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ISSN 1546-9239

© 2011 Science Publications

Techniques for a Chemical System

1

G. Glandevadhas, 2S. Pushpakumar and 3S.V. Muruga Prasad

1

Department of EIE, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Kumaracoil

&Research Scholar,PRIST University, Thanjavur

2

Principal Heera College of Engineering and Technology, Nedumangadu, Kerala

3

Department of ECE, Trivancore Engineering College, Kerala

Abstract: Problem statement: The aim of this study is to present an intelligent tuning technique for

PID controller that are simple and still result in good closed loop behavior. The idea is to start with a

tuned conventional PID controller, replace it with an equivalent intelligent controllers like Fuzzy,

ANN, Genetic and PSO techniques implies fine tuned nonlinear PID controller which is most suitable

for nonlinear process like Continuous stirred tank reactor. The performance of various optimization

techniques and intelligent techniques are compared. Approach: In this study we present soft

computing techniques to design and tune the PID controller. The objective is tominimise the steady

state error and to obtain the optimum response. Results: The comparisons amoung the Conventional

PID, Fuzzy Sliding PID, Simulated Anneling PID and PSO tuned PID controllers PSO PID implies

better result for the nonlinear chemical process. Conclusion: With the nonlinear model of CSTR

process the PSO tuned PID controller implies the optimum response for both setpoint and load

variations.

Key words: Sliding mode control, Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR), Particle Swarm

Optimization (PSO), chemical reactors, Single Input Single Output (SISO), PID controller

Mode Control, provides an alternative to design a

Chemical reactors are ones of the most important robust controller (Morari and Zafiriou, 1989) for

plants in chemical industry. Their operation, however, nonlinear systems with uncertainty (Devadhas and

is corrupted with various uncertainties. Some of them Pushpakumar, 2010b; Stephanopoulos and Han, 1996).

arise from varying or not exactly known parameters, as Hence in this study, both sufficient and necessary

e.g. reaction rate constants, heat transfer coefficients. In reaching conditions of fuzzy sliding mode PID

other cases, operating points of reactors vary or reactor controller is in CSTR process

dynamics is affected by various changes of parameters Most of optimization problems such as Tabu

or even instability of closed loop control systems. search, simulated annealing and recently-introduced

Application of robust control approach can be one of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are considered as

ways overcoming all these problems. The main realistic and powerful solution to obtain optimization

difficulty in tuning of control is due to the disturbances problems. Simulated annealing (Chen and Peng, 1999)

and parameter uncertainties. The fuzzy modeling or is a generic met heuristic probabilistic for the global

fuzzy identification, first explored systematically by optimization problem. It is often used when the search

Takagi and Sugeno (1994), has found numerous space is discrete. For certain problems, simulated

practical applications in control, prediction and annealing may be more effective to find an acceptably

inference (Nahas et al., 1992; Glandevadhas and good solution in a fixed amount of time. Each step of

Pushpakumar, 2010a). The principle of sliding mode the SA algorithm replaces the current solution by a

control is introduced into classical model free fuzzy random nearby solution, chosen with a probability that

logic control which provides proper guidance to design depends on the difference between the corresponding

a fuzzy controller for system stability. The combination function values and on a global parameter T (called the

Corresponding Author: G. Glandevadhas, Department of EIE, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Kumaracoil

and Research scholar PRIST University, Thanjavur,

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Am. J. Applied Sci., 8 (11): 1140-1148, 2011

temperature), that is gradually decreased during the The fluid inside the reactor is perfectly mixed and sent

process (Chen and Peng, 2006). Recently, Eberhart and out through the exit valve. The jacket surrounding the

Kennedy (1995) suggested a Particle Swarm reactor also has feed and exit streams. The jacket is

Optimization (PSO) based on the analogy of swarm of assumed to be perfectly mixed and at a lower

bird and school of fish. The PSO mimics the behavior temperature than the reactor.

of individuals in a swarm to maximize the survival of

the species. The algorithm, which is based on a Parameters used:

metaphor of social interaction, searches a space by

adjusting the trajectories of moving points in a V = 5m3

multidimensional space. The individual particles are CA = 200.13kg m−3

drawn stochastically towards the position of present CAin = 800kg m−3

velocity, their own previous best performance and the F = 0.005m3 sec−1

best previous performance of their neighbors (Clerc and K = 18.75sec−1

Kennedy, 2002). The main advantages of the PSO E = 30kJ mol−1

algorithm are summarized as: simple concept, easy T = 413K

implementation, robustness to control parameters and Tin = 353K

computational efficiency when compared with P = 800kg m−3

mathematical algorithm and other heuristic Cp = 1.0kJ kg−1k

optimization techniques. ∆H = 5.3kJ kg−1

The main contribution of this study is to find the Q = 224.1kJ sec−1

nonlinear model of the chemical process and the soft R = 0.00831kJ mol−1 K

computing techniques like PSO and SA methodologies

has been employed to control the nonlinear process. Mathematical modeling: The component balance

Finaly a fuzzy sliding mode PI controller have been (Seborg, 1994) for the reactor can be given as:

proposed to control the process

Process description: Chemical reactions in a reactor VdcA / dt = F ( cAin − cA ) − Vke(−E / RT)cA (1)

(Stephanopoulos and Han, 1996) are either exothermic

(release energy) or endothermic (require energy input) The energy balance by:

and therefore require that energy either be

removed or added to the reactor for a constant

temperature to be maintained. PVcpdT / dt = FPcp(Tin − T) + Vke(− E / RT)cA∆H + Q (2)

Figure 1 shows the schematic of the CSTR Eq.1 and 2 can be rewritten as

process. In the CSTR process model under discussion, VdcA / dt = FcAin − FcA − Vke(− E / RT)cA

(3)

an irreversible exothermic reaction takes place. The VdcA / dt = f1(F,cAin) − f 2(F,cA) − f 3(cA,T)

heat of the reaction is removed by a coolant medium

that flows through a jacket around the reactor. A fluid Now be used in the general model differential

stream A is fed to the reactor. A catalyst is placed equation as:

inside the reactor.

dx / dt = f (x) = f (x0) + (df / dx)δx (4)

(∂f1 / ∂cAin)δcAin − (∂f 2 / ∂F)δF −

(∂f 2 / ∂cA)δcA − (∂f 3 / ∂cA)δcA − (∂f 3 / ∂T)δT

Vke(− E / RT)δcA − Vke(− E / RT0)cA0(E / RTO2)δT (5)

Fig1: CSTR process = Vke − (E / RTo)CAo ( E / RTo ^ 2 ) δT

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Am. J. Applied Sci., 8 (11): 1140-1148, 2011

Laplace operator results in: −(E / RTo)CAo∆H(E / RTo ^ 2))

K4 = PCp(Tino − To)

δCA = (K1δF / (τcs + 1)) + (K2δCAin /(FoPCp − (Vke − (E / RTo)CAo∆H(E / RTo ^ 2)) (11)

/(τcs + 1)) − (K3δT / (τcs + 1)) (6) K5 = FoPCp − (Vke − (E / RTo)CAo∆H(E / RTo ^ 2))

K6 = (Vke − (E / RTo)∆H)

With: /(FoPCp − Vke − (E / RTo)CAo∆H(E / RTo ^ 2))

τc = V / (Fo + Vke − (E / RTo))

constant and process gains of Eq. 11.

K1 = ((CAino − CAo) / (Fo + Vke − (E / RTo))) Results in:

K2 = Fo / (Fo + Vke − (E / RTo))

K3 = (Vke − (E / RTo)CAo(E / RTo ^ 2)) τT = 1091.8s, K4 = −1.31*10 ^ 4,K5 = 1.09,K6 = 0.022 (12)

/(Fo + Vke − (E / RTo)))

The response of the change in reactor outlet

concentration CA to a change in reactor throughput F

After substitution of the steady state values gains can now be obtained by combining Eqs. 6 and 10 while

of Eq. 3 and 6 we get into the time constant and setting changes in CAin and Tin to zero:

process:

δCA = (K1δF / (τcs + 1)) − (K3 / ( τcs + 1))

(13)

τc = 250s,K1 = 3*10 ^ 4, K2 = 0.25,K3 = 3.174 (7) [(K4 / (τTs + 1)) + (K6δCA / (τTs + 1))]

This equation can be rearranged to:

The second equation (energy balance) of the

reactor model can be rewritten as: δCA / δF = ((K1 − K3K4) / (1 + K3K6)) *

[(K1τT / (K1 − K3K4))s + 1]

PVCpdT / dt = FPCp(Tin − T) − Vke − (E / RTCA∆H (14)

/[(τcτT / (1 + K3K6))s ^ 2 +

+Q)

[(τc + τT) / (1 + K3K6))s + 1]

= FPCpTin − FpCpT − Vke − (E / RTCA∆H + Q)

= f1(F,Tin) − f 2(F,T) − f 3(CA,T) + f 4 * (Q) Then, the response of the change in reactor outlet

temperature T to a change in reactor throughput F can

Using Eq. 3 and 4 can be written as: now be obtained by combining Eq. 6 and 10 while

setting changes in CAin and Tin to zero:

PVCpd(δT) / dt = ( δf1 / δF ) δF + ( δf1 / δTin )

δT = (K4δF / (τTs + 1)) + (K6 / (τTs + 1))

δTin − ( δf 2 / δF ) δF − ( δf 2 / δT ) δF − (8) (15)

[(K1δF / ( τcs + 1)) − (K3δT / (τcs + 1))]

( δf 3 / δT ) δCA − ( δf 3 / δT ) δT + δQ

This Eq. (15) can be rearranged to Eq. 16:

This (8) can be rewritten as:

δT / δF = ((K4 + K6K1) / (1 + K6K3)) *

VPCpd(δT) / dt = PCp(Tin − T)δF + FPCpδTin {(K4τc / (K4 + k6K1))s + 1}

(16)

−FPCpδT + Vke − (E / RT)∆HδCA + VkE _(E / RT) (9) /{(τTτc?(1 + K3K6))s ^ 2 +

CA∆H [ E / RTo ^ 2] δT + δQ ((τT + τc) / (1 + K3K6))s + 1}

Rearranging terms in Eq.9 and introducing the After substituting values for the time constants and

Laplace transform operator results in: gains in Eq. 7-13 and 14, can be written as:

(10) δCA / δF =

(K6δCA / (τTs + 1)) /(s ^ 2 + 0.0049s + 3.921e − 6)

(−20.86s − 0.0456)

δT / δF =

With: /(s ^ 2 + 0.0049s + 3.921e − 6)

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operations. This system can be used for virtually any

process condition. The equations of proportional mode,

integral mode and derivative mode are combined to have

analytic expression for PID mode:

mode and still provides fast response. The three

adjustment parameter here is proportional gain, integral

time and derivative time.The transfer function of PID

controller is in Eq.17. PID controller is the most

complex of the conventional control mode combination.

The PID controller can result in better control than

Fig. 2: Nonlinear model of CSTR (Clerc and Kennedy, 2002) the one or two controller. In

practice, control advantage can be difficult to achieve

because of the difficulty of selecting the proper tuning

parameters Fig. 3 shows the parallel form P+I+D

controller. The parameters of PID controller Kp, Ti, Td

are tuned by Z-N procedure from the linear model of

CSTR is as:

Fig. 3: Block diagram of PID controller

Figure 4 shows the closed loop response of CSTR

for PID controller employed for the step change in

coolant flow which causes the corresponding change in

the temperature response. This response indicates the

draw backs of PID in the transient portions shows poor

response with overshoot and rise time

Simulated Annealing (SA) is motivated by an analogy

to annealing in solids. Numerous researchers have

demonstrated that SA is very effective in many

optimization problems. However, the long execution

time of SA has been the major drawback in practice.

Fig. 4: Response of PID controller for CSTR The algorithm Metropolis et al. (1953) simulated the

cooling of material in a heat bath. This process is known

The above two Equations are the transfer function

as annealing. Metropolis’s algorithm simulated the

of concentration and temperature of the CSTR models

material as a system of particles. The algorithm simulates

Fig. 2 shows the nonlinear model of CSTR which is

the cooling process by gradually lowering the

used in this study as a nonlinear MIMO model

temperature of the system until it converges to a steady

incorporates the energy and mass balance equation of

frozen state. Moita et al. (2006) the idea of the

the non isothermal chemical reactor.

Metropolis algorithm is applied to optimisation

PID controller: The PID controller (Astrom and problems. This idea is used in simulated annealing to

Hagglund, 2001; Shinskey, 1996) is also called as three search for feasible solutions and converge to an optimal

mode controller. In industrial practice, it is commonly solution. This study gives a strategy based on simulated

known as proportional-plus-reset-plus-rate controller. annealing for the optimal tuning of a PI controller to deal

The combination of proportional, integral and derivative with time-varying delay for a pH process. The main goal

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Am. J. Applied Sci., 8 (11): 1140-1148, 2011

is to minimize the delay time, peak time, settling time, Gbestik = Best position of the group until

rise time and peak overshoot. The proposed strategy is iteration

compared with other classic tuning algorithms. The

simulation is carried out in MATLAB and the simulation Each individual moves from the current position to

results are explained. the next one by the modified velocity in (18) Eq. 19:

Xik+1 = Xik + Vik (19)

The search mechanism of the PSO using the

modified velocity and position of individual based on

(18) and (19) is illustrated in Fig. 5.

The process of the PSO algorithm can be

summarized as follows:

satisfying constraints

• Step: Velocity and Position updates while

satisfying constraints

• Step: Update of Pbest and Gbest

Fig. 5: The search mechanism of the particle swarm • Step: Go to Step 2 until stopping criteria is satisfied

optimization

In the subsequent sections, the detailed

PSO tuning for PI controller in chemical process: implementation strategies of the PSO are described.

Kennedy and Eberhart (1995) developed PSO algorithm

based on the behavior of individuals (i.e., particles or Initialization: In the initialization process, a set of

agents) of a swarm. It has been noticed that members individuals is created at random. In this study, the

within a group seem to share information among them, structure of tuning PI controller for a pH process is

a fact that leads to increased efficiency of the group composed of a set of elements (i.e., generation

(Ciuprina et al., 2002). The PSO algorithm searches in outputs). Therefore, individual i’s position at iteration

parallel using a group of individuals similar to other 0 can be represented as the vector (Xi0 =

AI-based heuristic optimization techniques (Kennedy (Pi10…….Pin0)) where n is the number of generators.

et al., 2001). An individual in a swarm approaches to The velocity of individual i (Vi0 = (vi10…….vin0))

the optimum or a quasi optimum through its present corresponds to the generation update quantity

velocity, previous experience and the experience of its covering all generators. The elements of position and

neighbors. velocity have the same dimension. The following

In a physical n-dimensional search space, the strategy (20) is used in creating the initial velocity Eq.

position and velocity of i-individual are represented as 20:

the vectors Xi = (xi1…….xin) and Vi = (vi1…….vin),

respectively, in the PSO algorithm. Pbesti = (Pjmin – Σ) – Pij0 < vij0 < (Pjmax + Σ) – Pij0 (20)

(xi1pbest…….xinpbest) and Gbest = (xi1Gbest…….xinGbest)

respectively, be the best position of individual and its where, Σ is a small positive real number. The velocity

neighbors’ best position so far. Using the information, of element j of individual i is generated at random

the updated velocity of individual is modified under within the boundary. The developed initialization

the following equation in the PSO algorithm Eq. 18: scheme always guarantees to produce individuals

satisfying the constraints while maintaining the concept

Vi k+1 = WVik + C1rand1 x (Pbestik - Xik) of PSO algorithm. The initial Pbesti of individual i is set

+ C2rand2x (Gbestik - Xik) (18) as the initial position of individual i and the initial

Gbest is determined as the position of an individual

Where: with minimum payoff.

W = Weight parameter individual, it is necessary to calculate the velocity of

C1,C2 = Weight factors each individual in the next stage, which is obtained

rand1, rand2 = Random numbers between 0 and 1 from (18). In this velocity updating process (21) Eq. 21:

X ik = Position of individual at iteration

w − w min

Pbestik = Best position of individual until w = w max − max xIter (21)

iteration Itermax

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chattering. Unlike mechanical systems, whose states are

Wmin,Wmax = Initial, final weights usually ubiquitous, recognizing all states of a chemical

Itermax = Maximum iteration number process is sometimes impossible and measuring the

Iter = Current iteration number known ones is often too expensive. It seems that

Position update: The position of each individual is integrating this control algorithm and any intelligent

modified by (18). The resulting position of an control method (as a special case for a model-

individual is not always guaranteed to satisfy the independent control method) can result in a method that

inequality constraints due to over/under velocity. If any does not suffer from the afore mentioned disadvantages.

element of an individual violates its inequality One of the approaches to achieve this goal combines

constraint due to over/under speed then the position of SMC with Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) to develop an

the individual is fixed to its maximum/minimum alternative named Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control

operating point. Therefore, this can be formulated (22) (FSMC), (Chen, C.L. and M.H. Chang, 1998)which is

as follows Eq. 22: more efficient because of the following advantages.

It is independent of the mathematical model of the

Pij max {Pijk + v ijk +1 if Pijmin ≤ Pijk + Vijk +1 ≤ system, due to the qualitative reasoning provided by

Pijk +1 = Pij min if Pijk + Vijk +1 ≤ Pij max (22) fuzzy logic. Utilizing the sliding mode concepts, one

Pij max if P + V

k k +1

≥ Pij max

can easily create the fuzzy rule-base, which guarantees

ij ij

the stability and robustness of the closed-loop system.

Update of Pbest and Gbest: The Pbest of each The standard nonlinear benchmarks used by the

individual at iteration is updated in (23) as follows Eq. process control research community have been used to

23: study the performance of the proposed method for both

Single Input Single Output (SISO) and MIMO

Pbest ik +1 = Xik +1 if TCik +1 < TCik nonlinear processes. The SISO benchmark consists of

(23)

Pbest ik +1 = Pbest ik if TCik +1 < TCik concentration control in the isothermal Continuous

Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) in which a van de Vusse

where, TCi the object function evaluated at the position reaction with non-minimum phase behavior takes place.

of individual i. Additionally, Gbest at iteration k+1 is This problem has been used by various researchers

set as the best evaluated position among Pbestik+1. including (Mudi et al., 2008; Chang, et al, 2002; Hahn

Stopping criteria: The PSO is terminated if the iteration and Edgar, 2001; Edward and Spurgeon, 1998) to

approaches to the predefined maximum iteration. evaluate the performance of nonlinear control methods.

Thus the tuning of PSO algorithm for obtaining the The benchmark used to address MIMO systems is the

optimal design of a CSTR process has been carried out concentration and temperature control of a non-

using the above mentioned five steps. The key isothermal van de Vusse reactor which has also been

advantage of PSO is its computational efficiency and used to assess performance of nonlinear control

less parameter required to be adjusted in order to get the methods (Guay et al., 2005).

optimum result compared to related techniques. The The main disadvantage of the SMC method is its

proposed approach utilizes the global exploration dependence on system model. On the other hand, even

capabilities of PSO to search for the optimal solution. if the system model is known, in order to implement

The simulation results obtained by this method are SMC and have all the states be stabilized and

described . controlled(Li and Shieh, 2000). However, these

Sliding mode control: Sliding Mode Control (SMC) is conditions are not met for most chemical processes. In

a type of robust control design that plays an important order to overcome this problem, one can use the

role in the class of Variable Structure Control Systems concept of SMC and FLC. This approach has been

(VSCS).A control strategy can stabilize by driving their used in various engineering applications.

states into a predefined sliding manifold. Once the

sliding surface has been reached, the system response is MATERIALS AND METHODS

insensitive to parameter uncertainties and disturbances. To tune the PID controller for a CSTR process we have

There are multiple incentives to improve this method, adopted different soft computing techniques like

which suffers from a few shortcomings. One is the state Fuzzy,SA,PSO and sliding mode adaptive

dependency and another is the discontinuous nature of techniques.MATLAB SIMULINK is used for

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simulation and FUZZY GUI is also utlised. The Seven triangular membership functions are chosen

linearisation is carried out using Taylor’s Series in the to obtain proper tuning. The input functions for error

relevant areas.ISE and SSE are the performance indices and change in error for proportional gain (Kp) are

used for optimisation. shown in Fig. 7. Their corresponding output

membership function is shown in Fig. 8 .The

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION performance of the algorithm has been analyzed

through computer simulation.

Fuzzy sliding mode control simulation: The tuning of The development of FSMC makes the process

a CSTR process is carried out by FSMC. The block more efficient by completely eliminating the overshoot.

diagram of Fuzzy sliding mode controller is shown in For the disturbance and setpoint changes shown in Fig.

Fig.6.Here sliding mode control for obtaining the 9. The output response using sliding mode fuzzy logic

optimal tuning of the CSTR process is simulated. It is PI control is shown in Fig. 10. The simulation results

found that the development of sliding mode fuzzy logic are given in Table 1. It is seen from the table that that

makes the tuning of controller for CSTR process is FSMC tuned PI controller gives the better performance

efficient. The fuzzy sliding mode control is used to than conventional PI controller. The peak overshoot and

eliminate the chattering problem (Fink, A. and T. chattering are completely eliminated by this method.

Singh, 1998)and more suitable for the tuning of this

non-linear process.

Fig.10: Response of CSTR process using fuzzy sliding

mode PID control

Fig. 8: Output membership function of PI controller

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Here SA-based PI parameter tuning for obtaining Using SA tuning the controller parameters obtained

the optimal design of the CSTR process is simulated. after simulation are Kp= 1.1542 and Ki= 2.4627.

The block diagram of SA tuning of PI controller is

shown in Fig. 11. The performance of the algorithm has PSO tuning: The block diagram of PSO tuning PI

been analyzed in CSTR process through computer controller is shown in Fig.13. Here PSO-based PI

simulation. Optimal PI settings are computed by means parameter tuning for obtaining the optimal design of the

of optimization based on the algorithm. Response of CSTR process is simulated. The performance of the

Simulated Annealing tuned PI Control for the process algorithm has been analyzed in CSTR process through

in shown in Fig. 12. It is seen that SA tuned PI computer simulation. The results are obtained with the

controller is better than FLC tuned controller in various following control parameters:

aspects like delay time, peak time, settling time, rise

time and peak overshoot. The results are obtained with Number of populations = 50

the following control parameters: Number of variables = 2

Number of iterations = 10

Number of iterations = 1000 Initial weight Wmin = 0.5

Best fitness value = 751.15 Final weight Wmax = 1.0

Weight factors C1, C2 = 1.0

Using PSO tuning the controller parameters

obtained after simulation are Kp= 1.1430 and Ki=

1.1465. Response of PSO tuned PI Control for CSTR

process in shown in Fig. 14.

CONCLUSION

We have described the tuning of controller using

soft computing techniques FSMC, PSO and SA. We

have developed the FSMC based PI controller. The

chattering phenomena is eliminated by the induced

intelligence. Results show that the performance

Fig. 12: Response of simulated annealing tuned PI obtained by this method is better and hence the

control for pH process overshoot is completely eliminated. Again this study

presents another two methods tuning methods like SA

and PSO, which has been tested through extensive

simulation. Computer simulation was done in

MATLAB. Results show that the performance factor

peak overshoot is completely eliminated in FSMC and

settling time is more than other methods. Further the

PSO method gives better improvement in settling time

with small percentage of overshoot. The SA method is

Fig. 13: Block diagram of PSO tuning of PI controller inferior to PSO method. The obtained results are

compared and tabulated in Table 1.

The investigation in this study reveals that PSO-

based tuning method is better in steady state portion

and however the fuzzy tuned sliding mode PI controller

implies better transient response and it,s robust nature

than other methods compared here is identified as

suitable controller for CSTR

Tuning Delay time Rise time Peak time Settling time Peak

methods (sec) (sec) (sec) (sec) overshoot (%)

PID 5.00 10.00 20.0 15.0 10.00

FSMC 0.50 1.00 1.1 2.2 0.00

Fig. 14: Response of PSO tuned PI Control for CSTR SA 0.90 1.75 2.5 2.1 7.90

process PSO 0.75 1.50 2.0 2.2 4.29

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