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Controllo non distruttivo delle saldature


NORMA Controllo delle saldature mediante liquidi penetranti UNI EN ISO
E U R OP E A Livelli di accettabilità 23277

GIUGNO 2010

Non-destructive testing of welds


Penetrant testing of welds
Acceptance levels

La norma specifica i livelli di accettabilità delle indicazioni dovute a


imperfezioni affioranti alla superficie in saldature di materiali metallici
rivelate mediante liquidi penetranti.
I livelli di accettabilità sono principalmente destinati all’uso durante
i controlli di fabbricazione, ma, qualora siano appropriati, possono
essere usati nei controlli in esercizio.

TESTO INGLESE

La presente norma è la versione ufficiale in lingua inglese della


norma europea EN ISO 23277 (edizione novembre 2009).

La presente norma sostituisce la UNI EN 1289:2006.

ICS 25.160.40

UNI © UNI
Ente Nazionale Italiano Riproduzione vietata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. Nessuna parte del presente documento
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Via Sannio, 2 il consenso scritto dell’UNI.
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PREMESSA NAZIONALE
La presente norma costituisce il recepimento, in lingua inglese,
della norma europea EN ISO 23277 (edizione novembre 2009), che
assume così lo status di norma nazionale italiana.

La presente norma è stata elaborata sotto la competenza della


Commissione Tecnica UNI
Saldature

La presente norma è stata ratificata dal Presidente dell’UNI ed è


entrata a far parte del corpo normativo nazionale il 17 giugno 2010.

Le norme UNI sono elaborate cercando di tenere conto dei punti di vista di tutte le parti
interessate e di conciliare ogni aspetto conflittuale, per rappresentare il reale stato
dell’arte della materia ed il necessario grado di consenso.
Chiunque ritenesse, a seguito dell’applicazione di questa norma, di poter fornire sug-
gerimenti per un suo miglioramento o per un suo adeguamento ad uno stato dell’arte
in evoluzione è pregato di inviare i propri contributi all’UNI, Ente Nazionale Italiano di
Unificazione, che li terrà in considerazione per l’eventuale revisione della norma stessa.

Le norme UNI sono revisionate, quando necessario, con la pubblicazione di nuove edizioni o
di aggiornamenti.
È importante pertanto che gli utilizzatori delle stesse si accertino di essere in possesso
dell’ultima edizione e degli eventuali aggiornamenti.
Si invitano inoltre gli utilizzatori a verificare l’esistenza di norme UNI corrispondenti alle
norme EN o ISO ove citate nei riferimenti normativi.

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EUROPEAN STANDARD EN ISO 23277


NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM November 2009

ICS 25.160.40 Supersedes EN 1289:1998

English Version

Non-destructive testing of welds - Penetrant testing of welds -


Acceptance levels (ISO 23277:2006)

Contrôle non destructif des assemblages soudés - Contrôle Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung von Schweißverbindungen -
par ressuage des soudures - Niveaux d'acceptation (ISO Eindringprüfung von Schweißverbindungen -
23277:2006) Zulässigkeitsgrenzen (ISO 23277:2006)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 October 2009.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the
official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2009 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 23277:2009: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

UNI EN ISO 23277:2010


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EN ISO 23277:2009 (E)

Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

2
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EN ISO 23277:2009 (E)

Foreword
The text of ISO 23277:2006 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 44 “Welding and allied
processes” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO
23277:2009 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 121 “Welding” the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2010, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the
latest by May 2010.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1289:1998.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 23277:2006 has been approved by CEN as a EN ISO 23277:2009 without any modification.

3
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UNI EN ISO 23277:2010


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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23277

First edition
2006-10-01

Non-destructive testing of welds —


Penetrant testing of welds — Acceptance
levels
Contrôle non destructif des assemblages soudés — Contrôle par
ressuage des soudures — Niveaux d'acceptation

Reference number
ISO 23277:2006(E)

© ISO 2006
UNI EN ISO 23277:2010
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ISO 23277:2006(E)

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© ISO 2006
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or
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ISO 23277:2006(E)

Foreword
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies
(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO
technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been
established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and
non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards
adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an
International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 23277 was prepared by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee
CEN/TC 121, Welding (as EN 1289:1998 and its Amd.1:2002 and Amd.2:2003), and was adopted, under a
special “fast-track procedure”, by Technical Committee ISO/TC 44, Welding and allied processes,
Subcommittee SC 5, Testing and inspection of welds, in parallel with its approval by the ISO member bodies.

This document constitutes a consolidated version.

Requests for official interpretations of any aspect of this International Standard should be directed to the
Secretariat of ISO/TC 44/SC 5 via your national standards body. A complete listing of these bodies can be
found at http://www.iso.org.

© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved iii


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UNI EN ISO 23277:2010


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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23277:2006(E)

Non-destructive testing of welds — Penetrant testing


of welds — Acceptance levels

1 Scope
This International Standard specifies acceptance levels for indications from surface breaking imperfections in
metallic welds detected by penetrant testing.

The acceptance levels are primarily intended for use during manufacture examination, but where appropriate
they can be used for in-service inspection.

The acceptance levels in this International Standard are based on detection capabilities that can be expected
when using techniques specified in ISO 3452 and parameters recommended in Annex A. The acceptance
levels can be related to welding standards, application standards, specifications or codes. Such a relationship
is shown in ISO 17635 for ISO 5817 and ISO 10042.

2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3452, Non-destructive testing — Penetrant inspection — General principles

ISO 3452-2, Non-destructive testing — Penetrant testing — Part 2: Testing of penetrant materials

ISO 5817, Welding — Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding
excluded) — Quality levels for imperfections

ISO 10042, Welding — Arc-welded joints in aluminium and its alloys — Quality levels for imperfections

ISO 12706, Non-destructive testing — Terminology — Terms used in penetrant testing

ISO 17635, Non-destructive testing of welds — General rules for fusion welds in metallic materials

ISO/TS 18173, Non-destructive testing — General terms and definitions

EN 1330-2, Non-destructive testing — Terminology — Part 2: Terms common to the non-destructive testing
methods

3 Terms and definitions


For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TS 18173, EN 1330-2 and
ISO 12706 and the following apply.

3.1
linear indication
indication having a length greater than three times its width

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ISO 23277:2006(E)

3.2
non-linear indication
indication having a length less than or equal to three times its width

4 Testing parameters

4.1 General

Many parameters, either individually or in combination, will affect the shape and size of a penetrant indication
produced by a weld imperfection.

The following items are significant factors that will affect the shape and size of indications.

4.2 Sensitivity

Penetrant materials are classified in accordance with ISO 3452-2, including a sensitivity level which relates to
the ability to detect small imperfections. Generally higher sensitivity materials should be used for the detection
of small imperfections.

4.3 Surface condition

Surface condition is directly related to the minimum detectable imperfection size. Best results are normally
achieved when inspecting smooth surfaces. Surface roughness or irregularities (e. g. undercut, spatter) can
cause high background and non-relevant indications resulting in a low probability of detection for small
imperfections.

4.4 Process and technique

Penetrant systems and techniques should be selected according to the test surface condition. In some cases
the choice will have a direct effect on the limits of reliable detection, for example the removal of excess
penetrant by swab cleaning on rough surfaces is not recommended when seeking small imperfections.

Guidance on these matters is given in Annex A and in ISO 3452.

5 Acceptance levels

5.1 General

The width of the test surface shall include the weld metal and the adjacent parent metal up to a distance of
10 mm on each side.

Indications produced by penetrant testing do not usually display the same size and shape characteristics as
the imperfection causing that indication. For the purposes of this standard, it is the size of the indication which
should be assessed against the values shown in Table 1.

Acceptance levels prescribed for linear indications are those corresponding to the evaluation level. Indications
lower than this shall not be taken into account. Normally, acceptable indications shall not be recorded.

Local grinding may be used to improve the classification of all or part of a test surface when it is required to
work to a higher detection limit than that recommended by the existing weld surface condition in Table A.1.

Acceptance levels for welds in metallic materials are given in Table 1.

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ISO 23277:2006(E)

Table 1 — Acceptance levels for indications


Dimensions in millimetres

Acceptance level a
Type of indication
1 2 3

Linear indication lu2 lu4 lu8


l = length of indication
Non-linear indication du4 du6 du8
d = major axis dimension
a Acceptance levels 2 and 3 may be specified with a suffix "X" which denotes that all linear indications detected shall be evaluated to
level 1. However the probability of detection of indications smaller than those denoted by the original acceptance level can be low.

5.2 Evaluation of indications

Initial evaluation shall be carried out as described in ISO 3452 and final evaluation of indication size shall be
carried out after a designated minimum development time has elapsed, and before the indication has
degenerated such that it no longer represents the causing imperfection.

5.3 Grouped indications

Any adjacent indications separated by less than the major dimension of the smaller shall be assessed as a
single, continuous indication.

Grouped indications shall be evaluated in accordance with an application standard.

5.4 Removal of imperfections

Where the product specification permits, local grinding may be used to reduce or remove imperfections which
are the cause of unacceptable indications. All such areas shall be re-tested and evaluated with the same
penetrant system and technique.

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ISO 23277:2006(E)

Annex A
(informative)

Recommended testing parameters

The recommended parameters for reliable detection of small imperfections are given in Table A.1.

Table A.1 — Recommended testing parameters

Acceptance level Surface condition Type of penetrant system

1 Fine surface a Fluorescent penetrant system, normal


sensitivity or higher to ISO 3452-2. Colour
contrast penetrant, high sensitivity to
ISO 3452-2
2 Smooth surface b Any

3 General surface c Any


a The weld cap and parent material offer smooth clean surfaces with negligible undercut, rippling and spatter. The surface finish is
typical of welds made by automatic TIG-welding, submerged arc welding (fully mechanized) and manual metal arc welding process
using iron powder electrodes.
b The weld cap and parent material offer reasonably smooth surfaces with minimal undercut, rippling and spatter. The surface finish
is typical of welds made by manual metal arc welding vertical downwards and MAG welding using argon rich gas for the capping runs.
c The weld cap and parent material are in the as-welded condition. The surface finish is typical of welds produced by the manual
metal arc and MAG welding processes in any position.

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