0 views

Uploaded by Glan Devadhas

- Cpc Report
- Tuning of Multivariable PID Controllers Based on Charesteristic Matrix Eigenvalues, Lyapunov Fuctions and Robustnees Criteria
- Eksin FuzzyPID Overview
- PID Tuning.
- A Design of Nonlinear PID Controllers With a Neural-net Based System Estimador
- 12-Tuning Based on Integral Error Criteria
- 8
- [Åström, Karl J.; Hägglund, Tore] PID Controlle(BookZZ.org) 065
- P091.042.IM23x-MA.APN-DOC.101.A
- paper_107
- Day2 Operations
- 261829.pdf
- Control Systems
- Meta-Heuristic Approach to Design Controller for AVR System
- presentation
- Fuzzy_emse00-br009_-en-e.pdf
- 109EI0343
- 3. IJECE - Vehicle - S.karthik
- Control Tutorials for MATLAB and Simulink - Introduction_ PID Controller Design
- CTM_ PID Tutorial

You are on page 1of 7

Intelligence Technique

1 2 3

D. M. Mary Synthia Regis Dr. S. Pushpa Kumar G. Glan Devadhas

Prabha, Principal, Associate Professor,

Associate Professor, Heera College of Engg. & Tech., Noorul Islam University,

Noorul Islam University, Nedumancadu, Trivandrum. Kumaracoil.

Kumaracoil. spushpakumar@gmail.com glandeva@gmail.com

regisprabha@gmail.com

locus type approaches [3]. The stability of the

The most commonly used control algorithm in

system is guaranteed by an adequate phase margin.

industry is the Proportional-Derivative-Integral

(PID) control. The controller’s performance is For a buck converter, the magnitude of the

decided by the proper selection of the control frequency response depends on the duty cycle.

parameters. In this paper, Bacterial Foraging Duty cycle variations do not change the shape of

Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) is applied for the magnitude plot of the transfer function, but only

optimizing the controller’s parameters of a dc-dc shifts the plot upward [3], [4].

converter. The robustness of the BFOA tuned PID Optimization is a powerful tool that has

controlled DC-DC converter under load

been used in the design of PID controllers [6],[14].

disturbances is studied. Finally, the controller’s

effectiveness is studied by comparing it with the An optimization algorithm which takes care of the

conventional PID controlled DC-DC converter. local minima, requires less number of computations

Index Terms: and which settles at minimum time is said to be a

PID control, DC-DC converter, BFO Algorithm best algorithm [12]. The controller’s performance

is decided by the proper selection of the control

I. INTRODUCTION parameters. In order to obtain the optimal

Switching mode dc-dc converters are widely parameters of the PID controller, Bacterial

used today in a variety of applications including Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) is

power supplies for personal computers, mission applied. Recent researches show that BFOA is

critical space applications, laptop computers, dc more advantageous than other optimization

motor drives, medical electronics as well as high

techniques because of its easy convergence and

power transmission [1]. These converters are non-

linear dynamical systems. The non-linearities arise reduced calculations [9].

primarily due to switching, power devices and In this paper, the PID controller is

passive components such as inductors and designed for a Buck converter and optimized to

capacitors. A control technique suitable for dc-dc meet the nominal stability and nominal

converters must cope with their intrinsic non- performance requirements. The robustness of the

linearity and wide input voltage and load variations dc-dc converter under line and load disturbances is

ensuring stability in any operating condition while

providing fast transient response. studied. This paper is organised as follows: Section

PID control is a traditional linear control II deals with the basics of a dc-dc Buck converter

which is the most commonly used control and its small signal modelling. Section III deals in

algorithm in industries. It can be easily detail the PID controller design and the BFOA

implemented by engineers using current technique. Also it deals with the optimization

technologies which make it more popular than procedure of the BFOA-PID algorithm. Section IV

other controllers. Linear PID controllers for dc-dc gives an account of the dynamic performance

converters are usually designed by classical analysis of the controller. Section V gives the

frequency response techniques applied to the small- results and discussions of the conventional PID

signal models of converters [2]. A bode plot is controlled Buck Converter and BFOA optimized

adjusted in the design to obtain the desired loop PID controlled Buck Converter.

gain, cross-over frequency and phase margin. II. DC-DC CONVERTER:

978-1-4673-0315-6/11/$26.00©2011 IEEE operation: (i) Switch is on (ii) Switch is off. The

2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies – India

figure 1. Small Signal Input to Output transfer

function at this nominal operating point is given as,

.

4

.

Figure 1 Buck Converter A. Control Principle

Small Signal Control to Output transfer function is that can be adjusted to make the control loop

derived as, perform better. The controller’s performance gets

deteriorated if the control parameters are not

1 chosen properly. The procedure for finding the

controller parameters is called tuning [6].

The PID algorithm can be described as

Small Signal Input to Output transfer

1

function is derived as, 5

6

2

Where u is the control variable and is the control

error. The control variable is thus a sum of three

In this transfer function, VO is the output

voltage, D is the duty cycle, C is the output terms: the P term (which is proportional to error),

capacitance, L is the inductance and R is the load the I-term (which is proportional to the integral of

resistance. RL and RC are the equivalent series the error), and the D-term (which is proportional to

resistance (ESR) of L and C respectively. This the derivative of the error) [6]. While the integral

transfer function is a second order low pass filter, action takes care of the steady state error under

with a left-half-plane introduced by the ESR of the steady state condition making it zero, the derivative

filter capacitance C [5]. The cut-off frequency of

action improves the closed-loop stability. Proper

the second order low pass filter is ωC = 1/√ .

selection of the controller parameters , and

Variations of D, varies the magnitude of the

transfer function. Moreover, it does not change the makes the controller perform optimally.

shape of the frequency response, but shifts the

magnitude plot upward or downward. B. Design of a PID Controller

Table 1 The open loop transfer function G(s)H(s)

Circuit Parameters of the prototype Buck is given in equation (3). It is desired that the system

Converter have a phase margin Ф 107° at a cross-over

Parameter Value Units frequency of 125.66 kHz and steady state error for

Input Voltage, Vi 24 V

unit ramp input is 0.035%. So a PID controller

Desired Output 12 V

Voltage, Vod whose transfer function is

Load Resistance, Ro 6 Ω introduced to get the desired phase margin at the

Filter Inductance, L 35 μH desired frequency. For the controller to meet the

Filter Capacitance, C 150 μF

requirements,

ESR of Inductor, RL 0.12 Ω

Ф 180° 7

ESR of Capacitor, RC 0.03 Ω

90° 8

The nominal operating point of the

prototype Buck converter is chosen as follows: Here 9

Input Voltage, Vi = 24 V, Desired Output Voltage,

Vod = 12 V, Duty ratio D = 0.5, Switching Also | | 1 10

frequency = 200 kHz. Representing eq.(9) in triangle form,

(11)

function at this nominal operating point is given as,

24 10.8 So, | |

12

3

1 5.817 4.243

2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies – India

| |

a novel optimization method proposed by Passino

is decided from the steady state requirements [7]-[9]. It is developed inspired by the chemotactic

and is found that 119.048 . Substituting this behaviour of a group of E.Coli bacterium moving

value of in eq. (9) and (13), the values of and towards an energy gradient by performing four

are found to be 5.80125, and 0.0869x10-4 basic processes such as swim, tumble, reproduction

respectively. and elimination-dispersion [10].

C. Bacterial Foraging Optimization

Kill half of the Split up

bacteria with very location on the

population with highest the other

small probability optimization domain

objective function half

Chemotaxis Reproduction

variables Dispersion Stop

executed for for ‘Ned ‘ times

‘Nre ‘ times

Compute Obj. Fn.

number of Tumble objective Swim

bacteria objective = max?

bacteria ‘S’ in i=0 function function

the population

No

Yes

No

Perform reproduction

Step 1: The inner loop is the chemotactic loop of each and every bacterium is calculated and

shown in figure 5. In this process, the movement of sorted out in the ascending order. The worst half of

an E.Coli bacterium is simulated. It moves in two the bacterial population with the highest value dies

different ways: tumbling and swimming [10]. Each out and the other half of the population with the

time it performs an operation, the objective lowest value splits out [10]. For this new

function value is calculated. The bacterium changes generation of bacterium, the inner chemotactic loop

its position only if the modified objective function is started and this process continues for the

value is less than the previous one. At the specified number of reproduction steps.

completion of chemotaxis, the bacterium will be

swarming around a point in the search space with Step 3: The outermost loop is the elimination-

least objective function value. dispersion loop shown in figure 3. In this process,

some bacterium with very small probability is

Step 2: The loop outside the chemotactic loop is the eliminated and dispersed to a random location on

reproduction loop shown in figure 2. In this the optimization domain. This process keeps the

reproduction process, the objective function value number of bacterium constant [10].

2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies – India

D. Optimization process of the BFOA-PID ISE strongly suppress large errors and IAE

algorithm: suppress small errors more effectively. ITAE works

The steps that are used for optimizing the PID more effectively on errors that persist for a long

controller parameters are, time. So ISE is used for penalizing the response

1. Initialize all the variables. that has large errors which is usually the case at the

2. Find the position and velocity of each dynamic part of the response and ITAE is used for

bacterium and update the position of each penalizing a response which occurs during the

bacterium by performing swim and tumble. steady state condition [4].

3. For each bacterium the best position is

recorded in the PID controller. Minimization of these errors is considered

4. Perform simulation and calculate the error (Vref to be the main objective of this algorithm. In each

- Vout). iteration, the errors (i.e.) the objective function is

5. Calculate the local best position of each calculated. Also the corresponding Kp, Ki and Kd

bacterium and then the global best position. values are calculated. Condition check is being

6. Find the new direction (tumble) for each made to find whether the objective function is

bacterium by calculating its velocity. The minimized. If the condition comes out to be true,

velocity of each bacterium is changed for easy the Kp, Ki and Kd values found out during that

convergence. iteration is considered to be optimum. Otherwise

7. Perform reproduction process by sorting the the next iteration starts and the process continues.

bacteria in the order of ascending cost, killing This algorithm is developed such that if the errors

half of the population with highest cost and remain to be minimum continuously for 100

splitting up the other half population. iterations, the optimization process stops and the

8. If the cost (error) calculated is minimal, then Kp, Ki and Kd values calculated during the final

the bacterium with minimum cost gives the iteration is assigned as the controller parameter

optimal PID controller parameters. Or else values and the controller operates with that

goto step 2. parameter values.

ANALYSIS:

A. PID control:

The open loop transfer function G(S)H(s)

Robust stability and performance account of the Buck converter is given by equation (3). A

to satisfactory stability and performance for a set of PID compensator is designed with a phase margin

deviation from the nominal value [11]. In switching of 107° at a cross-over frequency of 125.66 kHz.

power converters, these deviations and The steady state error for unit ramp input is

uncertainties are, in part, due to changes in considered to be 0.035%. The KP, Ki and Kd values

are found to be 5.80125, 119.048 and 0.0869x10-4

elements and circuit characteristics, especially load,

respectively. The simulation results of the

and in part due to errors in modelling high controller with these controller parameters are

frequency dynamics and unmodeled elements) and shown.

linearizing. The three figures of merit: Integral of The PID controlled Buck converter is

Square Error (ISE), Integral of Absolute Error simulated using Matlab simulink and the results are

(IAE) and Integral of Time-weighted Absolute shown.

Error (ITAE) are used for the formulation of a

dynamic performance criterion [13].

∞

(14)

∞

15

∞

16

Figure 6: Output response of the Buck converter

with PID control

2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies – India

The figure 6 shows the output response of The figure (8) shows the output response

the Buck converter with PID control. The output of the PID contolled Buck Converter which is

response has a peak overshoot of 6.22V. This peak optimized using BFOA. The figure(9) shows the

overshoot accounts to more than 50% of the desired

ISE, IAE and ITAE error plot. It can be inferred

output voltage which is very large and is

unacceptable in most sensitive applications. that the errors are minimized very shortly.

160

ISE

140 IAE

ITAE

120

100

Process output

80

Figure 7. Dynamic response of the PID controlled

Buck converter to load step change from 6Ω to 60

25Ω. 40

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

noticed that there is a large disturbance in the Time(s)

Figure (9) Error Plot

B. BFOA tuned PID Control:

The PID controller parameters are being The figure (10) shows how the local best

optimized by using BFOA algorithm. The variables position varies for the bacterium in the search

used in BFOA are assigned the values given below. space.

It is then simulated using Matlab.

i. Dimension of search space D=3

ii. The number of bacteria NB =10

iii. Number of chemotactic steps Ncs =10

iv. Limits the length of a swim Nsl =4

v. The number of reproduction steps Nrep=4

vi. The number of elimination-dispersal

events Nede=1

vii. The number of bacteria reproductions

(splits) per generation Sr=s/2

viii. The probability that each bacteria will be

eliminated/dispersed Ped=0.25

PID control parameters Kp, Ki and Kd are obtained

as Kp =0, Ki=4.7640 and Kd=13.2698. The

simulation results of the controller with these Figure (10) Local best position of each bacterium

controller parameters are shown.

The figure 11 shows how the global best

position is assigned for the bacterium in every

iteration step throughout the search space.

controlled Buck Converter

2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies – India

14

Table II

12 Performance evaluation

10 Parameters PID BFOA tuned

control PID Control

G lobal bes t pos ition

8

Settling Time

6 Maximum Peak 6.22V 0.15V

4

Overshoot

2

VI. CONCLUSION:

0 In this paper, Bacterial Group Foraging

-2 Algorithm (BFOA) is applied for optimizing the

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3

Search space PID controller parameters of a DC-DC Buck

Figure 11 Global best position of each bacterium Converter. The robustness of the BFOA tuned PID

controlled DC-DC converter under load

The figures (12) and (13) show the disturbances is studied. The controller’s

robustness of the BFOA – PID controller for a dc- effectiveness is studied by comparing it with the

dc converter. conventional PID controlled DC-DC converter. It is

proved that the peak overshoot of the response is

very much reduced and it settles at a very less time.

Also it is proved that the BFOA tuned PID

controller fed Buck converter is robust in its

stability when subjected to external disturbances.

VII. REFERENCES

1) Robert W. Ericson, “DC-DC Converters”,

Article in Wiley Encyclopaedia of Electrical

and Electronics Engineering.

2) Prodit, . Maksimovic, “Design of a digital PID

regulator based on look-up Tables for control

of high frequency dc-dc converters”,

Figure 12 Dynamic response of a BFOA-PID

Proceedings in IEEE workshop on Computing

controller and Power Electronics, June 2002, pp. 18 – 22.

3) Y. Duan, H. Jin, “ Digital Controller Design

for Switch mode power converters”,

Proceedings in 14th Annual Power Electronics

Conference Exposition, Dallas, Tx, March

1999, pp. 14-18, Vol. 2, pp. 967-973.

4) R. P. Severns, G. E. Bloom, “ Modern dc-dc

switch mode power converter circuits”, New

York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.

5) Liping Guo, John Y. Hung, R. M. Nelms,

“Evaluation of DSP based PID and Fuzzy

Controllers for DC-DC Converters”, IEEE

transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56,

No. 6, June 2009, pp. 2237-2248.

Figure 13 Output response of a BFOA-PID 6) Karl J. Astrom, Tore Hagglund, “PID

Controllers”, second edition, Instrument

controller for a load change from 6Ω to 25 Ω

Society of India, 1995, pp.164,

7) Passino K.M. “Biomimicry of Bacterial

Figure (13) shows how the BFOA-PID Foraging for Distributed Optimization and

controller operates, when the load change from 6Ω Control,” IEEE Control Systems Magazine,

to 25 Ω is being suddenly applied at 15μs. The Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 52-67, June 2002.

performance of the converter under that condition 8) Liu Yanfei, Passino K.M., “Biomimicry of

shows that it regains its normal working status very Social Foraging Behavior for Distributed

shortly which shows its robustness to load Optimization: Models, Principles, and

Emergent Behaviors,” Journal of Optimization

disturbances.

Theory and Applications, Vol. 115, No. 3, pp.

603-628, Dec. 2002.

2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies – India

Optimization," Int. J. Swarm Intelligence Eshtehardiha, “Particle Swarm Optimization

Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-16, Jan.-March, for Improved Performance of PID Controllers

2010. on Buck Converter”, Proceedings of IEEE

10) Swagatam Das, Arijit Biswas, Sambarta International Conference on Mechatronics and

Dasgupta, and Ajith Abraham, “The Bacterial Automation, 2008, pp. 520-524

Foraging Optimization – Algorithm, Analysis, 13) O. T. Altinoz, H. Erdem, “Evaluation Function

and Applications, Foundations on Comparison of Particle Swarm Optimization

Computational Intelligence”, Aboul-Ella for Buck Converter”, International Symposium

Hassanien and Ajith Abraham Eds., Studies in on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives,

Computational Intelligence, Springer Verlag, Automation and Motion, SPEEDAM 2010,pp.

Germany, 2008. 798-802.

11) Frans van den Bergh, Andries P. Engelbrecht, 14) Zwe-Lee Gaing, “A Particle Swarm

“A cooperative Approach to Particle Swarm Optimization Approach for Optimum Design

Optimization”, IEEE Transactions on of PID Controller in AVR system”, IEEE

Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 8, No. 3, June Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol.19,

2004, pp. 1-15 No. 2, June 2004, pp. 384-391.

- Cpc ReportUploaded byFnur Fatihah
- Tuning of Multivariable PID Controllers Based on Charesteristic Matrix Eigenvalues, Lyapunov Fuctions and Robustnees CriteriaUploaded byEsther Cozar
- Eksin FuzzyPID OverviewUploaded bySamuel Brand
- PID Tuning.Uploaded byawanishup
- A Design of Nonlinear PID Controllers With a Neural-net Based System EstimadorUploaded byRodrigo Donizete
- 12-Tuning Based on Integral Error CriteriaUploaded byAmirul Assyraf Noor
- 8Uploaded byapi-19660864
- [Åström, Karl J.; Hägglund, Tore] PID Controlle(BookZZ.org) 065Uploaded byablbabybb
- P091.042.IM23x-MA.APN-DOC.101.AUploaded byIonut Andrei
- paper_107Uploaded byMarchena Segil Erik
- Day2 OperationsUploaded byRiyadh Saleh
- 261829.pdfUploaded byShubham Kaushik
- Control SystemsUploaded bySarika Vadivelan
- Meta-Heuristic Approach to Design Controller for AVR SystemUploaded byGRD Journals
- presentationUploaded byRajeev Valunjkar
- Fuzzy_emse00-br009_-en-e.pdfUploaded bypfalencar
- 109EI0343Uploaded byAnonymous aiEsMIOMoP
- 3. IJECE - Vehicle - S.karthikUploaded byiaset123
- Control Tutorials for MATLAB and Simulink - Introduction_ PID Controller DesignUploaded bySengottu Velusamy
- CTM_ PID TutorialUploaded byStanley Cesar
- Unit 1Uploaded byRudra Mishra
- AGC_GA_GCR_IranUploaded bycastrojp
- 85989_F0Uploaded byM Syafiq Samad
- Fuzzy Non Linear TimedelayUploaded by1balamanian
- A55 4 Liu Adaptive Wavelet Neural Network Backstepping Sliding Mode Tracking Control for PMSM Drive SystemUploaded byTanNguyễn
- PID_Control & Ziegler-NicholsUploaded byHachemi Bhe
- Houari.azeddineUploaded byata
- Turbine Governing SystemUploaded byskparam
- PID2Uploaded byMigLout
- Azucar- Vacum PanesUploaded byKarlis Orozco Sanchez

- GAIN SCHEDULING CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR AN ELECTRIC DRIVE Final.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- v4-342-349.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- ICCICCT - 173.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- upa journal final.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- upa journal final.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- Icicict2019 BrochureUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- ICCICCT - 122.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- ICCICCT - 506.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- IJE-217.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- ICCICCT - 314.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- ICCICCT - 507.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- a-novel-technique-for-forearm-blood-vein-detection-and-enhancement.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- 06145383.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- IJEST10-02-10-182.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- PDF%2Fajassp.2011.1140.1148.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- 06024642.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- Brain tumor detection and segmentation using a wrapper based genetic algorithm for optimized feature setUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- 39.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- IJE-217.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- Ae361 Virtual Instrument Design (1)Uploaded byGlan Devadhas
- Gain Scheduling Controller Design for an Electric Drive FinalUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- P&ID Series 1Uploaded byGlan Devadhas
- 1 Self Tuning Fuzzy PID Controller for a Chemical Process.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- Intelligent Computation of Controller Using Optimisation Techniques for a Nonlinear Chemical ProcessUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- Intelligent Computation of Controller Using Optimisation Techniques for a Nonlinear Chemical ProcessUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- P&I KeyUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- G.Glan Devadhas.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- 06203862.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas
- ajassp.2011.1140.1148.pdfUploaded byGlan Devadhas

- GPC-IUploaded byjiugarte1
- Lpu-l Thesis AbstractUploaded byChristian Jay Briones Carabio
- vol3-no1-2Uploaded byconfy
- Manual de Usuario VLT 2800Uploaded byDiego Vidal Valdivia
- JLD614 ManualUploaded byJ.R. Vincent
- Active Force ControlUploaded bymmailah
- SAIC-J- 6911 Rev 0Uploaded byAdel Klk
- Intelligent Fuzzy-PID Hybrid Control for Temperature of NH3 in Atomization FurnaceUploaded byResearch Cell: An International Journal of Engineering Sciences
- Bharat AbstractUploaded byBharatVala
- Dynamic Characterization of DC-DC ConvertersUploaded bysteviej85
- 04 PID ControllersUploaded byMansour Abdulaziz
- Ascon_IO_XS_ENUploaded bythiodoro
- Air-craft- Landing Gear Simulation and ControlUploaded byBerkanErol
- ConstantPressure_EL.pdfUploaded byIov Iftode
- ChkugkbkkugUploaded byCyril Jason
- TCUploaded byaris
- sotax ce 7smartUploaded byapi-239932254
- M300 Quick Start GuideUploaded byindianxplorer
- SC3 User Manual_V1.06.pdfUploaded byJoe
- VARIADOR F7 YASKAWAUploaded byadf165
- PID ServerUploaded byIsidro Igigi Hernández
- CH112-06 Libraries - RevBUploaded byzvonkomihajlovic4891
- Rex-100 manualUploaded byDiego Hermosilla Mota
- HUAWEI WCDMA Power Control & ParametersUploaded byমোহাম্মাদ নাবিল নূর
- Weeks 12-16 PLC Mechatronics Pe 4030 Dec 15 2016Uploaded byCharlton S.Inao
- Vol2_No3_559-564_Comparing PID and Fuzzy Logic Control a Quarter-Car ...Uploaded byHussain Tenpin Diamond
- Doosan Digital Speed ControlUploaded bybambang
- BTC IOMUploaded byfredbuckpitt
- ch8Uploaded byEliud Luna Salcedo
- altivar 61 CatalogueUploaded byrubysultana