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Republic of the Philippines

Laguna State Polytechnic University

Province of Laguna

Books in School

The amount a country spends on learning materials is a good indicator of its

commitment to providing a quality education for all. While there are various types of
teaching and learning materials, this paper will focus on books, which are the most
commonly used type. Books are especially relevant to improving learning outcomes in
low income countries with large class sizes. Teachers need books to help guide what
they do in the classroom, just as children need books that support their learning
experiences. The quality and effectiveness of books vary from many reasons
including, for example, the clarity of curricular intentions and content details and issues
related to printing quality and timeliness of distribution. But many students suffer from
a very basic problem. They do not have access to books at all.

There is some scenario that is typical of what happens at many schools

nationwide, where eight or more pupils share a single book. It some cases, it is even
worse because the teacher is the only one with book and has to read relevant sections
out to his class and write notes on the board. The critical shortage of books and other
teaching and learning materials has affected the education sector a great deal. The
current pupil to textbook ratio stands at one to 10 but in rural areas, it is worse with as
much as 20 percent of primary schools in those areas without any textbooks at all.

In Jun 16, 2013 Manila Bulletin told “Public school teachers said yesterday aside from
the late delivery of learning packages especially for Grades 2 and 8 students as part
of the implementation of the K-to-12 Program this year, most of the textbooks currently
available for students might be "obsolete."”

While the Department of Education (DepEd) maintained that the textbook shortage in
the country's public-school system has been fully addressed since 2012, the Teacher's
Dignity Coalition (TDC) maintained that in subject areas like Filipino for instance,
"there is no provision of books for a decade now" while the other textbooks are already
considered "obsolete."
The time that K-12 Implemented one of our problem is shortage of books. But until
now our problem is still the shortage of books. Its been 5 years since the R.A 105333
or what we called K-12 was signed.

Base on The Manila Times MAY 27, 2018 Umali noted that some schools that didn’t
have enough books for students. “One of the reasons is the bidding process because
we’ve changed the curriculum, so nobody has participated in the bidding. Nobody has
bided out to print the manuscripts,” Umali explained.

But based on Business Mirror on May 28, 2017 Espiritu Santo clarified that NBSAP
holds Briones in high esteem and respect whose integrity remains unsullied but she
has to navigate a department that has still holdover officials who continue with the
same failed policies and procurement procedures on supplementary, reading and
other instructional materials.

Sources at the DepEd point to two holdovers undersecretaries from the Aquino
administration, who are allegedly in control of the procurement and printing of
textbooks and instructional materials, as well as on the book supplies’ procurement
policies and guidelines.

After three years of stalling the suppliers and publishers owing to the moratorium on
the procurement of supplemental reading, reference and other instruction materials he
issued on September 26, 2013 (DepEd Order 44), former Education Secretary Armin
A. Luistro issued DepEd Order 53 on June 29, 2016, that lifted the moratorium until
December 2016 that all but trimmed down approved published materials from 2,000
to only 765 books, mostly foreign books which by virtue of DO 96, s. 2010 were
exempted from evaluation and automatically approved.

NBSAP said DepEd Order 44, s. 2013, practically “eliminated us, publishers catering
to the public schools out of the book trade. Three years when many of us have closed
shops or laid off our labor force due to total lack of business, the moratorium was lifted
but did not come to us as a truly real resolution in spite of reports of lack of books in

NBSAP also pointed out that since the DepEd is not supposed to earn (and it is not an
Earning Agency), the conflict of interest borders on the seeming competition with the
private sector in the book business.
NBSAP noted that the budget for textbooks and other instructional materials has not
been allocated for just procuring printing services but for the procurement of finished
copies as indicated in the yearly annual national government budget. There is a
special provision in the GAA that specifies “textbooks and other instructional materials
upon order by the DepEd would be supplied by the private-sector publishers”.

“Is calling ‘textbooks’ as ‘modules’ the reason the budget for textbooks is not used as
intended?” NBSAP asked.

On DepEd Order 52, Series of 2015, Carrasco noted “it appears that DepEd is going
back to monopoly as producer-seller-buyer of books for the public schools, totally
assuming the book publishing industry instead of helping uplift the economic condition
in the country in general”.

It was learned that current situation shows that a number of division offices have
started developing their own learning materials in compliance with DO 52.

NBSAP pointed out that the Book Publishing Industry Development Act, RA 8047
provides that “The Industry” legally belongs to the private sector. It was the main
reason why the former Instructional Materials Corporation (IMC) was abolished in

President Rodrigo Duterte signed the P3.767-trillion national budget for 2018 and the
Department of Education (DepEd) received the next highest allocation at P553.31
billion ($10.99 billion). The funds will be used to establish and maintain facilities hire
teaching and non-teaching personnel as well as develop and provide learning
materials to students. If there is P553.31 billion there will be possibility that the problem
in the shortage of textbook will be answered. Right budget is the answer in the
shortage in textbooks and the right use of the budget. Their will be lot of students will
benefit from it and President Rodrigo Duterte will do all his best to fund the needs of
the DepEd.

Prepared by: Bautista, Bea Alyssa G.

Molinar, Angelica Mae R.