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:1 June:2011

DESIGN FOR A CHEMICAL PROCESS

G.Glandevadhas,S.Pushpakumar

Abstract—In the chemical or biochemical design of a robust PID and IMC for the CSTR.

industry most processes are modeled by The reactor has three uncertain parameters: the

nonlinear equations. It is of a great significance reaction enthalpy, the reaction rate constant and

to design high-performance nonlinear the overall heat transfer coefficient. The control

controllers for efficient control of these input is volumetric flow rate of the coolant and

nonlinear processes to achieve closed-loop the controlled output is the temperature of the

system’s stability and high performance. reacting mixture.

However, there are many difficulties which

hinder the design of such controllers due PID controller and linear model predictive

mainly to the process nonlinearity. In this controller are the two most popular control

work, comprehensive design procedures based schemes that have been widely implemented

on robust control have been proposed to throughout the chemical process industries for the

efficiently deal with the design of controllers past two decades. However, control of nonlinear

for nonlinear systems. Since all the design system using above linear control schemes

procedures proposed in this work rely strongly doesn’t give satisfactory performance at all

on the process model, the first difficulty operating points. The introduction of powerful

addressed in this work is the identification of a nonlinear control schemes[7,10] and neural

relatively simple model of the nonlinear adaptive control, the proposed control strategy,

processes under study. The nonlinearity of the because it offers advantages such as simple design

processes makes it often difficult to obtain a and low computational complexity. The main

first-principles model which can be used for contributions of this paper are as follows; firstly,

analysis and design of the controller the nonlinear system is represented as a family of

local linear models. Secondly, local PID

I. INTRODUCTION controllers has been used to control the nonlinear

process, and finally a nonlinear model predictive

Chemical reactors are one of the most control[1,2] scheme using the family of local

important plants in chemical industry. Their linear models has been proposed to control

operation, however, is corrupted with various nonlinear process.

uncertainties. Some of them arise from varying or

not exactly known parameters, as e.g. reaction

rate constants, heat transfer coefficients. In other II. PROCESS DESCRIPTION

cases, operating points of reactors vary or reactor Chemical reactions in a reactor [9] are either

dynamics is affected by various changes of exothermic (release energy) or endothermic

parameters or even instability of closed loop (require energy input) and therefore require that

control systems. Application of robust energy either be removed or added to the reactor

control approach can be one of ways overcoming for a constant temperature to be maintained.

all these problems. In this project, a simple

method for design of robust PID controllers[9]

63

Nice Journal of Emerging Technologies Vol.:6 No.:1 June:2011

process. In the CSTR process model under Q = 224.1kJ/sec

discussion, an irreversible exothermic reaction R = 0.00831kJ/mol K

takes place. The heat of the reaction is removed

by a coolant medium that flows through a jacket VdcA / dt FcAin FcA Vke( E / RT )cA

around the reactor. A fluid stream A is fed to the VdcA / dt f 1( F , cAin) f 2( F , cA) f 3(cA, T )

reactor. A catalyst is placed inside the reactor.

The fluid inside the reactor is perfectly mixed and (3)

sent out through the exit valve. The jacket Now be used in the general model differential

surrounding the reactor also has feed and exit equation as,

dx / dt f ( x) f ( x0) (df / dx) x

streams. The jacket is assumed to be perfectly

mixed and at a lower temperature than the reactor. (4)

Using eqn (3), eqn (4) can be linearized,

Vd ( cA) / dt ( f 1 / F ) F ( f 1 / cAin) cAin ( f 2 / F) F

( f 2 / cA) cA ( f 3 / cA) cA ( f 3 / T ) T

Vd ( cA) / dt cAin F F 0 cAin cA0 F F 0 cA

Vke( E / RT ) cA Vke( E / RT 0)cA0( E / RTO 2) T

Vke ( E / RTo)CAo E / RTo ^2 T

(5)

Rearranging terms and introducing the Laplace

operator results in:

(6)

MATHEMATICAL MODELLING With

The component balance for the reactor can be

given as, c V /( Fo Vke ( E / RTo ))

VdcA/ dt F cAin cA Vke( E / RT )cA K1 ((CAino CAo ) /( Fo Vke ( E / RTo )))

(1) K 2 Fo /( Fo Vke ( E / RTo ))

The energy balance by, K 3 (Vke ( E / RTo )CAo ( E / RTo ^ 2)) /( Fo Vke ( E / RTo )))

PVcpdT / dt FPcp(Tin T ) Vke( E / RT )cA H Q

(2) After substitution of the steady state values gains

of eqn.(3.6)we get into the time constant and

PARAMETERS USED process

V = 5m3

CA = 200.13kg/m3 c 250s, K1 3 *10^ 4, K 2 3.174 0.25, K 3

CAin = 800kg/m3 (7)

F = 0.005m3/s The second equation (energy balance) of the

K = 18.75s-1 reactor model can be rewritten as:

E = 30kJ/mol

T = 413K PVCpdT / dt FPCp (Tin T ) Vke ( E / RTCA H

Tin = 353K Q)

P = 800kg/m3 FPCpTin FpCpT Vke ( E / RTCA H Q)

Cp = 1.0kJ/kg k f 1( F , Tin ) f 2( F , T ) f 3(CA, T ) f 4 * (Q)

64

Nice Journal of Emerging Technologies Vol.:6 No.:1 June:2011

Using eqn. (3), eqn. (4) can be written as: Eqn. (10) while setting changes in CAin and Tin to

zero:

PVCpd ( T ) / dt f 1/ F F f 1/ Tin Tin f 2/ F F f 2/ T F T (K 4 F /( Ts 1)) (K 6 /( Ts 1))[(K1 F /( cs 1)) (K 3 T /( cs 1))]

f 3 / T CA f 3/ T T Q

(15)

(8) This equation can be rearranged to:

This can be rewritten as: T / F (( K 4 K 6 K1) /(1 K 6 K 3)) *

VPCpd ( T ) / dt PCp (Tin T ) F FPCp Tin

{( K 4 c /( K 4 k 6 K1)) s 1} /{( T c ?(1 K 3K 6)) s ^ 2

FPCp T Vke ( E / RT ) H CA VkE _(E / RT )

(( T c) /(1 K 3K 6)) s 1}

CA H E / RTo ^ 2 T Q

(16)

After substituting values for the time constants

(9) and gains, Eqn. (3.13) and Eqn.(3.14) can be

Rearranging terms and introducing the Laplace written as:

transform operator results in,

T ( K 4 F /( Ts 1)) ( K 5 Tin /( Ts 1)) CA / F (120 .02 s 0.262 ) /( s ^ 2 0.0049 s 3.921e 6) .

( K 6 CA /( Ts 1)) T / F ( 20.86 s 0.0456 ) /( s ^2 0.0049 s 3.921e 6) .

(10) The above two Equations are the transfer function

With of concentration and temperature of the CSTR

models.

T VPCp /( FoPCp Vke ( E / RTo)CAo H ( E / RTo ^ 2))

III. MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROLLER

K 4 PCp (Tino To) /( FoPCp (Vke ( E / RTo)CAo H ( E / RTo ^ 2))

K 5 FoPCp (Vke ( E / RTo)CAo H ( E / RTo ^ 2))

The basic idea of this controller is predict

K 6 (Vke ( E / RTo) H ) /( FoPCp Vke ( E / RTo)CAo H ( E / RTo ^ 2)) the output. An important property of a model is its

predictive power that is it gives as the possibility

to predict future values of interesting variables. A

(11) natural use of a model for control design is to

Substitution of the steady state values in the time calculate expected future values of the controller

constant and process gains of eqn. (11) variables as a function of possible control actions

Results in: with this knowledge; it is possible to choose a

control action which is the best one according to

T 1091 .8s, K 4 1.31 *10 ^ 4, K 5 1.09, K 6 0.022 some criterion. More formally we can proceed as

(12) follows.

The response of the change in reactor outlet At time t compute or predict a number of

concentration CA to a change in reactor future outputs y (t k / t ), k 1,............, M . They

throughput F can now be obtained by combining will in general depend on future inputs

Eqns. (6) and Eqn. (10) while setting changes in u (t j ), j 0,1,.............N .

CAin and Tin to zero:

1. Apply u (t ) to the physical plant. Wait for the

CA (K1 F /( cs 1)) (K 3 /( cs 1)) (K 4 /( Ts 1)) (K 6 CA /( Ts 1)) . next sampling instant t 1 and go to 1 .

(13) This is a very general and flexible method. It is of

This equation can be rearranged to: great value that it is easy to include in the

CA / F (( K1 K 3K 4) /(1 K 3K 6)) *

criterion realistic constraints on the magnitude

[( K1 T /( K1 K 3K 4)) s 1] /[( c T /(1 K 3K 6)) s ^ 2

and rate of change of the control variables. The

[( c T ) /(1 K 3K 6)) s 1] method is called Model Predictive Controller.

(14) MPC is a control strategy that uses an optimizer to

Then, the response of the change in reactor outlet solve for the control trajectory over a future time

temperature T to a change in reactor throughput F

can now be obtained by combining Eqn. (.6) and

65

Nice Journal of Emerging Technologies Vol.:6 No.:1 June:2011

horizon based on a dynamic model of the process. problem at each time step. The current values of

Predictive control based on linear models is the process states are used for calculating the

acceptable when the process operates at a single control action and the optimization process is

set point and the primary use of the controller is repeated at the next time horizon. A small time

the rejection of the disturbances. Linear MPC interval and a long prediction horizon are required

frequently results[6,7] in poor control to maintain closed-loop robustness. However, the

performances. In order to properly control these smaller the time interval is, the heavier the

plants, a nonlinear predictive control technology computational load. The model predictive control

is needed. MPC is an advanced method of generally formulates the optimization problem

process control that has been in use in the process over a finite prediction horizon to decrease the

industries such as chemical plants and oil computational load. In general, the nonlinear

refineries. It has a long history in the field of model-predictive control leads to a non-convex

control engineering. Three major aspects of model optimal control problem is a local optimum.

predictive controller are However, the model predictive control can

1. Design formulation. achieve a global optimum by using suboptimal

2. The ability of method to handle both soft model predictive control.

constraints and hard constraints in a The model predictive control has been

multivariable control system. used widely in the process industries because of

3. The ability to perform process online its many appealing features such as handling

optimization. multivariable systems with time delays. In

addition, the constraints on manipulated inputs,

states and output variables are explicitly handled

in the formulation of the optimization problem.

However, the closed-loop stability and feasibility

are major concerns in the model predictive

control. The local optimization[8] in a finite

horizon does not guarantee closed-loop stability.

Thus, the model predictive control formulates the

optimization problem with special constraints or

penalty terms based on a Lyapunov function to

Fig.2. Block diagram of MPC ensure the closed-loop stability. The stability is

guaranteed by imposing an equality or inequality

Model predictive control (MPC) refers to a wide constraint on the final state in the prediction

class of control algorithms that use an explicit horizon, adding a weight on the final state in the

process model to predict the behavior of a plant. objective function ,or using an infinite prediction

The most significant feature that distinguishes horizon with a finite control horizon. However,

MPC from other controllers is its long range the measurable process states, perfect process-

prediction concept. This concept enables MPC to model and high computational load to determine

perform current computations to account the the attraction domain boundaries of the linear

future dynamics, thus facilitating it to overcome controller are required.

the limitations of process dead time, non- Furthermore, a large number of tunable

minimum phase behavior and slow dynamics. In parameters are needed when the optimization

addition, MPC exhibits superior performance by problem of the terminal state constraint is

systematically handling constraints violation. complex. To avoid the high computational load,

Model Predictive Control is a discrete- the contractive constraint method introduces a

time[3] control in which control action is the stabilizing state constraint and requires the

solution to an open-loop constrained optimization

66

Nice Journal of Emerging Technologies Vol.:6 No.:1 June:2011

process states at the end f the prediction horizon consequence of its assumption about the basic

to be norm-contracted with respect to the process plant model. Although GPC is capable of

states at the beginning of the prediction horizon. controlling such systems, the control performance

The stability of the closed-loop system in the of GPC needs to be ascertained if the process

model predictive control can be tested by constraints are to be encountered in nonlinear

employing Lyapunov functions or a sequence of processes. Camacho (1993) proposed a

monotonic objective functions only when the constrained generalized predictive controller

prediction horizon is infinite or when a terminal (CGPC) for linear systems with constrained input

state constraint is applied. and output signals. By this strategy, the optimum

a)Principles of MPC: values of the future control signals are obtained

Fig 3 shows the block diagram of MPC. It by transforming the quadratic optimization

is a multi variable control algorithm that uses: problem into a linear complementarily problem.

1. An internal dynamic model of the Camacho demonstrated the results of the CGPC

process. strategy by carrying out a simulation study on a

2. A history of past control moves. linear system with pure delay. Clarke et al. (1987)

3. An optimization cost function J over the have applied the GPC to open-loop stable

receding prediction horizon. unconstrained linear systems. Camacho applied

the CGPC to constrained open-loop stable linear

The optimization cost function J is given by, system. However, most of the real processes are

nonlinear and some processes change behavior

(17) over a period of time. Exploring the application of

Where, GPC to nonlinear process control will be more

xi = ith controlled variable. interesting. In this study, a constrained

ri = ith reference variable. generalized predictive control (CGPC) strategy is

ui = ith manipulated variable. presented and applied for the control of highly

wxi = weighting coefficient reflecting the nonlinear and open-loop unstable processes with

relative importance of xi. multiple steady states. Model parameters are

wui = weighting coefficient penalizing big updated at each sampling time by an adaptive

changes in ui. mechanism.

Gain scheduling controller is an approach to

control of nonlinear systems that uses a family of

linear controllers, each of which provides

satisfactory control for a different operating point

of the system. One or more observable variables,

called the scheduling variables are used to

determine what operating region the system is

Fig.3.Block diagram of GPC control law currently in and enable the appropriate linear

controller. It is one of the simplest and most

The generalized predictive control (GPC) intuitive forms of adaptive control. It consists of a

is a general purpose multi-step predictive control family of controllers and scheduler selects the

algorithm (Clarke et al., 1987) for stable control controller depending on the operating region.

of processes with variable parameters, variable

dead time and a model order which changes

instantaneously. Fig3 shows the block diagram of

GPC, adopts an integrator as a natural

67

Nice Journal of Emerging Technologies Vol.:6 No.:1 June:2011

distinguished, which may be classified in different

ways. To start with gain scheduling methods can

be divided into methods decomposing non-linear

design problems into linear sub-problems[4] and

methods decomposing non-linear design problems

into simpler non-linear sub-problems of affine

sub-problems. Furthermore, gain scheduling

methods decompose into continuous gain-

scheduling methods and discrete, i.e, hybrid or

switched gain scheduling methods. Discrete or

hybrid in this sense involves the switching of a

system or controller between dynamical regimes.

Fig.5. Input concentration MPC

.

controller

The designer selects several operating Fig.6. Output concentration response of MPC

points[4,5] which span the range of operation of

the process. At each of these operating points, the

designer constructs a linear time invariant

approximation of the plant and designs a linear

compensator for the linearised plant model.

In between operating points, the parameters or

gains of the compensators are then interpolated, or

scheduled, thus resulting in a global compensator

applicable to the whole window of operation.

68

Nice Journal of Emerging Technologies Vol.:6 No.:1 June:2011

and temperature using Gain Schedule controller

Concentratio Temperature

n

Rise 0.0800 0.0800

Time

Settling 0.0980 0.0980

Time

Settling 2.2284℮-005 1.3010℮-004

Fig.8. Output temperature response of MPC Min

Settling 2.2609℮-005 1.2823℮-004

Table 4.1 Performance index for Gain Scheduling Max

Controller Oversho 3.7385℮005 3.7381℮005

ot

Undersh 0 0

Rise Time oot

Concentrati Temperat Peak 0.0833 0.4795

on ure

Peak 0 0

Settling Time 2.2367 0.0352 Time

Settling Min 45.8326 0.0625

Settling Max 0.6076 0.9005

Overshoot 1.6412 1.0000 VI .CONCLUSION

Undershoot 64.1230 0.0301 The nonlinear chemical process systems have now

Peak 0 0 been developed in various controlling techniques,

Peak Time 1.6412 1.0000 such as MIMO model of Gain Scheduling

5.9990 25.000 Controller and MIMO model of Model Predictive

Controller. A nonlinear gain scheduling controller

has the characteristic of a nonlinear controller

with time varying PID gains. While it is easy to

design for the linear or nonlinear time invariant

systems. The usefulness and effectiveness were

verified through the computer simulations for

CSTR systems. A robust output tracking and

disturbance rejection scheme for nonlinear

process by using a controlling techniques. The

Gain Scheduling Controller ,Internal Model

Controller and Model Predictive Controllers are

designed by using an simulation techniques. The

simulated responses are compared by using an

performance indexes and the better performing

controllers were mentioned. Then the compared

results a Model Predictive Controller is the highly

69

Nice Journal of Emerging Technologies Vol.:6 No.:1 June:2011

the nonlinear process. Also the MPC techniques 9.Shahin Salehi and Mohammad Shahrokhi,

are an advanced controlled devices compared with (2009) ‘ Adaptive fuzzy backstepping approach

the conventional controllers for temperature control of continuous stirred tank

REFERENCES reactors ‘, Fuzzy sets and systems vol. 160, pp.

1.Prakash J, and Srinivasan K, (2009) ‘Design of 1804 – 1818.

nonlinear PID controller and nonlinear model

predictive controller for a continuous stirred tank 10.Milan S, Matijevic, and Milic R. Stojie. (2006)

reactor ’, ISA Trans vol. 48, pp. 273 – 282. ‘The fuzzy controller design for processes

with dead times ’, Mechanic, Automatic

2.Prakash J, and Senthil R, (2008) ‘Design of control and Robotics vol. 17, pp.131 – 144.

observer based nonlinear model predictive

controller for a continuous stirred tank reactor ‘, ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Journal of process control vol. 18, pp. 504 – 514.

G.Glan Devadhas1 got his B.E.degree from

3.Garcia-Sandoval J.P, Gonzalez-Alvarez V. University of Madras and M.E.in Process Control

Castillo-Toledo B. and Pelayo Ortiz C, (2008) and Instrumentation from Annamalai University,

‘Robust discrete control of nonlinear processes: and pursuing his doctoral degree from PRIST

Application to chemical reactors ‘, Computers and University Thanjavur. He has more than ten years

chemical Engineering vol. 32, pp. 3246 – 3253. of experience and presently he is working as

. Asst.Professor in Noorul Islam Centre for Higher

4.Wang F.Y. Bahri P. Lee P.L. and Cameron I.T. Education. His areas of Interest are Controller

(2007) ‘A multiple model, state feedback strategy design, System modeling and Intelligent

for robust control of nonlinear processes ’, Journal controller design.His email is

of process control vol. 31, pp. 410 – 418. glandeva@gmail.com and contact no is

9894896257

5.Juergen Hahn, Martin monnigmann, and

Wolfgang marquardt, (2008) ‘ On the use of Dr.S.Pushpa Kumar2 got his doctoral degree in

bifurcation analysis for robust controller tuning power systems from Roorkee University. He has

for nonlinear systems ‘, Journal of process control more than thirty four years of teaching

vol. 18, pp. 408 – 420. experience. He published several research papers

in national and International conferences and

6.Juing-Shian Chiou, Chi-Jo wang, Chan-Ming journals He is former principal of Government

Cheng and Chih-Chieh Wang, (2010) ‘Analysis college of Engineering Kannur and presently he is

and synthesis of switched nonlinear systems using working as principal in Heera College of

the T-S Fuzzy model ‘, Applied mathematical Engineering and Technology.He is presently

modelling vol. 34, pp.1467 – 1481. guiding three Ph.d students in PRIST University,

Thanjavur. His areas of interest are Power

7.Antonelli R. and Astolfi A. (2003) ‘Continuous Systems and Power Electronics. His email id is

stirred tank reactors: easy to stabilize ‘, spushpakumar@gmail.com

Automation vol. 39, pp.1817 – 1827.

stable self-learning PID control for multivariable

time varying systems ‘, Control Engineering

practice vol. 15, pp.1577 -1587.

70

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