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Associate professor Principal Associate Professor

Dept of EIE Heera College of Engineering Dept of EEE

N.I. Centre for Higher Education N. I. Centre for Higher Education

glandeva@gmail.com spushpakumar@gmail.com regisprabha@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

This work aims to develop an Artificial Neural PID control strategy and the advanced Model

Network based Model Reference Adaptive Control Reference Adaptive control strategy. The

strategy for an Industrial Process. The inherent ineffectiveness of both these strategies to certain

advantage of the Neural Network to adapt in real application specific areas is presented. The

time together with the effectiveness of Model concentration and temperature control of the process

Reference Adaptive control is utilized in the control is done by using the model reference adaptive system

of Industrial Chemical process. which gives more accurate response by minimizing

Key words: CSTR process, MARC, ANN, Adaptive the error than using the generalized PID controller.

I.INTRODUCTION

An intelligent system [13], [8] is a system that is able II.PROCESS DESCRIPTION

to make decisions that would be regarded as The schematic sketch of the Continuous

intelligent if were done by humans. In dealing with Stirred-Tank Reactor (CSTR)[6,7] is shown in

highly sophisticated process control, where much figure.l

stability and accuracy are expected probably

perturbations may interface and disturb the output

variable. This disturbance is caused as the

perturbations are getting fed back through the error

detector to the controller. Intelligent controllers

adapt them they correct decisions automatically for

future .Neural network is such an intelligent system.

A neural network based model reference adaptive

control [17] is proposed to resolve the problem of

concentration control in CSTR process. This

proposed method can adjust the controller parameters

in response to changes in plant and disturbance in

real time by referring to the reference model that �

Product. out

specifies properties [15] of the desired control Figure 1 Schematic Sketch of the Continuous Stirred

system. Hence the optimization of the controller is Tank Reactor (CSTR)

significant. It enhances stability over parameters and The reactor vessel volume is V. An agitator

makes the system ultimately immune to is used to make the reactor contents be well mixed.

perturbations. The resulting system [14]can be The inlet reactant with feed rate F, concentration Cin

viewed as a sort of adaptable control methodology. and temperature Tm is fed from the top of the vessel.

The system is optimized [1], [9], [10] using the The product stream is gathered at the exit. If the

neural supervisory control. The set of input and reactor contents are perfectly mixed, then the

output are predetermined using the model reference compositions are uniform everywhere in the reactor

adaptive system. The set of inputs and outputs thus and the product stream is at the same concentration

obtained are used for training the neural network .As as the mixture in the reactor. In other words, the

a solution to the mentioned problems, a control composition concentration CA and temperature T at

strategy employing Model Reference Adaptive which reaction takes place are the same as the

control with a peripheral Neural Network Interface is composition concentration and temperature of any

proposed exit stream. Therefore, progress of reaction can be

This paper presents here a comparative study of monitored by observing the product stream

the performance of the process with the convention concentration CA and the reactor temperature T. The

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

exothermic chemical reaction taking place in a CSTR Fig 2 General Block Diagram of MRAController

produces a high heat of reaction. To maintain the The block diagram in fIg 2 shows the structure of a

reactor temperature at its proper value, the jacket is MRAC system that composed of a plant containing

cooled or heated by the coolant with temperature Te. the unknown parameters, a reference model, and a

It is assumed that the product concentration CA will feedback control law containing adjustable

settle down to the desired value if the reactor parameters.

temperature T is controlled properly. Therefore, the Adaptive controller [10], [11] involves modifying the

main objective in this research work is to properly control law used by a controller to cope with the fact

adjust the temperature of coolant To of the CSTR that the parameter [5] of the system being controlled

control system such that the reactor temperature T are slowly time varying or uncertain. The adaptive

can follow the desired values even in the case of control does not need prior information about the

disturbances in inlet reactant temperature Tin. bounds on these uncertain or time- varying

The component balance for the reactor can parameters.

be given as, The parameters are adjusted by using the MIT rule.

oe

_

dx - V CAi - CA - CA

(1)

The energy balance by, A system which has one adjustable parameter

Fp Cp (Tin - T) + Vk e-E/RT cA.dH + Q

pV Cp '!:!:. (2)

dt

.'A: is considered .The closed loop response is

=

specifIed by a model whose output is Ym. The error is

approximated by a fIrst order system with a time lag 'e' between the output y of the closed loop system

and output Ym of the reference model. The variable

element as follows.

control parameter A is adapted in such a way the

G(S) = K e_LS I1+Ts

' )

Where K, T, L denotes the system gain, the time J(A) = � e2 is minimized .

2

constant and the time lag respectively. The MIT rule is:

dA D] De

= (5)

The controlled object is given by the following dt Y DA = ye DA

equation:

B.SCHEMATIC OF MRAC REFERENCE TO THE

G(s) = 0.5 e·45s /1+100s (4) PROCESS IN SIMULINK

The fIgure 3 shows the model reference adaptive

equation is considered where the sampling interval is

controller with reference to our application.

Ts=1O.0[s], and the system is disturbed by Gaussian

white noise with mean and variance 0.001.

III.MODEL REFERENCE ADAPTIVE

CONTROLLER

(MRAC) [16] is an adaptive servo system in which

the desired performance is expressed in terms of

reference model, which gives desired response to the

reference signal.

Process in Simulink

The process is assumed to have a know structure,

although the parameters are unknown. The process

transfer function is given as:

G(s) = 5:5 (6)

376

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

as: Gm(s) = 5+0.5

1

(7)

The controller is used to adjust the parameters. They

exists different set of controller parameters for which

the controller task can be achieved. The control law

is usually linear in terms of the adjustable

parameters.

C.ADAPTAnON UNIT

parameters of the control law. In MRAC systems the

adaptation law searches for the parameters such that

the response of the plant under adaptive control Fig 5 Display unit of MRAC

becomes the same as that of the reference model. The The plant response and the model response are

adaptation mechanism is designed to guarantee the depicted in display 1 and the plant response, model

stability of the system and convergence of the response along with the error tracking is shown in

tracking error to zero. the display unit 2.Fig 5 shows the simulink block of

display unit

Neural network [18] is a kind of intelligent

----1l1>i y U control methodology. This methodology is strictly

based on the heuristic type algorithm. Hence neural

----1l1oly network have the capabilities to adapt themselves to

new environments and conditions. Like wise to

----1l>! y

make the system quite adaptable to new conditions,

familiarizing the network to specific standard

ADAPTAT I ON UN I T conditions is necessary which is usually termed as

Fig 4.Block of Adaptation Unit training .This training ensures appreciable responses

D.DISPLAY UNIT of the system to non-familiar situations, noise with

different characteristics, in this case.

In the display unit we have the plant response,

model response and the error. Initially the error can

be found out .Once the system gets adjusted by the

adaptable mechanism the error get tracked and

reduced.

0 1 S P LAY UNI T

The appropriate neural network is supposed to

simple one, ideal for non-deterministic data and more

reliable with an error feedback. The choices include

feed forward back propagation neural network,

377

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

but the neural network with back propagation

dominates over other s and is best suited for the

specific requirements discussed. The algorithm

meant to make the system adaptable to new

conditions is usually named as training algorithm and

,

which is preceding the discussion. 1 '

Controller

The response of the model of MRAC is depicted in

Fig.9.With the help ofcontroller the system get adapt

to the model as the time varies

to the Process in Simulink

A. RESPONSE OF MODEL REFERENCE

ADAPTIVE CONTROLLER

"

was originally proposed to solve a problem in which

Fig 9 Model Response of Model Reference

the performance specifications are given in terms of

Adaptive Controller

reference model .This model tells how the output

The response of Plant of MRAC is depicted in

ideally should respond to the command signal.

Fig.10. Initially the plant response and model

The model reference adaptive system is

response are not identical as there may be error.

used to control the level of crude oil in the tank. The

level of crude oil the tank is to maintain in a

particular level to optimize the refming process. By

adjusting the gain the error is minimized.

The response of MRAC is given in

Fig8.Intially there is a large error between the plant

output and the model output. As the time moves on

the system get adapt to the reference model and the

�,o.

'

�

error decreases.

Adaptive Controller

The error variation of the MRAC is shown in Fig

.11.1ntially there is large error . Later when the

system automatically adapts to the reference model.

The error reduces.

378

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

. 02

i

, 0

l--

••• - -+-- �e-- - -+-- �f__- _+_- ___!

.< .

Controller

The controller output of the Model Reference

Adaptive Controller is depicted in Fig.12

Adaptive Controller "'�.--+---+--�-�----

.•.

The MRAC fails to track the noise or external Fig 15 Neural Network Trained to 5000Samples

disturbances that may affect the process on the later

stages as well during real time applications. To V.ANALYSIS OF NEURAL NETWORK

minimize those errors and to have better control over The Neural Network identified for the proposed

the system we introduce artificial neural network control strategy is Feed Forward with back

based on model reference adaptive controller. propagation. The training of the Neural Network has

been done with a sufficiently large dataset which is

necessary for ensuring the effectiveness of the

B.APPROACH TO MINIMIZE ERROR IN Neural Network.

NEURAL NETWORK Fig.16 shows the response of neural network

scheme adapted with gain variation. Initially large

To make the system immune to possible noise amount of noise will be incorporated to the system as

conditions, familiarizing the system to specific the neural system start to initialize its tracks all the

standard conditions is worthy. The reliability, error, it can even track and reduce all the error that

accuracy, finally the entire performance itself may occur during the whole process.

improves when the number of standard noise

samples known to the system increases. When only

50 samples the error is reduced. Again when the

neural network is trained with 500 samples the error

reduces. The above points are brought out through a

comparative study among the responses shown in fig

13,14 and 15

379

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

10 1 .1 I

1 '1 I

� - - - - - - - - - =

The model response of the neural network is

depicted in fig 17 . A.ANALYSIS OF NEURAL NETWORK WITH

OUTPUT VARIA nON

The neural based system is now

analyzed with output variation. Large external

disturbances are given to the system and are tested.

Fig 20 depicts the response of neural network

with output variations

in fig 18. Initially the system contain large

disturbances.

Fig 20 Response of Neural Network with Output

Variation

Fig 21 depicts the response of model of neural

network with output variations.

Fig 18. Plant Response of Neural Network Fig 21 Model Response of Neural Network with

The error response of the neural network is Output Variation

depicted in fig 19. Initially the system contains large

disturbances as there is variation between the plant Fig 22 depicts the response of plant of neural

and model. The systems automatically get adjusted network with output variations

and the errors get minimized.

380

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

so as to result in an optimized output. The demerit of

PID and MRAC for the CSTR process is analyzed.

The Artificial Neural Network has been applied to

the task of identification of nonlinear systems. The

validity of the scheme is validated through

simulation. The Neural Network algorithm used in

this work is feed forward with back propagation. The

strategy has been simulated using SIMULINK for a

CSTR process modeled as First Order Lag Plus

Delay Process.

Fig 22 Plant Response of Neural Network with REFERENCES

Output Variation 1. Athans. M. and P.L. Falb, "Optimal Control: An

Fig 23 depicts the error response of neural network introduction to the Theory and its Applications",

with output variations. McGraw Hill, New York, 1966

The system gets automatically tracked and minimizes 2. B.W. Bequette, "Nonlinear control of chemical

all the error which may occur during the process. process: a review", Indi.Eng.Chem.Res,

voI.30.1991,pp1391-1398

3. Chyi-Tsong Chen and Shih-Tein Peng,

"Intelligent process control using neural fuzzy

techniques", Journal of process control, Vo1.9,

1999, pp.493-503.

� 4. D.E.Seborg, "A perspective on advanced

i ot-��I�.I��+-

� -+����

I

strategies for process control, Modeling,

1 '1 I

Identification and control", Vo1.15.1994, pp179-

189.

5. E.P. Nahas, M.A. Henson and D.E. Seborg,

"Nonlinear Internal Model Control Strategy for

�:C-o ----,;

O'" ;;--c;;""; �";;;-

" --;:"

--- ";;--c;;o;;-

o '---c""=---;""C;---='" "c--'"'=-�'" "

I'ma

Neural Network Models", Computers Chemical

Fig 23 Error Response of Neural Network with Engineering, Vo1.16, No.12, pp.l039-1057

Output Variation 6. G.Glandevadhas, Dr.S.Pushpakumar, Robust

The strength of proposed control strategy is in its Temperature controller design for a chemical

ability to automatically adjust parameters so as to process International Journal of Engineering

obtain an optimum response for the process under Science and Technology. Vol. 2(10), 2010,

consideration. The Neural Network identified for the 5831-5837.

proposed control strategy is Feed Forward with back 7. G.Glandevadhas, Dr.S.Pushpakumar Intelligent

propagation. The ineffectiveness of both convention controller design for a chemical process

PID control strategy and the advanced Model International Journal of Engineering Vol. (5),

Reference Adaptive control strategy these strategies 2010, 399-410.

to certain application specific areas is presented. As a 8. G.Stephanopoulos and C.Han, "Intelligent

solution to the mentioned problems, a control systems in process engineering: a review",

strategy employing Model Reference Adaptive Computers Chern. Engg. Vo1.20.l996, pp.743-

control with a peripheral Neural Network Interface is 791.

proposed. The effectives of the proposed control 9. Kirk, D.E., "Optimal Control Theory: An

scheme has been has been verified for different introduction", Prentice Hall, Englewood cliffs,

processes with varying disturbances and N.J., 1970

perturbations. The results strongly validate the 10. Karl J. Astrom and Bjorn Wittenmark,

control strategy. The simulation results are also "Adaptive Control" Pearson Education Press,

presented. 2001

VI. CONCLUSION 11. P.Lakshmi, M.Srinivasan, Winner model based

This work presents an advanced control strategy PID controller for CSTR, International journal

which brings out a novel method for Neural Network of Power system and power electronics

based Supervisory control for automatically adapting Vo1.2.2009 pp7-12

381

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey,

1989

13. G.Glan Deva Dhas, Dr.Pushpakumar

"OptimwnSetting of PID controller for a

chemical Process , American Journal of Applied

Sciences VoI.8(11)1140-1148

14. .Aiping Wang, Hong Wang and Jinhui Wu,

'Modeling Unknown Nonlinear Systems

DefIned on a Unbounded Set via Neural

th

networks', IEEE, Proceedings of the 15

International Symposium on Intelligent Control,

2000.

15. Bradley T. Burchett and Richard A. Layton, 'An

Under Graduate System IdentifIcation

Experiment', American Control Conference,

2005

16. Boonsrirnuang P.,Numsomran A.and

Kangwanrat S. "Design of PI Controller

Using MRAC Technique For Couple-Tanks

Process".World Academy of

Science,Engineering and Technology 59 2009

17. Patuio H.D and Liv D.(2000):Neural Network

Based Model Reference Adaptive Control

Systems-IEEE transaction system Man

Cybern.VoI30,Nol pp 198-204

18. Zhao Yingkai, Lin Jinguo, shu Zhibing,(1997) "

The Design of Neural Network Controller for

Nonlinear Plants," IEEE Int. Conf. on Intelligent

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382

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