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CHEMICAL PROCESS

Ajoy John1 and G. Glan Devadhas2

1

II M.E. Control and Instrumentation, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil

2

Asso. Professor & HOD, Dept of E&IE, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil

Email:ajoy21986@gmail.com

Abstract- This paper presents a development of substantially with operating conditions caused due to the non

temperature control of Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor linearity of the CSTR. In this case, different sets of controller

(CSTR) by using a Fuzzy Self-Tuned PID controller. parameters should be used for different operating condition,

CSTR is a highly non-linear process. The reactor has two or, otherwise nonlinear control such as self tuning control

uncertain parameters for a reacting mixture, the should be used. Recently, fuzzy logic control has been

concentration and the temperature. A 2 nd order transfer actively researched and utilized such as fuzzy-PID controller

function has been obtained as the mathematical model of by combining the merits of fuzzy and conventional, self-

the reactor. The temperature control of CSTR using this tuning fuzzy linear control to improve the robustness and

controller overcomes the appearance of nonlinearities and hybrid control of fuzzy and PID. This paper presents the

uncertainties in the systems. The Fuzzy self-tuned PID development of such a temperature control of CSTR by using

controller is the combination of a classical PID and fuzzy this fuzzy self-tuned PID controller to overcome the

controller. It is implemented for controller design for the appearance of nonlinearities and uncertainties in the systems.

CSTR

Keywords – Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor The temperature profile follows a hysteretic

(CSTR), Fuzzy System, Fuzzy Self Tuned PID Controller, characteristic. Many types of strategies and methods to handle

PID Controller these processes are being studied and developed. In an

implementation and comparative study of fuzzy logic based

intelligent control and the conventional Proportional, Integral

1. INTRODUCTION and Derivative (PID) control in a real time [1], it was found

that fuzzy PI + fuzzy PD controller outperforms the fuzzy PD

The Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor (CSTR), is a and also the conventional PID controllers. The combination of

common ideal reactor type in chemical engineering. The PID and fuzzy control were put forward and a fuzzy self-

dynamic behavior of a CSTR can be described by mass, adjusting PID controller [2] for heater system was developed.

component and energy balance equations. The mathematical

model of this particular CSTR is described by the set of two 2. CONTINUOUS STIRRED-TANK REACTOR

nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) which are

constructed with the use of material and heat balances. In Figure 1 shows a schematic of the CSTR. The

improving the performance of the CSTR, a suitable controller reactor vessel volume is V. An agitator is used to make the

is required. An important step in designing a control strategy reactor contents be well mixed. The inlet reactant with feed

is proper modeling of the system to be controlled. An exact rate F, concentration CAi and temperature Ti is fed from the

system model should produce output responses similar to the top of the vessel. The product stream is gathered at the exit. If

actual system. The complexity of most physical systems, the reactor contents are perfectly mixed, then the

however, meets any difficulties in developing the exact compositions are uniform everywhere in the reactor and the

models. In case the model and parameters are unknown, product stream is at the same concentration as the mixture in

appropriate techniques can be applied to overcome those the reactor. In other words, the composition concentration CA

limitations. and temperature T at which reaction takes place are the same

Generally, standard PID algorithms with fixed as the composition concentration and temperature of any exit

parameters may perform poorly when the process gain varies stream. Therefore, progress of reaction can be monitored by

1301

Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

temperature T. 1.294 [6]

Fi 0.052 s 2 1.052s 1

important controller structures in a single package.

Developing a mathematical model of the nonlinear Figure 2. Parallel Form or PID Cotroller

system is necessary for the analysis and simulation of the

system response. For this CSTR a simple exothermic reaction The parallel form of a PID controller (Figure 2) has transfer

in considered where A B takes place. In the reactor the function:

temperature is cooled by a coolent flow in the jacket around

the reactor. From the three fundamental quantities we derive

1

C s Kp 1 Td s [7 ]

the model equations as Ti s

dV helps in establishing system stability and improving the

Fi F [1]

dt transient response while the derivative term is often used

Change in Concentration when it is necessary to improve the closed loop response

dC A Fi E speed even further. Conceptually the effect of the derivative

C Ai C A k0 e RT

cA [ 2] term is to feed information on the rate of change of the

dt V

measured variable into the controller action.

Change in Temperature

dT Fi Hr E Q The most important term in the controller is the

Ti T k0e RT

cA [3]

dt V cP c pV integrator term that introduces a pole at s = 0 in the forward

Where, loop of the process. This makes the compensated open loop

E system (i.e. original system plus PID controller) a type 1

RT

r k0e cA [ 4] system at least; our knowledge of steady state errors tells us

By linearizing the non linear system we obtain a that such systems are required for perfect steady state setpoint

pseudo first order transfer function By substituting the tracking. This is more formally stated in the following

parametric values mentioned in Table 1 we get the equations theorem

as

4. FUZZY SELF TUNED PID CONTROLLER

Concentration:

CA 0.0668s 1 The rules designed are based on the characteristic of

0.00696 [5] the chemical process tank and properties of the PID

Fi 0.052 s 2 1.052 s 1

controller. Therefore, the fuzzy reasoning of fuzzy sets of

Temperature: outputs is gained by aggregation operation of fuzzy sets

1302

Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

inputs and the designed fuzzy rules. The aggregation and The membership functions of these inputs fuzzy sets

defuzzification method are used respectively max-min and are shown in Figure 4 and 5. The linguistic variable levels are

centroid method. assigned as NB: negative big; NS: negative small; ZE: zero;

Regarding to the fuzzy structure, there are two inputs PS: positive small; PB: positive big. These levels are chosen

to fuzzy inference: error e(t) and derivative of error de(t), and from the characteristics and specification of the chemical

three outputs for each PID controller parameters respectively process tank. The ranges of these inputs are from -0.1 to 0.1,

K’p, K’i and K’d. Mamdani model is applied as structure of which are obtained from the absolute value of the system

fuzzy inference with some modification to obtain the best error and its derivative through the gains,

value for Kp, Ki and Kd .

and Kp of PID controller are respectively [Kp min, Kp max][Ki

min, Ki max][Kd min, Kd max]. The range of each parameter was

determined based on the simulation on PID controller to Figure 5. Membership function of de(t)

obtain a feasible rule bases with high inference efficiency.

The range of each parameters are,[Kp‟ [10, 100], Ki‟ [0.01,

1], Kd‟ [0.001, 0.01]] . Therefore, they can be calibrated over Whereas the membership functions of outputs K’p,

the interval [0, 1] as follows: K’i and K’d, are shown in Figure 6. The linguistic levels of

these outputs are assigned as S: small; MS: medium small; M:

medium; MB: medium big; B: big, where the ranges from 0 to

Kp K p min K p 10

[8] 1.

K p max K p min 100 10

K i K i min K p 0.01

[9]

K i max K i min 1 0.01

[10]

K d max K d min 0.01 0.001

Generally, the fuzzy rules are depended on the plant

to be controlled and the type of the controller and from

Hence, obtain:

practical experience. Regarding to the above fuzzy sets of the

Kp 90K p 10 [11] inputs and outputs variables, the fuzzy rules are perform in

Ki 0.9 K i 0.1 [12] rules table as shown in Table 2 and composed as follows:

Kd 0.009 K d 0.001 [13] Rule i: If e(t) is A1i and de(t) A2i then Kp Bi and

Ki Ci and K d Di .

1303

Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

From the table, since we have 5 variables as input and 5

variables as output, hence, in the design we have 25 fuzzy In this paper, the control of temperature by using

rules. concentration at output as feedback has been simulated. The

control objective in this simulation-based work was to

maintain the CSTR at steady state operating point. Fuzzy self-

STRUCTURE OF FUZZY CONTROLLER tuned controller was applied to tune the value of Kp, Ki and

Fuzzy logic controller as shown in Figure 7 consists Kd of the PID controller. The system responses indicate the

of main four parts fuzzification, rule base, inference engine performance of the chemical process was improved and

and defuzzification. satisfied compare to conventional PID controller. The results

are shown in figure in the following sections. The tank is

considered to be well stirred, which implies that the

temperature of the effluent is equal to the temperature of the

liquid in the tank. Our aim is to keep the effluent temperature

T and concentration at a desired value which has been

simulated.

Figure 7. FUZZY Logic control block

Self-tuning fuzzy PID controller means that the three

parameters Kp, Ki and Kp of PID controller are tuned by

using fuzzy tuner. The coefficients of the conventional PID

controller are not often properly tuned for the nonlinear plant

with unpredictable parameter variations. Hence, it is

necessary to automatically tune the PID parameters. The Figure 9. Comparison between Outputs Of Linearized TF And Actual

structure of the fuzzy self-tuned PID controller is shown in Nonlinear Equations

Figure 8.

Figure 8. Structure of a fuzzy self tuned PID control

point and the output, de(t) is the derivation of error. The PID

parameters are tuned by using fuzzy inference, which provide

a nonlinear mapping from the error and derivation of error to

PID parameters.

1304

Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

response of a linearized process and an implementation of

direct non linear equation.

Figure 15- Simulink Block Of Fuzzy PID Regulator

TEMPERATURE TRANSFER FUNCTION The value of parameter Kp, Ki and Kd are tuned by

using signals from fuzzy logic block based on the changes in

the error between reference signals and output signals. In

order to perform the output of the system, two types of input

signal are applied respectively step input and square wave

input.

represented in Figure 16 and 17 below.

Without PID Controller

Figure 13. Step Response For Temperature Transfer Function With And

Without PID Controller

Here the step response obtained is a negative going curve

since the gain is a negative value. A small overshoot is

obtained here and it can be observed in the graph.

Figure 17- Output with Fuzzy PID Controller for square input

1305

Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

H Heat of Reaction -2 105 cal/mol

6. CONCLUSION Cp, Cpc Specific heats 1 cal/gK

, c Liquid Densities 1 103 g/l

Modeling was done on the CSTR and fuzzy self-tuned CAi Inlet feed Concentration 1 mol/l

PID controller was proposed successfully. In mathematical ha Heat Transfer Coffecient 7 105 cal

Steady State Outlet Concentration =0.1 mol/L

modeling, Taylor series was employed to obtain the linear

Steady state output temperature = 438.544K

discrete model of the reactor system. Fuzzy Self-Tuned Flow rate of coolent = 103.406l/min

controller was applied to tune the value of Kp, Ki and Kd of

Table 2

the PID controller. Through some simulation tests on the

Rules of fuzzy inference

system by using square wave signals and step input signals.

The system responses indicate the control of the temperature

De\e NB NS ZE PS PB

system was improved and satisfied compare to conventional

PID controller. NB S S MS MS M

NS S MS MS M MB

APPENDIX-I

Constant Parameters ZE MS MS M MB MB

Table 1

Parameters for steady state CSTR PS MS M MB MB B

The linguistic variable levels are assigned as

Fi Process flow Rate 100 l/min

NB: negative big;

V Reactor Volume 100 l

NS: negative small;

k Reaction Rate Constant 7.2 1010 l/min ZE: zero;

E/R Activation Energy 1 104 K PS: positive small;

T0 Feed Temperature 350 K PB: positive big.

REFERENCE

[1] Kumar V.; Rana K.P.S.,“Real time comparative study of [5] K. Liu and EL. Lewis „Robust Control of a Continuous

the performance of FPGA based PID and fuzzy controllers for Stirred-Tank Reactor‟ Proceedings of the American Control

a rectilinear plant.” 2010 India International Conference (Jan. Conference Maryland, June 1994.

2011) [5] Emad Ali „Control of Non-linear Chemical Processes

[2]Zhao Xin; Liu Jinhao; Wang Dian; “Design and Using Adaptive PI Algorithms‟ .

Simulation of Fuzzy Self-Adjusting PID Controller” [6] Isin Erenoglu, Ibrahim Eksin, Engin Yesil, Mujde

Computing, Control and Industrial Engineering (CCIE), 2010 Guzelkaya “An Intelligent Hybrid Fuzzy Pid Controller”

International Conference (June 2010).

[3]Rahul Upadhyay and Rajesh Singla, „Analysis of CSTR

Temperature Control with Adaptive and PID Controller (A [7] Suja Malar R.M.& Thyagaraajan T.“Modelling of

Comparative Study), IACSIT International Journal of Continuous Tank Reactor Using Artificial Intelligence

Engineering and Technology.(October 2010) Techniques.”

[4]G. Glan Devadhas1 and S. Pushpakumar2 “An Intelligent [8] P.Dorsal, M. Bakosava and V. Bobal “An Approach to

Design for a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor” World Adaptive Control of a CSTR” October 2002, Chemical Paper

Applied Science Journal, 2011 2004.

1306

Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

Controllers”.

[10] Zhen-Yu Zhao1, Masayoshi Tomizuka2, Satoru Isaka3

“Fuzzy Gain Scheduling Of PID Controllers” IEEE

Transactions On Systems, Man, And Cybernetics.

September/October 1993. [11] Gregor Gregorcicaa and

Gordon Lightbodyb “Nonlinear Model-Based Control of

Highly Nonlinear Processes” (2010)

[12] Yonghong Tan and Xuanju Dang Achiel Van

Cauwenberghe “Generalized Nonlinear PID Controller Based

On Neural Networks”

[13] Rajani K. Mudia1, Chanchal Dey2, Tsu-Tian Lee3 “An

improved auto-tuning scheme for PI controllers” ISA

Transactions (2008)

1307

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