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WITH AN EXTERNAL PHOTOVOLTAIC

SOURCE

Rahul V G

Dr.Glan Devadhas

PG Scholar: Dept. of E&I

HOD: Dept. of E&I

Noorul Islam College of engineering

Noorul Islam College of engineering

Kumara coil, India

Kumara coil, India

rvgchempoor@gmail.com

glandeva@gmail.com

Abstract— This paper presents a hybrid modulation based STATCOM is mainly due to the tolerance of passive

multilevel static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) components, switching loss, resolution issues in the control

voltage control method. A multilevel STATCOM is a side etc. Cascaded H-bridge STATCOM has merits in point of

combination of high voltage converter and low voltage switching losses, output harmonics, and the number of circuit

converter with an energy source .STATCOM use either a components, but each cell has isolated DC capacitors. It

battery or storage element as the energy bank. Most creates balancing problem of capacitor voltage. So voltage

probably STATCOM consists of capacitors as reactive control methods are essential. One common method for

power supplying or reactive power absorbing element. voltage control is using zero sequence voltage and negative

During the operation of STATCOM, the capacitor voltage sequence current[7],but the response time is more than the

may vary from its value, there the importance of this conventional. In electrical distribution network there is

work. A new control strategy is introduced in this paper in balanced condition and unbalanced condition. Literature [8]

focus on the capacitor voltage. An experimental model is deals with the control strategy for maintaining the capacitor

developed by using MATLAB SIMULINK block and the voltage of cascade converter during unbalanced load

result shows that the STATCOM along with the new condition. In [9] a reactive power control method based on

control technique perform satisfactorily. DC voltage is proposed but this paper is purely based on

steady state condition and it only account the individual

capacitor voltage. Some modified control techniques based on

Keywords— static synchronous compensator, hybrid grid current and voltage were in [10] and [11]. The voltage in

modulation ,cascaded multilevel converter, cascade H-bridge the capacitor is a fluctuating quantity, so reliability of the

I. INTRODUCTION system is less. An additional backup source along with the

capacitor improves the reliability of the system. Non

Reactive power is an important criterion for every electrical renewable energy sources are good option as a backup energy

stability analysis. Voltage stability problems arise where source. The detailed description of photovoltaic array in

reactive power control is inadequate. The application of power simulation studies is given in [12].

electronics makes the electrical transmission system more In this paper the author choose a 100v 3kva

reliable and controllable. The Static Synchronous STATCOM for study. The control strategy proposed in this

Compensator (STATCOM) is coming under FACTS family. paper is based on DC voltage and current. It improves the

The working of STATCOM is based on a voltage-sourced STATCOM output voltage and maintains the capacitor voltage

converter. STATCOM along with voltage source converter in every condition. Section II presents the design of the

regulates system voltage by absorbing or generating reactive STATCOM. Section III carries out the design of controllers

power [2]. There are various techniques to produce a better and section IV gives the experimental result. Section V

sinusoidal waveform by increasing the number of output presents the conclusion.

voltage levels with minimum number of components. Those

approaches have been published in the literature [4]-[5].These

topologies are very effective II. DESIGN OF A 100V 3KVA STATCOM WITH

The basic switching technique of every voltage PHOTO VOLTAIC CELL

source converter is PWM, but a new switching technique was

A. STATCOM design

proposed in the literature [6], known as hybrid modulation.

There are various techniques for hybrid modulation .These The modeling of the STATCOM, is reviewed in the

techniques produce better output than the conventional but lines below. The modeling is done with the following

carry a problem of voltage control. The voltage imbalance in a assumptions:

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

1) All switches in the system are ideal each cell for sampling the capacitor voltage in every instant

2) The source voltages are balanced for controlling . There is also an inductor connected to each

3) Rs represents the converter losses and the losses of the cluster which eliminates the switching ripples due to high

coupling inductor s R voltage converter operation.

4) The harmonic contents during the switching operation are

negligible. Cascade number:

Ls Rs Lac

AC

Cascade number is one of the most important design

parameters for the design of STATCOM. This design criteria

AC

is based on the blocking voltage of the IGBTs being used in

AC

the STATCOM. The 1.7-kV IGBTs are now commonly

100V,50

available. The dc mean voltage should be designed to be

Hz

CELL W1

around 1000 V so that the ac root mean square (rms) voltage

CELL U1 CELL V1

of each H-bridge converter should be around 625 V. This

gives the cascade number N as

N =3000/√3

Therefore, the cascade number can be assigned as N = 2.

CELL U2 CELL V2 CELL W2

B. PV cell

Solar energy is one of the most promising energy source. It

has numerous advantages than other energy source such as it is

clean, is inexhaustible and environment friendly. In this

Figure 1 : STATCOM model context, photovoltaic (PV) power generation has an important

role. PV cell convert solar energy to electrical energy. One of

Fig 1 shows the configuration of a 100 V 3Kva STATCOM.

the main drawback of solar cell is its output current is very low.

This STATCOM arrangement is based on hybrid modulation

A boost circuit in association with solar cell solves this

technique. In this arrangement Each phase consist of a high problem. Figure 2 shows the equivalent circuit of a PV cell. A

voltage converter and a low voltage converter. Each cell is solar cell consists of mainly a current source, two exponential

with a capacitor of 9400μf.Table 1 gives an idea about circuit diodes and a resistor.

parameters.

Rp

Current source D1 D2

Rs

Figure 2: Equivalent circuit of a PV cell

I I source I D 1 I D 2 I RS

Switching frequency for cell U1,V1 and W1 --- 50Hz

I I ph

I s ((exp( V IR s ) / NV s ) (V IR s ) ) / R p In

Switching frequency for cell U2,V2 and W2 5000Hz

this paper the author choose a W solar cell for study. Figure 3

shows the SIMULINK model of a solar cell and table 2 shows

the specification of the solar cell used in this paper.

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

Parameter specification

Figure 4 : Boost converter

Open circuit voltage 0.5 V

III. DESIGN OF CONTROLLER

Short circuit current 6000 mA

STATCOM is a compensating device. It supply reactive

power to the grid when grid require reactive power and absorb

Energy gap 1.11 eV

reactive power from the grid when grid have enough reactive

power. A control strategy is proposed in [1].This strategy

Temperature 3 doesn’t ensure the reliability of the system. During the

exponent for Is operation there is a chance of variation of capacitor voltage

due to capacitor damage, there the importance of a backup

source. A non renewable energy source is used here as a

Temperature 0

exponent for Rs

backup source. Its action comes in active mode when

capacitor voltage goes below a value. It is necessary to find

out a coordination control between STATCOM and the

Fixed Temperature 250C backup source. For simplicity solar system is used here as a

backup source. Figure 4 shows the block diagram of the

control algorithm proposed in this paper.

Irradiance Ramp up-down

irradiance(200W/m2

to 1000 W/m2) The whole control algorithm consists of mainly two parts,

Table 2: solar cell parameters namely capacitor voltage control and solar cell control.

Capacitor voltage control is subdivided into mainly four parts,

decoupled current control, overall voltage control, clustered

C. Boost converter balancing control and individual voltage control. These

The output from a PV cell is of very low current. It is very control algorithms are in [1].Figure 4 shows the block

essential to increase that current level for applications. Boost diagram of capacitor voltage control. Clustered balancing

converter increase the current level to an above value than the control method maintain the total voltage of a cluster,

previous. PV cell usually produce output efficiently at a Individual voltage control maintain the voltage of every

particular unique point known as maximum power individual capacitor, Overall voltage control maintain sum of

point(MPPT). At MPPT voltage and current from the solar all capacitor voltages to a value and decoupled current control

cell is maximum, therefore a separate control algorithm is generates command signal to generate gate pulses based on

required for finding maximum power point. This control source and load current. Figure 6 shows the block diagram of

algorithm drive the thyristor used in the boost converter capacitor voltage control.

.Figure 4 shows the SIMULINK block of a boost converter

with solar cell.

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

CONTROL

CAPACITOR VOLTAGE

PV CELL CONTROL

CONTROL

1.CURRENT CONTROL

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

2.VOLTAGE CONTROL

Figure 8 shows the STATCOM output voltage. From figure it

Figure 5: Block diagram of the total control scheme is clear that a nine level voltage is produced from the

STATCOM.

CLUSTERED

ref1 BALANCING

CNTROL

Vabc A

T

.

. E

Iabc

DECOUPLED CURRENT Second phase Command INDIVIDUAL VOLTAGE

.

.

P

CONTROL CONTROL . U

.

Vlabc . L

. S

Third phase Command E

Ilabc s

OVERALL

ref2 VOLTAGE

CONTROL

Figure 6: Capacitor voltage control Figure 9 shows the capacitor voltages of high voltage and low

voltage converter during its operation. It shows that the

The operation of PV cell is not requires in all times. It comes voltage of both high voltage and low voltage converter is at a

in active stage when individual capacitor voltage goes below a particular value all during its operation and PV cell is active

particular value. The controller continuously sample the when the capacitor voltage is below a particular limit.

capacitor voltage and generate a gate pulse for the switch if Figure 10 shows the gate pulses to the PV cell switch during

capacitor voltage goes below a particular value. Figure 6 its operation. It shows that PV cell output is available only

shows the SIMULINK model of the above concept. when the capacitor voltage goes below a particular value.

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

B. low voltage converter Figure 11: A.PV cell output current, B .Output current from

boost converter, C. Voltage across boost converter(100Ω

Figure 10 shows the gate pulses to the PV cell switch during resistor)

its operation. It shows that PV cell output is available only V. CONCLUSION

when the capacitor voltage goes below a particular value.

This paper presents a new control method to maintain the

STATCOM DC link voltage to a minimum value. The

additional PV cell acts as a backup to the STATCOM DC link

voltage source. It serves as a source to the STATCOM DC

link capacitor when the capacitor voltage is below a particular

limit. This control method along with STATCOM improves

the output waveform quality and improves the reliability of the

system.

REFERENCES

[1] Sixing Du and Jinjun Liu, “A Novel DC voltage control method for

STATCOM based on hybrid multilevel H-bridge converter, IEEE

transactions on power electronics, Vol. 28, No. 1, January 2013.

[2] Pranesh rao, M.L Crow and Zhiping yang, “STATCOM control for

power system voltage control applications”, IEEE transactions on power

delivery, Vol.15, No.4, October 2000.

[3] Alireza Nami and Firuz Zare “A Hybrid Cascade Converter Topology

With Series-Connected Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Diode-Clamped

H-Bridge Cells”, IEEE transactions on power electronics, Vol.26, No.1,

January 2011

[4] Zhong du, Burac ozpineci and Leon M Tolbert, “DC–AC Cascaded H-

Figure 10: Solar cell enabling signal Bridge Multilevel Boost Inverter With No Inductors for Electric/Hybrid

Electric Vehicle Applications”, IEEE transactions on industry

application, Vol. 45, No. 3, May/June 2009.

Figure 11 shows the PV cell power output and output from

[5] Aliresa nami, Firuz zare and arindam ghosh, “A Hybrid Cascade

boost converter. It is clear from the result that boost converter Converter Topology With Series-Connected Symmetrical and

improves the output from the solar cell. Asymmetrical Diode-Clamped H-Bridge Cells”, IEEE transactions on

power electronics, Vol. 26, No. 1, January 2011.

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

[6] Zhong du, Burac ozpineci and Leon M Tolbert, “Fundamental for PWM Cascaded H-Bridge Converter-Based STATCOM”, IEEE

Frequency Switching Strategies of a Seven-Level Hybrid Cascaded H- transactions on Industrial electronics, Vol. 55, No.1, January 2008.

Bridge Multilevel Inverter”, IEEE transactions on power electronics, [10] Hirofumi akagi,Shigenori Inoue, and TsurugiYoshii, “Control and

Vol. 24, No.1, January 2009. Performance of a Transformerless Cascade PWM STATCOM With Star

[7] Nobuhiko hatano and Thoshifumi ise, “Control Scheme of Cascaded H- Configuration”, ”, IEEE transactions on Industry applications, Vol. 43,

Bridge STATCOM Using Zero-Sequence Voltage and Negative- No.4, July/August 2007.

Sequence Current”, IEEE transactions on power delivery, Vol. 25, No.2, [11] Martin Veenstra and Alfred Rufer “Control of a Hybrid Asymmetric

April 2010. Multilevel Inverter for Competitive Medium-Voltage Industrial Drives”

[8] Quiang song and Wenhua liu, “Control of a Cascade STATCOM With ”,IEEE transactions on Industry applications, Vol. 41, No.2,

Star Configuration Under Unbalanced Conditions”, IEEE transactions March/April 2005

on power delivery, Vol. 24, No.1, January 2009. [12] J A Gow and C D Manning, “Development of a photovoltaic array

[9] Jon Andoni Barrena, Luis Marroyo, Miguel Angel Rodriguez Vidaland model for use in power electronics simulation studies”, IEEE

Jose Ramon Torrealday Apraiz, “Individual Voltage Balancing Strategy Proceedings on Electrical power applications, Vol. 146, No.2, March

1999.

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