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Features/ Philosophies Pavlov Piaget Thorndike Erikson

Study/Research Classical conditioning is a first psychologist to make a Edward Thorndike (1898) is Erikson expanded
reflexive or automatic type of systematic study of cognitive famous in psychology for his psychoanalytic theory by
learning in which a stimulus development. His work on learning theory that exploring development
acquires the capacity to contributions include a stage lead to the development of throughout the life, including
evoke a response that was theory of child cognitive operant conditioning within events of childhood,
originally evoked by another development, detailed behaviorism. adulthood, and old age
stimulus. observational studies of
cognition in children, and a
series of simple but ingenious
tests to reveal different
cognitive abilities
Findings  dogs began to drool  For the first ten years,  (law of effect) responses  Concept of identity crisis
whenever they saw lab children are in the pre- that produce a satisfying  social influences
coats moral judgment and effect in a particular contribute to our
 ringing a bell made the heteronomous morality situation become more personalities throughout
dogs salivate. stages likely to occur again in our entire lifespans.
 mammals produce saliva  After about ten years of that situation, and
to help them break down age, however, children responses that produce a
food mature in their views of discomforting effect
morality, reaching the become less likely to
autonomous morality occur again in that
stage. situation
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Features/ Philosophies Freud Kohlberg Vygotsky Skinner
Study/Research Sigmund Freud emphasized He used Piaget’s storytelling Vygotsky's theories stress the developed the theory of
the importance of the technique to tell people fundamental role of social operant conditioning -- the
unconscious mind, and a stories involving moral interaction in the idea that behavior is
primary assumption of dilemmas. development of cognition determined by its
Freudian theory is that the (Vygotsky, 1978), as he consequences, be they
unconscious mind governs believed strongly that reinforcements or
behavior to a greater degree community plays a central punishments, which make it
than people suspect role in the process of "making more or less likely that the
meaning behavior will occur again
Findings  conception of the  Moral development is  adults are an  study of observable
unconscious invariant, individuals important source of behavior is much
 we are not entirely go through the stages cognitive simpler than trying to
aware of what we one at a time and they development. study internal mental
even think, and often are in a fixed order,  infants are born with events
act for reasons that but some Individuals the basic  any operant
have nothing to do may not reach the materials/abilities for conditioning learning
with our conscious final stage intellectual is to recognize the
thoughts  order of stages is development operant behavior and
 humans were driven universal across all  cognitive functions, the consequence
by two instinctive cultures even those carried out resulted in that
drives, libidinal  middle-class children alone, as affected by particular
energy/Eros and the move more quickly the beliefs, values, environment
death and further through and tools of
instinct/thanatos the stages compared intellectual adaptation
to working-class of the culture in which
children a person develops and
 development through therefore socio-
stages of moral culturally determined
development is not
significantly
influenced by social,
cultural or religious
differences, although
the speed at which
individuals progress
through the stages is
affected by these
conditions
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Features/ Philosophies Bandura Bruner Gagne Ausubel


Study/Research Bandura (1961) conducted a American psychologist who Gagné's work is sometimes educational psychology,
study to investigate if social made significant summarized as "the Gagné cognitive science, and science
behaviors (i.e., aggression) contributions to human assumption". The assumption education learning was on the
can be acquired by cognitive psychology and is that different types of development and research on
observation and imitation. cognitive learning theory in learning exist, and that advance organizers
educational psychology different instructional
conditions are most likely to
bring about these different
types of learning
Findings  children learn social  learning is an active  Gagné's theory  meaning is created
behavior such as process in which stipulates that there through some forms
aggression through learners construct are several types and of representational
the process of new ideas or concepts levels of learning, and equivalence between
observation learning - based upon their each of these types language and mental
through watching the current/past and levels requires context
behavior of another knowledge instruction that is  an individual's existing
person  development does not tailored to meet the cognitive structure
 children are able to consist of discrete needs of the pupil. (organization, stability
learn through the stages but is a  the higher order of and clarity of
observation of adult continuous process learning in the knowledge in a
behaviour  when children start to hierarchy is built upon particular subject) is
learn new concepts, the lower levels, the principal and basic
they need help from requiring a greater factor influencing the
teachers and other amount of previous learning and retention
adults in the form of knowledge for of meaningful new
active support progressing mats the importance
successfully of relating new ideas
to a student’s existing
knowledge base
before the new
material is presented
Keywords  Bobo Doll Experiment  Cognitive learning  order of learning  Organizers
 Stimuli and response  Sensation and  evaluation  Meaningful learning
 Social learning perception  Gagne assumption  Deductive reasoning
 scaffolding
Specimen Boys and girls People with playing cards Students Students with advanced
organizers
School/University Stanford University New York University School of Brown University University of Pennsylvania
Law
Degree finished Social Science in Psychology Psychology Psychology Psychology
Nationality Canadian-American American American American