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2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies – India

An Optimum Setting of Controller for a dc-dc converter Using Bacterial


Intelligence Technique
1 2 3
D. M. Mary Synthia Regis Dr. S. Pushpa Kumar G. Glan Devadhas
Prabha, Principal, Associate Professor,
Associate Professor, Heera College of Engg. & Tech., Noorul Islam University,
Noorul Islam University, Nedumancadu, Trivandrum. Kumaracoil.
Kumaracoil. spushpakumar@gmail.com glandeva@gmail.com
regisprabha@gmail.com

ABSTRACT The transient response can be tuned using root


locus type approaches [3]. The stability of the
The most commonly used control algorithm in
system is guaranteed by an adequate phase margin.
industry is the Proportional-Derivative-Integral
(PID) control. The controller’s performance is For a buck converter, the magnitude of the
decided by the proper selection of the control frequency response depends on the duty cycle.
parameters. In this paper, Bacterial Foraging Duty cycle variations do not change the shape of
Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) is applied for the magnitude plot of the transfer function, but only
optimizing the controller’s parameters of a dc-dc shifts the plot upward [3], [4].
converter. The robustness of the BFOA tuned PID Optimization is a powerful tool that has
controlled DC-DC converter under load
been used in the design of PID controllers [6],[14].
disturbances is studied. Finally, the controller’s
effectiveness is studied by comparing it with the An optimization algorithm which takes care of the
conventional PID controlled DC-DC converter. local minima, requires less number of computations
Index Terms: and which settles at minimum time is said to be a
PID control, DC-DC converter, BFO Algorithm best algorithm [12]. The controller’s performance
is decided by the proper selection of the control
I. INTRODUCTION parameters. In order to obtain the optimal
Switching mode dc-dc converters are widely parameters of the PID controller, Bacterial
used today in a variety of applications including Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) is
power supplies for personal computers, mission applied. Recent researches show that BFOA is
critical space applications, laptop computers, dc more advantageous than other optimization
motor drives, medical electronics as well as high
techniques because of its easy convergence and
power transmission [1]. These converters are non-
linear dynamical systems. The non-linearities arise reduced calculations [9].
primarily due to switching, power devices and In this paper, the PID controller is
passive components such as inductors and designed for a Buck converter and optimized to
capacitors. A control technique suitable for dc-dc meet the nominal stability and nominal
converters must cope with their intrinsic non- performance requirements. The robustness of the
linearity and wide input voltage and load variations dc-dc converter under line and load disturbances is
ensuring stability in any operating condition while
providing fast transient response. studied. This paper is organised as follows: Section
PID control is a traditional linear control II deals with the basics of a dc-dc Buck converter
which is the most commonly used control and its small signal modelling. Section III deals in
algorithm in industries. It can be easily detail the PID controller design and the BFOA
implemented by engineers using current technique. Also it deals with the optimization
technologies which make it more popular than procedure of the BFOA-PID algorithm. Section IV
other controllers. Linear PID controllers for dc-dc gives an account of the dynamic performance
converters are usually designed by classical analysis of the controller. Section V gives the
frequency response techniques applied to the small- results and discussions of the conventional PID
signal models of converters [2]. A bode plot is controlled Buck Converter and BFOA optimized
adjusted in the design to obtain the desired loop PID controlled Buck Converter.
gain, cross-over frequency and phase margin. II. DC-DC CONVERTER:

Buck converter has two modes of


978-1-4673-0315-6/11/$26.00©2011 IEEE operation: (i) Switch is on (ii) Switch is off. The
2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies – India

circuit diagram of the Buck converter is shown in


figure 1. Small Signal Input to Output transfer
function at this nominal operating point is given as,
.
4
.

III. CONTROLLER DESIGN


Figure 1 Buck Converter A. Control Principle

The PID controller has several parameters


Small Signal Control to Output transfer function is that can be adjusted to make the control loop
derived as, perform better. The controller’s performance gets
deteriorated if the control parameters are not
1 chosen properly. The procedure for finding the
controller parameters is called tuning [6].
The PID algorithm can be described as
Small Signal Input to Output transfer
1
function is derived as, 5

6
2
Where u is the control variable and is the control
error. The control variable is thus a sum of three
In this transfer function, VO is the output
voltage, D is the duty cycle, C is the output terms: the P term (which is proportional to error),
capacitance, L is the inductance and R is the load the I-term (which is proportional to the integral of
resistance. RL and RC are the equivalent series the error), and the D-term (which is proportional to
resistance (ESR) of L and C respectively. This the derivative of the error) [6]. While the integral
transfer function is a second order low pass filter, action takes care of the steady state error under
with a left-half-plane introduced by the ESR of the steady state condition making it zero, the derivative
filter capacitance C [5]. The cut-off frequency of
action improves the closed-loop stability. Proper
the second order low pass filter is ωC = 1/√ .
selection of the controller parameters , and
Variations of D, varies the magnitude of the
transfer function. Moreover, it does not change the makes the controller perform optimally.
shape of the frequency response, but shifts the
magnitude plot upward or downward. B. Design of a PID Controller
Table 1 The open loop transfer function G(s)H(s)
Circuit Parameters of the prototype Buck is given in equation (3). It is desired that the system
Converter have a phase margin Ф 107° at a cross-over
Parameter Value Units frequency of 125.66 kHz and steady state error for
Input Voltage, Vi 24 V
unit ramp input is 0.035%. So a PID controller
Desired Output 12 V
Voltage, Vod whose transfer function is
Load Resistance, Ro 6 Ω introduced to get the desired phase margin at the
Filter Inductance, L 35 μH desired frequency. For the controller to meet the
Filter Capacitance, C 150 μF
requirements,
ESR of Inductor, RL 0.12 Ω
Ф 180° 7
ESR of Capacitor, RC 0.03 Ω
90° 8
The nominal operating point of the
prototype Buck converter is chosen as follows: Here 9
Input Voltage, Vi = 24 V, Desired Output Voltage,
Vod = 12 V, Duty ratio D = 0.5, Switching Also | | 1 10
frequency = 200 kHz. Representing eq.(9) in triangle form,

Small Signal Control to Output transfer | |


(11)
function at this nominal operating point is given as,
24 10.8 So, | |
12
3
1 5.817 4.243
2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies – India

And 13 Bacterial Foraging Optimization BFOA is


| |
a novel optimization method proposed by Passino
is decided from the steady state requirements [7]-[9]. It is developed inspired by the chemotactic
and is found that 119.048 . Substituting this behaviour of a group of E.Coli bacterium moving
value of in eq. (9) and (13), the values of and towards an energy gradient by performing four
are found to be 5.80125, and 0.0869x10-4 basic processes such as swim, tumble, reproduction
respectively. and elimination-dispersion [10].
C. Bacterial Foraging Optimization

Eliminate the Disperse it to a random


Kill half of the Split up
bacteria with very location on the
population with highest the other
small probability optimization domain
objective function half

Figure 2: Reproduction Process Figure 3: Elimination-Dispersion Process

Initialize all Elimination-


Chemotaxis Reproduction
variables Dispersion Stop

Loop Loop executed


executed for for ‘Ned ‘ times
‘Nre ‘ times

Figure 4: Optimization Process of BFOA algorithm

Initialize Select 1st Compute Yes


Compute Obj. Fn.
number of Tumble objective Swim
bacteria objective = max?
bacteria ‘S’ in i=0 function function
the population
No

Yes

Select the next bacteria i = i+1 i<S


No

Perform reproduction

Figure 5: Chemotaxis process

Step 1: The inner loop is the chemotactic loop of each and every bacterium is calculated and
shown in figure 5. In this process, the movement of sorted out in the ascending order. The worst half of
an E.Coli bacterium is simulated. It moves in two the bacterial population with the highest value dies
different ways: tumbling and swimming [10]. Each out and the other half of the population with the
time it performs an operation, the objective lowest value splits out [10]. For this new
function value is calculated. The bacterium changes generation of bacterium, the inner chemotactic loop
its position only if the modified objective function is started and this process continues for the
value is less than the previous one. At the specified number of reproduction steps.
completion of chemotaxis, the bacterium will be
swarming around a point in the search space with Step 3: The outermost loop is the elimination-
least objective function value. dispersion loop shown in figure 3. In this process,
some bacterium with very small probability is
Step 2: The loop outside the chemotactic loop is the eliminated and dispersed to a random location on
reproduction loop shown in figure 2. In this the optimization domain. This process keeps the
reproduction process, the objective function value number of bacterium constant [10].
2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies – India

D. Optimization process of the BFOA-PID ISE strongly suppress large errors and IAE
algorithm: suppress small errors more effectively. ITAE works
The steps that are used for optimizing the PID more effectively on errors that persist for a long
controller parameters are, time. So ISE is used for penalizing the response
1. Initialize all the variables. that has large errors which is usually the case at the
2. Find the position and velocity of each dynamic part of the response and ITAE is used for
bacterium and update the position of each penalizing a response which occurs during the
bacterium by performing swim and tumble. steady state condition [4].
3. For each bacterium the best position is
recorded in the PID controller. Minimization of these errors is considered
4. Perform simulation and calculate the error (Vref to be the main objective of this algorithm. In each
- Vout). iteration, the errors (i.e.) the objective function is
5. Calculate the local best position of each calculated. Also the corresponding Kp, Ki and Kd
bacterium and then the global best position. values are calculated. Condition check is being
6. Find the new direction (tumble) for each made to find whether the objective function is
bacterium by calculating its velocity. The minimized. If the condition comes out to be true,
velocity of each bacterium is changed for easy the Kp, Ki and Kd values found out during that
convergence. iteration is considered to be optimum. Otherwise
7. Perform reproduction process by sorting the the next iteration starts and the process continues.
bacteria in the order of ascending cost, killing This algorithm is developed such that if the errors
half of the population with highest cost and remain to be minimum continuously for 100
splitting up the other half population. iterations, the optimization process stops and the
8. If the cost (error) calculated is minimal, then Kp, Ki and Kd values calculated during the final
the bacterium with minimum cost gives the iteration is assigned as the controller parameter
optimal PID controller parameters. Or else values and the controller operates with that
goto step 2. parameter values.

IV. DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


ANALYSIS:
A. PID control:
The open loop transfer function G(S)H(s)
Robust stability and performance account of the Buck converter is given by equation (3). A
to satisfactory stability and performance for a set of PID compensator is designed with a phase margin
deviation from the nominal value [11]. In switching of 107° at a cross-over frequency of 125.66 kHz.
power converters, these deviations and The steady state error for unit ramp input is
uncertainties are, in part, due to changes in considered to be 0.035%. The KP, Ki and Kd values
are found to be 5.80125, 119.048 and 0.0869x10-4
elements and circuit characteristics, especially load,
respectively. The simulation results of the
and in part due to errors in modelling high controller with these controller parameters are
frequency dynamics and unmodeled elements) and shown.
linearizing. The three figures of merit: Integral of The PID controlled Buck converter is
Square Error (ISE), Integral of Absolute Error simulated using Matlab simulink and the results are
(IAE) and Integral of Time-weighted Absolute shown.
Error (ITAE) are used for the formulation of a
dynamic performance criterion [13].


(14)


15


16
Figure 6: Output response of the Buck converter
with PID control
2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies – India

The figure 6 shows the output response of The figure (8) shows the output response
the Buck converter with PID control. The output of the PID contolled Buck Converter which is
response has a peak overshoot of 6.22V. This peak optimized using BFOA. The figure(9) shows the
overshoot accounts to more than 50% of the desired
ISE, IAE and ITAE error plot. It can be inferred
output voltage which is very large and is
unacceptable in most sensitive applications. that the errors are minimized very shortly.

160
ISE
140 IAE
ITAE
120

100

Process output
80
Figure 7. Dynamic response of the PID controlled
Buck converter to load step change from 6Ω to 60

25Ω. 40

The figure 7 shows the dynamic 20

performance of the PID controlled Buck converter 0

to a load step change from 6Ω to 25Ω. It can be -20


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
noticed that there is a large disturbance in the Time(s)

output response and it settles at a new value.


Figure (9) Error Plot
B. BFOA tuned PID Control:
The PID controller parameters are being The figure (10) shows how the local best
optimized by using BFOA algorithm. The variables position varies for the bacterium in the search
used in BFOA are assigned the values given below. space.
It is then simulated using Matlab.
i. Dimension of search space D=3
ii. The number of bacteria NB =10
iii. Number of chemotactic steps Ncs =10
iv. Limits the length of a swim Nsl =4
v. The number of reproduction steps Nrep=4
vi. The number of elimination-dispersal
events Nede=1
vii. The number of bacteria reproductions
(splits) per generation Sr=s/2
viii. The probability that each bacteria will be
eliminated/dispersed Ped=0.25

By applying BFOA for optimization of


PID control parameters Kp, Ki and Kd are obtained
as Kp =0, Ki=4.7640 and Kd=13.2698. The
simulation results of the controller with these Figure (10) Local best position of each bacterium
controller parameters are shown.
The figure 11 shows how the global best
position is assigned for the bacterium in every
iteration step throughout the search space.

Figure 8. Output response of the BFOA tuned PID


controlled Buck Converter
2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies – India

14
Table II
12 Performance evaluation
10 Parameters PID BFOA tuned
control PID Control
G lobal bes t pos ition

4.7x10-4s 1.9x10 -5s


8
Settling Time
6 Maximum Peak 6.22V 0.15V
4
Overshoot
2
VI. CONCLUSION:
0 In this paper, Bacterial Group Foraging
-2 Algorithm (BFOA) is applied for optimizing the
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3
Search space PID controller parameters of a DC-DC Buck
Figure 11 Global best position of each bacterium Converter. The robustness of the BFOA tuned PID
controlled DC-DC converter under load
The figures (12) and (13) show the disturbances is studied. The controller’s
robustness of the BFOA – PID controller for a dc- effectiveness is studied by comparing it with the
dc converter. conventional PID controlled DC-DC converter. It is
proved that the peak overshoot of the response is
very much reduced and it settles at a very less time.
Also it is proved that the BFOA tuned PID
controller fed Buck converter is robust in its
stability when subjected to external disturbances.

VII. REFERENCES
1) Robert W. Ericson, “DC-DC Converters”,
Article in Wiley Encyclopaedia of Electrical
and Electronics Engineering.
2) Prodit, . Maksimovic, “Design of a digital PID
regulator based on look-up Tables for control
of high frequency dc-dc converters”,
Figure 12 Dynamic response of a BFOA-PID
Proceedings in IEEE workshop on Computing
controller and Power Electronics, June 2002, pp. 18 – 22.
3) Y. Duan, H. Jin, “ Digital Controller Design
for Switch mode power converters”,
Proceedings in 14th Annual Power Electronics
Conference Exposition, Dallas, Tx, March
1999, pp. 14-18, Vol. 2, pp. 967-973.
4) R. P. Severns, G. E. Bloom, “ Modern dc-dc
switch mode power converter circuits”, New
York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.
5) Liping Guo, John Y. Hung, R. M. Nelms,
“Evaluation of DSP based PID and Fuzzy
Controllers for DC-DC Converters”, IEEE
transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56,
No. 6, June 2009, pp. 2237-2248.
Figure 13 Output response of a BFOA-PID 6) Karl J. Astrom, Tore Hagglund, “PID
Controllers”, second edition, Instrument
controller for a load change from 6Ω to 25 Ω
Society of India, 1995, pp.164,
7) Passino K.M. “Biomimicry of Bacterial
Figure (13) shows how the BFOA-PID Foraging for Distributed Optimization and
controller operates, when the load change from 6Ω Control,” IEEE Control Systems Magazine,
to 25 Ω is being suddenly applied at 15μs. The Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 52-67, June 2002.
performance of the converter under that condition 8) Liu Yanfei, Passino K.M., “Biomimicry of
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shortly which shows its robustness to load Optimization: Models, Principles, and
Emergent Behaviors,” Journal of Optimization
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603-628, Dec. 2002.
2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies – India

9) Passino, K.M., "Bacterial Foraging 12) S. A. Emami, M. Bayati Poudeh, S.


Optimization," Int. J. Swarm Intelligence Eshtehardiha, “Particle Swarm Optimization
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