J
G. Glan Devadhas Dr.S.Pushpakumar Dr.R.Rani Hemamalini
3
I Asst professor, EIE department 2 Principal, Heera College of Professor,EIE Department
Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Engineering& Technology St. Peters University
Kumaracoil Nedumancadu, Trivandrum Avadi, Chennai
glandeva@gmail.com spushpakumar@gmail.com ranihema@yahoo.com
constant 1010
11min
E/R Activation 1 x 104 K
energy
III. FUZZY TUNED SLIDING MODE PID function plot obtained by this method is shown in
CONTROLLER Fig 4(c).The performance of the algorithm in
obtaining the optimal values of Fuzzy controller
Fuzzy Kp,Ki Tuning
r.... parameters[15],[17] has been analyzed in CSTR
process through computer simulation
Membership 1unction plots plot points: �
NM NS PM
PI Sliding Mode
Controller
have
It is difficult to design a sliding mode PID
controller for nonlinear system. Up to now, there
been quite a lot of
combination of sliding mode control with fuzzy
researches on the
J)�
_ 1 _ 08
. _ 06
_ _ 04
. _ 02. 0
output v.,';",ble "cont,.ol�i�n"I"
1
logic control techniques for improving the Fig. 4(b). Output membership function plot
robustness and performance of nonlinear systems
with uncertainty [36]. The purposed fuzzy control
is called Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC) as
it is based on the principle of SMC [12],[21].
The tuning of PI controller is often used as a
benchmark for all kinds of controllers. It is a
nonlinear, unstable system which makes it challenge
to control. The FSMC for tuning [14] a CSTR
process is shown in Fig.5. Figure 4(c). Surface function plot.
The root of the problem is that the
conventional PI controller cannot adapt to the
dynamics of the process. So we need some algorithm
to adjust PI controller [11] according to the dynamics
of the process. The proportional and integral gain
values are 8 and 0.5 respectively obtained by proper
Fuzzy Logic tuning. Seven membership functions are
chosen for tuning the controller.
In CSTR process the dynamic of the
process is nonlinear. Also we need algorithm that
can adapt with nonlinear behavior. Sliding fuzzy
Tine(sec)
logic matches to solve these problems and provide
best results. The fuzzy sliding mode control is used
to eliminate the chattering [21] in the process
completely and to obtain a better output with no Figure 5.Response of Fuzzy Sliding mode
overshoot. controller
The fuzzy rules are designed using seven
membership functions. In order to extract the best Response of CSTR process using both Fuzzy Logic
crisp value for defuzzification, Mean of Maximum Control and Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control are shown
method is used. in fig.5.
In this approach, the development of rule
base and the formation of the membership function
are evolved simultaneously. The input and output
membership functions chosen for tuning are shown
in Fig 4(a) and Fig 4(b) respectively. The surface
IV.INTELLIGENT GAINSCHEDULED
CONTROLLER
Table:2 Operating regions of CSTR
Gainscheduling is a common engineering
practice used to control nonlinear plants in a variety Operating
Qo Cao {)O
of engineering applications. In [2] the traditional gain region
scheduled process control is reviewed. A typical Region I 98.899 0.0 8 52 442
gainscheduled design procedure for nonlinear plants Region II 88.291 .0 581 450
is as follows: Region
68.878 .0 29 4 465
1. The designer selects several operating points III
which span the range of operation of the process. Region
2. At each of these operating points, the designer 50.438 0.01463 481
IV
constructs a linear timeinvariant approximation of Region V 24.433 0.0 0 453 5lO
the plant and designs a linear compensator for the
linearized plant model.
3. In between operating points, the parameters or
gains of the compensators are then interpolated, or
scheduled, thus resulting in a global compensator
applicable to the whole window of operation.
Since the local designs are based on linear
timeinvariant approximations to the plant [16], the
designer may be able to guarantee that at each
operating point, the feedback system has the needed
feedback properties, such as stability and
"iM'I�1 Linear Controller
performance of the local linear model. However,
since the actual system is nonlinear, as shown in fig
6,the overall gainscheduled system may not satisfy
the stability and performance margins for the actual
nonlinear process. In other words, one typically
cannot assess a priori the guaranteed stability and
performance properties of this traditional gain Figure:7 Fuzzy gain schedule controller
scheduled design
� ���. Fuzzy logic based gain scheduling
50
� I  Ti m e Gons.tant:
  DeBd !.na I strategy with in the gain scheduling mechanism.
�   Specifically instead of simple linear interpolation,
10 � one utilizes a set of ifthen rules to characterize the
'"
o ��
�   operating points of the system and to associate a set
! 10
of controller parameters with those points. This
20
strategy in effect provides a linguistically meaningful
basis for interpreting the notion of an operating point.
�020� ����
=���
=����=
���
Signal to VaJY13 (%CO ) In this connection we should point out that the
concept of TakagiSugeno(T.S) [15],[17] fuzzy
Figure.6:Nonlinear behavior of CSTR with respect to control in effect amounts to a form of gain scheduling
steady state control. Fig 8.shows the membership function of
The entire region of nonlinear CSTR is splitted fuzzy gain schedule controller. Specifically in this
into different operating regions are tabulated in approach a piecewise model of the plant is formed
table2. via a combination of ifthen rules and linearized plant
models and subsequently used to devise a gain
scheduling control strategy that may take the form
100
�
."".

150


PI)
Fuzzy
0'
200
t[min]
V. ROBUSTNESS ANALYSIS
Figure:9. Membership function of operating regions Certain plants have parameters that vary with
operating conditions in certain critical applications
Table 2 shows the operating regions with operating like CSTR process. Implementation of robust
points for the states and the input. The operating controller [9] challenges variations in the process
points are found for each linear region. The parameters are random and characteristics of the
membership function of each region is shown in process may not be fully known. The parameter
Fig.9, where, 'a' is switched point between the variation of the process having assumed to be a noise
adjacent regimes. The value of 'a' influences the and the robust controller is designed to remove the
control performance on chattering and nonerror. In variations due to this noise. Fig 12 shows the noise
general, it depends on the e xperience of designer or modeled as a result of the parameter variations of
trial and error. CSTR. The band limited white noise modeled as a
measure of parameter variations. Apart to noise
drifts, band limited white noise is a symbolic of
probable noise interference also. This noise is
injected in to the system as disturbance and the
robustness of the controller has been analyzed. Fig
I3&FigI4 shows the response of Fuzzy tuned sliding
mode PID controller and Intelligent Gain Scheduled
controller for these disturbances. The Fuzzy tuned
sliding mode controller is more affected by noise and
is suffered by chattering compared with the proposed
Intelligent Gain Schedule Controller. Both controllers
are upgraded by a LQG (Linear Quadratic Gaussian)
controller implemented through LMS filter in the
feedback path and the spectral analysis is shown in
Figure:. 10 Closed loop response of CSTR for FGS Fig.I5 and FigI6.1t also shows that the noise is
controller suppressed in Intelligent Gain Schedule controller
suddenly compared to that of slidingPID controller.
p xp p e ct ra ' De n Y
 si t �
10_1 ".�
 � XX � o w e r s 
� � �� � ��
     
10' 5c ;:;
;" ;;";c
;  ;;";:;c':;:c'o;c"';; ='== =":: ='::'
o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Frequency
1.5
0 .5
' � � � � � � � � �
0.5 O 50  OO' 50  2OO 250300 350 400 4 50
500
l
I
·8
10 r r
easy to be examined from the response shown in Fig [18] Lee, C. C.,1990 "Fuzzy Logic In Control Systems: Fuzzy
Logic ControllerPart I," IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern.,20,
16. In order to show the ease of use and performance
pp. 404418.
of the proposed method, it has been used to control [19] Lee, C. C.,1990 "Fuzzy logic in control systems: Fuzzy
the nonisothermal reactor at its optimum operating logic controller Part I," IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., 20,
conditions. Simulation results show that despite its pp. 419 435.
[20] Tsukamoto, Y., 1979, "An Approach To Fuzzy Reasoning
ease of use, the designed FGS controller performs
Method," Gupta, M. M., Ragade, R. K., and Yager, R.,Eds.,
quite well in both setpoint tracking and load Advances in Fuzzy Set Theory and Applications, Amsterdam:
rejection problems. NorthHolland, pp. 137149.
[21] Habibi, S.R., and Richards, R. J., 1992, "Sliding Mode
Control Of An Electrically Powered Industrial Robot," IEE
Proc. Pt. D., pp. 207225.
REFERENCES