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Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)



Prof.G.Glan Devadhas LAKSHMI M NAIR

Head of department Dept. of Electronics and Instrumentation
Dept. of Electronics and Instrumentation Noorul Islam centre for higher education
Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education Thuckalay, Tamilnadu
Thuckalay, Tamilnadu

Abstact: Conventional PID controllers were used to between a measured process variable and a desired set
control various industrial processes from many years point by calculating and then outputting a corrective
due to their simplicity in operation. mathematical action that can adjust the process as per our needs.. So
models are used to control the plant for different by integrating the PID controller to the DC motor
process control applications. In this paper a dynamic were able to correct the error made by the DC motor
model of dc motor is developed A comparative study and control the speed or the position of the motor to
between the performance of PI controller and fuzzy the desired point or speed. The objective is to control
logic controller is done. A gain scheduling PI FUZZY the speed of DC series wound motor.these type of
controller is designed and implemented and various motors which are used usually in electric trains, self
performance parameters are compared with fuzzy starting of engines, elevators and complex industrial
logic controllers. The paper shows superior mixing process. The series wound motor is selected
performance of gain scheduling controllers over for this work because it provide excellent torque load
conventional controllers. properties to the system which other motor of this
class cannot provide. if p o r t ab l e devices are yo be
keywords-DCmotor.PIcontroller,Fuzzylogic used and transported then the only option is to use
controller, I-Fuzzy gain scheduling controller DC motor as most portable devices. DC power source
is available and it make less expensive to the device if
DC to AC convertor not used.
Permanent magnet direct current motor (PMDC) have
been commonly used in high-performance electrical
drives and servo system. There are many difference II PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL CONTROLLER
DC motor types in the market some of which have
good attribute and some have bad attribute.. Example The PID controller is a feedback mechanism widely
of such bad attribute is the lag of efficiency. In order used in a variety of applications. The controller
to overcome this lag of efficiency a controller is calculates an error that is the difference between a
measured process variable and the desired set-point
introduced to the system. There are also many types
value needed by the application.PID controllers will
of controller used in the industry, such controller is attempt to minimize the process error by continually
PID controller. PID controller or proportional– adjusting the inputs.
integral–derivative controller is a generic control loop • Proportional (often called the “gain”):
feedback mechanism widely used in industrial control determines the reaction to the current error
systems. A PID controller tries to correct the error

Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

• Integral: calculates the system reaction based on the Pole placement is the most straightforward means of
sum of recent errors controller design. The design starts with an assumption
• Derivative:It calculates the rate at which the system of what form the controller must take in order to control
error has been changing
the given plant. From that assumption a symbolic
The weighted sum of these three values is used to adjust
a process by adjusting a control element, which could characteristic equation is formed. At this point the
literally be nearly anything within the process. Choosing desired closed-loop poles must be determined.
the proper values for P, I, and D is known as PID Typically, specifications designate overshoot, rise time,
Tuning. The three outputs are given by their respective etc. This leads to the formation of a second order
loops equation Most of the time the final characteristic
Pout= equation will have more than two poles. So additional
IOUT= desired poles must be determined. Once the closed loop
Dout= poles are decided a desired characteristic equation is
formed. The coefficients for each power of s are equated
from the symbolic characteristic equation to the desired.
Algebra is used to determine the controller coefficients
The P controller shows a relatively high necessary to achieve the desired closed-loop poles with
maximum overshoot a long settling time as well as a the assumed controller form. Since this system is not
steady-state error. The I controller has a higher state controllable arbitrary pole placement in not
maximum overshoot than the P controller due to the possible.
slowly starting I behavior, but no steady-state error. The
PI controller fuses the properties of the P and I V GAIN SCHEDULING CONTROLLER
controllers. It shows a maximum overshoot and settling
time similar to the P controller but no steady-state error. Fuzzy gain scheduling is in three steps: a fuzzylogic
The PID controller fuses the properties of a PI and PD system is built that incorporates the features while
controller. It shows a smaller maximum overshoot than preserving conventional PID control gain scheduling is
the PD controller and has no steady state error due to the then implemented by modifying this system, and two
I action. parameters are independently tuned to improve PID
control performance. In some applications, it is known
III FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER how the dynamics of a controlled system change with
the operating conditions of the system. The controller
Fuzzy control utilizes a methodology for can thus be designed to change the parameters
representing, manipulating, and implementing a accommodating the variations of system dynamics
human’s heuristic knowledge about how to control a based on the measurements of system operating
system. conditions. This type of feedback control scheme is
called gain scheduling. The proposed gain scheduling
Fuzzy logic is a method of rule-based fuzzy PI( GS_FPI) controller can also be applied to
decision making used for expert systems and process solving the gain scheduling problems. In order to design
control that emulates the rule-of-thumb thought process suitable scheduling parameters based on system
used by human beings. Due to these formal property, operating conditions, traditional controller with gain
fuzzy logic can be used to control a process that a scheduling requires system dynamics. However,
human can control manually with expertise and GS_FPID requires no information of system dynamics.
experience gained through practical and theoretical The operating conditions for the GS_FPID controller
knowledge. The linguistic control rules that a human simply come from the measurements of error e(t) and
expert can describe in an intuitive and general manner error rate Δe(t). On the basis of e(t) and Δe(t). GS_FPID
can be directly translated to a rule base for a fuzzy logic controller adjusts controller parameters by fuzzy
controller inference.

A permanent magnetic dc motor with given
IV POLE PLACEMENT CONTROLLER specifications is taken for study. Control of the given

Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

controller is achieved through conventional PI VIII. PI CONTROLLER DESIGN AND TUNING

controller, pole placement controller, fuzzy logic based
controller and gain scheduling controller .A comparison T he PI controller is designed using frequency response
of different controllers is analyzed. method taking damping ratio as 0.7 .the overall transfer
function of dc motor is given as below as.

The goal in the development of the mathematical model PI controller is designed for the above transfer function
is to relate the voltage applied to the armature to the and obtained the values of ki and and
velocity of the motor. Two balance equations can be ki=0.013.The controller transfer function is
developed by considering the electrical and mechanical
characteristics of the system.
The simulation experiments are done in MAT Lab and
the closed loop response results are shown in figure


Adding a pole at S= -2 to get a gain margin >20db and
phase margin >50db The pole placement controller
transfer function

The new transfer function become:

fig1. Electrical representation of a dc motor

DC motor is mathematically modeled using data

available and the transfer function of the system is
Bode plot and root locus are compared with and without
achieved as
compensation. The phase margin and gain margin gets
improved after compensation.


Fuzzy logic is a method of rule-based decision making

by thought process used by human beings. The basis of
fuzzy logic is fuzzy set theory which was developed by
Lotfi Zadeh in the 1960s. Fuzzy set theory differs from
traditional Boolean (or two-valued) set theory in that
The stability analysis of the system is done and open partial membership in a set is allowed. Traditional
Boolean set theory is two-valued in the sense that a
loop response is obtained as shown in the figure2.The member belongs to a set or does not and is represented
specifications of the motor used for the study. by 1 or 0, respectively. Fuzzy set theory allows for
voltage=10V, , partial membership, or a degree of membership, which
might be any value along the continuum of 0 to 1. A
, linguistic term can be defined quantitatively by a type of
fuzzy set known as a membership function. The
membership function specifically defines degrees of
membership based on a property such as temperature or
pressure. With membership functions defined for
controller or expert system inputs and outputs, the
formulation of a rule base of IF-THEN type conditional
rules is done. Such a rule base and the corresponding

Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

membership functions are employed to analyze

controller inputs and determine controller outputs by the
process of fuzzy logic inference. By defining such a
fuzzy controller, process control can be implemented
quickly and easily. Many such systems are difficult or
impossible to model mathematically, which is required
for the design of most traditional control algorithms. In
addition, many processes that might or might not be
modeled mathematically are too complex or nonlinear to
be controlled with traditional strategies. However, if a
control strategy can be described qualitatively by an
expert, fuzzy logic can be used to define a controller
that emulates the heuristic rule-of-thumb strategies of
the expert. Therefore, fuzzy logic can be used to control fig2: Response of DC motor for current
a process that a human can control manually with
expertise gained from experience. The linguistic control
rules that a human expert can describe in an intuitive
and general manner can be directly translated to a rule
base for a fuzzy logic controller.

Various controllers PI controller ,pole placement
controller, fuzzy logic controller, gain scheduling
controller is implemented and a comparative study is
being made. Fuzzy logic controllers give better
performance than conventional controllers. For highly
nonlinear systems gain scheduling controller gives
better performance.

Tables and figures

Table1.: Rules for Fuzzy Logic Controller

fig3:Response of DC motor for speed


CONTROLLER fig4:Response of DC motor with pi controller

Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

fig7:: Bode plot with compensation

fig5:Response of pole placement controller

fig8: Response of DC Motor Speed Control with

Fuzzy Controller

fig6:Bode plot without compensation

fig9:Membership Function for Fuzzy Logic


Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

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