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At the end of the lesson, the students are expected to:

1. identify the different organs and function of the digestive system;

2. know the importance of digestive system; and
3. label the parts and functions of the digestive system.


a. Topic: The Digestive System

b. Reference/s: Aquino, Marites D. (2013). Science Links 8. Rex Bookstore, Inc.

c. Materials:
Laptop, projector, vertical puzzle sheets, illustration board, coloring
materials, charts and books.


a. Preliminary Activities
 Prayer
 Checking of Attendance
 Review

Motivation (A Minute to Fix Me!)

 The class will be divided into five (5) groups.
 The teacher will provide the materials for the activity.
 The teacher will give the groups a one (1) minute to solve the puzzle.
 They need to solve it as fast as they could.
 Each puzzle is equivalent to 5 points.
 There is a total of 30 points.
 When time is up, finish or not, the students must raise their puzzles.
 The group/s that has the highest score/s will be declared the winner/s.

b. Lesson Proper

Engagement (Find Me!)

 In the same group, the learners must find the words in the word puzzle.
 Each group will be given a worksheet by the teacher.
 They need to find the words as much as they could.
 They will be given two (2) minutes.
 Each word is equivalent to one (1) point.
 When time is up, the learners must lift up the worksheets.
 The group that has the highest point will be declared the winner.
Explore (Label Me!)
 In the same group, the learners must label and guess the functions of
each part of the digestive system.
 The teacher will provide the answer sheet.
 They will be given three 2 minutes to label and guess the functions of
each part.
 Each part of the digestive system is equivalent to two (2) points.
 When time is up, the worksheets must pass to the teacher.


Digestive System

Digestive system is the process by which food is broken down into smaller
components that the body can absorb to nourish its cells.


This is where the process of digestion begins. The smell of food itself triggers the
secretion of saliva by the salivary glands in the mouth. Saliva contains the salivary
amylase enzyme which helps in the breakdown of starch. In the mouth lies the tongue,
which is vital for mixing and tasting food. Teeth help in the grinding of food.
Pharynx (Throat)

The throat or pharynx is a funnel shaped tube that is connected to the mouth. It is
charged with passing chewed food into the esophagus from the mouth. It features an
epiglottis which is used as a switch to control entry of air and food into the larynx and
esophagus respectively.

After you have swallowed your food, it passes through the throat and into the
esophagus. Here, food is passed through the hypo-pharynx and the oropharynx.
Through a process called peristalsis, food is converted into a small round mass and
transported into the stomach. At the end of the esophagus, there is a muscular ring
called the cardiac sphincter. It is responsible for closing the end of the esophagus in
order to trap food in the stomach.

In the stomach, food is coated with a mixture of digestive enzymes and acid. This
helps break down food. The stomach walls are protected from the acid released into the
stomach by a thick coat of mucous. After food has been broken down in the stomach, it
is then passed on to the small intestine.
Small Intestine

The small intestine is divided into 3 parts: the duodenum, the jejunum and the
ileum. The walls of the small intestine have finger-like projections called villi. They
facilitate the absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream.
Accessory Organs

In the duodenum (the first part of the small intestines), carbohydrates, protein
and fats are broken down with the help of enzymes from the pancreas. Bile juice is
released from the gall bladder to further break down fats into a form that the body can
Large Intestine (Colon)

After the small intestine, we have the large intestine which is charged with
absorbing water and breaking down waste. It contains bacteria that help with the
breakdown of waste that is passed on from the small intestine. Once the remaining
nutrients are extracted, it becomes feces that are excreted through the anal canal.

Rectum and Anus

The rectum receives stool from the large intestine. When this happens, your body
lets you know that you need to pass stool. It is the rectum’s job to hold the stool until it is
evacuated. The stool is passed on from the rectum to the anus for ejection. The anus is
surrounded by sphincter muscles that allow you to control the anus function.

 In the same group, the learners must make a poster.
 The materials are provided by the learners.
 The content of the poster is to educate students on how to choose better
alternatives for food items they usually eat.
 The poster should clearly explain the recommendation alternatives and their
health benefits.
 They will be given 15 minutes to finish their works.
 If time is up, the learners must submit their works to the teacher.


The student will answer the following questions:

1. The _______ is a large, elongated gland that lies posterior to the stomach.
2. The ________ is a part of the small intestine which is the shortest and the most
fixed part.
3. The _______ is located at the distal end of the sigmoid colon.
4. The _______ is a chemical substance that is a combination of watery fluid and
5. The _______ is considered as the organ of complete digestion and absorption.
6. The _______ is the largest organ in the digestive system.
7. The _______, food is acted upon by chemical substance called enzymes.
8. The ______ helps as a tool to break down food into small pieces.
9. The ______ is the expanded organ located between the esophagus and small
10. The ______ is temporarily stored and concentrated in the gall bladder.

II. Write “AT” if the organ is part of an alimentary tract, while write “AO” if it is an
accessory organ. Write your answer on the blank provided. (1 pt. each)
1. Stomach
2. Liver
3. Mouth
4. Small Intestine
5. Gall Bladder
6. Esophagus
7. Rectum
8. Salivary Glands
9. Pancreas
10. Pharynx

Monitor your food intake for the coming week. List down all the foods you have
eaten, the time, and the activities you have done. Take also the record of your bowel
movement as well. Write them down on the chart below.

Days of the Week Weekly Habit

Food Eaten Activities Done Bowel Movement

Based on these data, complete the following sentences:

1. I have eaten more during _____________________________________.

2. Because of ________________________________________________.

3. I plan to improve my eating habits by ____________________________.

Prepared by:

Angelique Z. Barquilla
BSED-4 Biological Science