecular forces

1

potential function

Intermolecular

0.5

r

0

0 1 2 3

-0.5

-1

8

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

4

Kinetic Theory

proportional to their temperature)

(chemical identity, momentum, average kinetic energy) will be

transported DOWN gradients in these quantities.

average kinetic energy (temperature), but rather to the population of

excited states.

9

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Radiation

•does not require a medium to transfer energy (works in a

vacuum)

•travels at the speed of light, c = 3 X 1010 cm/s

•travels as a wave; differs from x-rays, light, only by wavelength,

l

•radiation is important when temperatures are high

examples:

•the sun

•home radiator

hot •hot walls in vacuum oven

surface •heat exchanger walls when DT is

high and a vapor film has formed

q

T4 Note: absolute

temperature units

A

10

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

5

Why does radiation flux scale with temperature, which is

related to average kinetic energy?

(increases average kinetic energy) and increases its

population of excited states.

The increase in average kinetic energy is reflected in

temperature (directly proportional).

The increase in number of electrons in excited states is

reflected in increased radiation flux. Electrons enter

excited states in proportion to absolute T4.

11

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

10-14

Electromagnetic Wavelength l, m

Gamma 10-13

Spectrum rays 10-12

10-11

X rays 10-10

10-9 =1nm

Ultraviolet 10-8

10-7

visible thermal

10-6 =1mm

radiation

Infrared 10-5

10-4 0.1m 10 m

10-3 =1mm

10-2

Short radio waves

10-1

100

FM radio, TV

101

from P. A. Tipler, Physics, Worth, 1976

102 AM radio 12

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

6

What causes energy transfer by radiation?

•pushes some molecules into an excited state

•when the molecules/atoms relax from the excited state, they

emit radiation

incident

hot absorbs,

body T increases

reflects

emits radiation

emits

qemit absorptivity

T4

A qabsorbed

1

qincident 13

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Absorption

absorptivity In general, a is a function of wavelength

q

absorbed 1

qincident

qincident

qreflected absorbs,

T increases

qabsorbed

qemitted

black body: a body for which = 1, i.e. absorbs all incident radiation

14

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

7

Emission

emissivity

gray body: a body for which a is constant

qemitted

1 black body: a body for which = 1

qemitted ,black body

absorptivity

qabsorbed

qemitted 1

qincident

same temperature

true for

black and

non-black

the relative amount of

solid the fraction of

energy emitted from that

surfaces energy absorbed

by a material

= material compared to a

black body

15

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

emissivity

qemitted

1

qemitted ,black body

Black Bodies

energy emitted by a black body is

proportional to T4

T4

A absolute

temperature

BTU

0.1712 10 8

h ft 2 R 4

W

5.676 10 8 2 4

qemitted m K

16

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

8

Non-Black Bodies

emissivity qemitted

qemitted

Stefan-Boltzmann:

qemitted ,black body

qemitted ,non black body qemitted ,black body

qemitted ,black body T4

A A

T 4

T4

A

17

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

convection: surface temp

Bulk temp

radiation:

18

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

9

Where do we get hrad?

Tb Ts

using Kirchhoff’s

object in furnace: qemitted ,non black body A T T b

4 law

b

energy emitted by walls, which are acting

as a black body

emissivity at Ts

net energy absorbed:

qtransfered A T Ts4 Tb4

s

to body

assuming T T

s b

19

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

qtransfered A T Ts4 Tb4

s

to body

assuming T T

s b

equating with

expression for : A T Ts4 Tb4 hrad ATs Tb

s

T Ts4 Tb4

hrad s

20

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

10

Example: Geankoplis 4.10-3

A horizontal oxidized steel pipe carrying steam and having an OD

of 0.1683m has a surface temperature of 374.9 K and is exposed

to air at 297.1 K in a large enclosure. Calculate the heat loss for

0.305 m of pipe from natural convection plus radiation. For the

steel pipe, use an emissivity of 0.79.

21

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

A horizontal oxidized steel pipe carrying steam and having an OD

of 0.1683m has a surface temperature of 374.9 K and is exposed

to air at 297.1 K in a large enclosure. Calculate the heat loss for

0.305 m of pipe from natural convection plus radiation. For the

steel pipe, use an emissivity of 0.79.

Answers:

6.9 /

6.1 /

163

22

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

11

One final topic: Radiation Heat Transfer Between Two Infinite Plates

Consider a quantity

of radiation energy

that is emitted from Left plate at Right plate at

surface 1.

T1 T2

1 emit

2 reflect 3 absorb

4 emit

See: Geankoplis, 6 absorb 5 reflect

section 4.11B

Also: Bird, Stewart,

and Lightfoot,

7 emit

“Transport

Phenomena” 1960

Wiley PP446-448

23

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

First round – surface

Between Two Infinite Plates

2

incident at surface 2: 1 T14

A

Quantity of energy

absorbed at surface 2: 2

q1 2

A 2 1 T1 A

4

A

2 2

1 2 1 A T14

Quantity of energy reflected

from surface 2:

fraction incident

reflected energy

This energy goes

back to surface 1.

24

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

12

Radiation Heat Transfer

Second round – surface

Between Two Infinite Plates

1

Quantity of energy

absorbed at surface 1 1 1 A T

2 1 1

4

(second round):

fraction incident energy

absorbed

Quantity of energy reflected

from surface 1

(second round):

fraction incident energy

reflected

25

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Third round – surface 2

Between Two Infinite Plates

Quantity of energy

absorbed at surface 2 2 1 1 A T

1 2 1 1

4

(third round):

fraction incident energy

absorbed

Quantity of energy reflected

from surface 2

(third round):

fraction incident energy

reflected

There is a pattern.

26

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

13

Radiation Heat Transfer

Between Two Infinite Plates

going from surface 1 to surface 2: Later, calculate energy from 2

to 1; then subtract to obtain

net energy transferred.

q1 2

1 2 at surface 2

2 1 A T14

2 1 1 1 2 1 A T14

2 1 1 1 2 1 A T14

2 2

2 1 1 1 2 1 A T14

n n

27

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Between Two Infinite Plates

surface 1 to surface 2:

q1 2 1 2 A T14 1 1

n n

1 2

n 0

How can we calculate

x

n 0

n ?

Answer: S

1

1 x

28

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

14

Radiation Heat Transfer

Between Two Infinite Plates

surface 1 to surface 2:

1 2 A T14

q1 2

1 1 1 1 2

1 2 A T14 1 2 A T14

1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

q1 2 T14

A 1 1

1

1 2 Final Result

29

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Between Two Infinite Plates

surface 1 to surface 2:

A 1 1

1

1 2

surface 2 to surface 1:

A 1 1

1

1 2

from surface 1 to surface 2: A 1 1

1

1 2

30

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan

15

Radiation Shields

Radiation Shield

T1 T2 T3

To reduce the amount of

energy transfer from (hotter)

plate at T1 to second (cooler)

plate at T3.

Note:

qnet ,12 qnet , 23 q 31

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

emissivity is the same for all

surfaces.

T1 T2 T3

qnet ,12 T14 T24

A 1 1

1

Now we eliminate

T2 between these

qnet , 23 T24 T34 equations.

A 1 1

1

Note:

qnet ,12 qnet , 23 q

32

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

16

Analysis of Radiation Shields Radiation Shield

q T14 T24

q T24 T34

A 2 A 2

1 1

T1 T2 T3

q 2

T24 1 T3

4

A

q 2 q 2

1 T1 1 T3

4 4

A A

2q 2

1 T1 T3

4 4

A

q 1 T14 T34

A 2 2 1 33

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

1 Heat

q 1 T14 T34

A 2 2 1

Shield

T1 T2 T3

q falls by half compared to no

heat shield.

With N heat shields

present, q falls by a factor

A N 1 2 1

Shields of 1/N compared to no heat

shield.

34

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

17

CM3110

Transport Processes and Unit Operations I

Part 2:

Department of Chemical Engineering

Michigan Technological University

CM3120 – Heat and Mass Transport

www.chem.mtu.edu/~fmorriso/cm310/cm310.html

35

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

CM3110

Transport Processes and Unit Operations I

Part 2: Heat Transfer

Summary

Within homogeneous phases:

• Microscopic Energy Balances ⋅

• Steady solutions

rectangular:

cylindrical:

ln

(if is supplied)

• Unsteady solutions (from literature)

Carslaw and Jeager

Heisler charts 36

18

CM3110

Transport Processes and Unit Operations I

Part 2: Heat Transfer

Summary

• Microscopic Energy, Momentum, and Mass Balances

Micro momentum: ⋅

Micro energy: ⋅

• Solutions are difficult to obtain (and often not really necessary)

use to obtain

• Data correlations for:

forced convection,

natural convection (use in design)

radiation

37

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

CM3110

Transport Processes and Unit Operations I

Part 2: Heat Transfer

Summary

• Macroscopic energy balances

• Heat Exchangers

double pipe (Δ

Shell-and-tube

Heat exchanger effectiveness

• Evaporators/ Condensers

38

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

19

CM3110

Transport Processes and Unit Operations I

Department of Chemical Engineering

Michigan Technological University

CM3120 – Heat and Mass Transport

www.chem.mtu.edu/~fmorriso/cm310/cm310.html

39

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

20

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