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AN ELECTRIC DRIVE

Head of department Dept. of Electronics and Instrumentation

Dept. of Electronics and Instrumentation Noorul Islam centre for higher education

Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education Thuckalay, Tamilnadu

Thuckalay, Tamilnadu Email:lakshmiimnair@yahoo.com

Email:glandeva@gmail.com

Abstact: Conventional PID controllers were used to between a measured process variable and a desired set

control various industrial processes from many years point by calculating and then outputting a corrective

due to their simplicity in operation. mathematical action that can adjust the process as per our needs.. So

models are used to control the plant for different by integrating the PID controller to the DC motor

process control applications. In this paper a dynamic were able to correct the error made by the DC motor

model of dc motor is developed A comparative study and control the speed or the position of the motor to

between the performance of PI controller and fuzzy the desired point or speed. The objective is to control

logic controller is done. A gain scheduling PI FUZZY the speed of DC series wound motor.these type of

controller is designed and implemented and various motors which are used usually in electric trains, self

performance parameters are compared with fuzzy starting of engines, elevators and complex industrial

logic controllers. The paper shows superior mixing process. The series wound motor is selected

performance of gain scheduling controllers over for this work because it provide excellent torque load

conventional controllers. properties to the system which other motor of this

class cannot provide. if p o r t ab l e devices are yo be

keywords-DCmotor.PIcontroller,Fuzzylogic used and transported then the only option is to use

controller, I-Fuzzy gain scheduling controller DC motor as most portable devices. DC power source

is available and it make less expensive to the device if

I INTRODUCTION

DC to AC convertor not used.

Permanent magnet direct current motor (PMDC) have

been commonly used in high-performance electrical

drives and servo system. There are many difference II PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL CONTROLLER

DC motor types in the market some of which have

good attribute and some have bad attribute.. Example The PID controller is a feedback mechanism widely

of such bad attribute is the lag of efficiency. In order used in a variety of applications. The controller

to overcome this lag of efficiency a controller is calculates an error that is the difference between a

measured process variable and the desired set-point

introduced to the system. There are also many types

value needed by the application.PID controllers will

of controller used in the industry, such controller is attempt to minimize the process error by continually

PID controller. PID controller or proportional– adjusting the inputs.

integral–derivative controller is a generic control loop • Proportional (often called the “gain”):

feedback mechanism widely used in industrial control determines the reaction to the current error

systems. A PID controller tries to correct the error

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Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

• Integral: calculates the system reaction based on the Pole placement is the most straightforward means of

sum of recent errors controller design. The design starts with an assumption

• Derivative:It calculates the rate at which the system of what form the controller must take in order to control

error has been changing

the given plant. From that assumption a symbolic

The weighted sum of these three values is used to adjust

a process by adjusting a control element, which could characteristic equation is formed. At this point the

literally be nearly anything within the process. Choosing desired closed-loop poles must be determined.

the proper values for P, I, and D is known as PID Typically, specifications designate overshoot, rise time,

Tuning. The three outputs are given by their respective etc. This leads to the formation of a second order

loops equation Most of the time the final characteristic

Pout= equation will have more than two poles. So additional

IOUT= desired poles must be determined. Once the closed loop

Dout= poles are decided a desired characteristic equation is

formed. The coefficients for each power of s are equated

from the symbolic characteristic equation to the desired.

Algebra is used to determine the controller coefficients

The P controller shows a relatively high necessary to achieve the desired closed-loop poles with

maximum overshoot a long settling time as well as a the assumed controller form. Since this system is not

steady-state error. The I controller has a higher state controllable arbitrary pole placement in not

maximum overshoot than the P controller due to the possible.

slowly starting I behavior, but no steady-state error. The

PI controller fuses the properties of the P and I V GAIN SCHEDULING CONTROLLER

controllers. It shows a maximum overshoot and settling

time similar to the P controller but no steady-state error. Fuzzy gain scheduling is in three steps: a fuzzylogic

The PID controller fuses the properties of a PI and PD system is built that incorporates the features while

controller. It shows a smaller maximum overshoot than preserving conventional PID control gain scheduling is

the PD controller and has no steady state error due to the then implemented by modifying this system, and two

I action. parameters are independently tuned to improve PID

control performance. In some applications, it is known

III FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER how the dynamics of a controlled system change with

the operating conditions of the system. The controller

Fuzzy control utilizes a methodology for can thus be designed to change the parameters

representing, manipulating, and implementing a accommodating the variations of system dynamics

human’s heuristic knowledge about how to control a based on the measurements of system operating

system. conditions. This type of feedback control scheme is

called gain scheduling. The proposed gain scheduling

Fuzzy logic is a method of rule-based fuzzy PI( GS_FPI) controller can also be applied to

decision making used for expert systems and process solving the gain scheduling problems. In order to design

control that emulates the rule-of-thumb thought process suitable scheduling parameters based on system

used by human beings. Due to these formal property, operating conditions, traditional controller with gain

fuzzy logic can be used to control a process that a scheduling requires system dynamics. However,

human can control manually with expertise and GS_FPID requires no information of system dynamics.

experience gained through practical and theoretical The operating conditions for the GS_FPID controller

knowledge. The linguistic control rules that a human simply come from the measurements of error e(t) and

expert can describe in an intuitive and general manner error rate Δe(t). On the basis of e(t) and Δe(t). GS_FPID

can be directly translated to a rule base for a fuzzy logic controller adjusts controller parameters by fuzzy

controller inference.

VI.PROBLEM FORMULATION

A permanent magnetic dc motor with given

IV POLE PLACEMENT CONTROLLER specifications is taken for study. Control of the given

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Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

controller, pole placement controller, fuzzy logic based

controller and gain scheduling controller .A comparison T he PI controller is designed using frequency response

of different controllers is analyzed. method taking damping ratio as 0.7 .the overall transfer

function of dc motor is given as below as.

VII MATHEMATICAL MODELING &

CONTROLLER DESIGN

The goal in the development of the mathematical model PI controller is designed for the above transfer function

is to relate the voltage applied to the armature to the and obtained the values of ki and kp.kp=0.057 and

velocity of the motor. Two balance equations can be ki=0.013.The controller transfer function is

developed by considering the electrical and mechanical

characteristics of the system.

The simulation experiments are done in MAT Lab and

the closed loop response results are shown in figure

Adding a pole at S= -2 to get a gain margin >20db and

phase margin >50db The pole placement controller

transfer function

fig1. Electrical representation of a dc motor

available and the transfer function of the system is

Bode plot and root locus are compared with and without

achieved as

compensation. The phase margin and gain margin gets

improved after compensation.

by thought process used by human beings. The basis of

fuzzy logic is fuzzy set theory which was developed by

Lotfi Zadeh in the 1960s. Fuzzy set theory differs from

traditional Boolean (or two-valued) set theory in that

The stability analysis of the system is done and open partial membership in a set is allowed. Traditional

Boolean set theory is two-valued in the sense that a

loop response is obtained as shown in the figure2.The member belongs to a set or does not and is represented

specifications of the motor used for the study. by 1 or 0, respectively. Fuzzy set theory allows for

voltage=10V, , partial membership, or a degree of membership, which

might be any value along the continuum of 0 to 1. A

, linguistic term can be defined quantitatively by a type of

fuzzy set known as a membership function. The

membership function specifically defines degrees of

membership based on a property such as temperature or

pressure. With membership functions defined for

controller or expert system inputs and outputs, the

formulation of a rule base of IF-THEN type conditional

rules is done. Such a rule base and the corresponding

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Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

controller inputs and determine controller outputs by the

process of fuzzy logic inference. By defining such a

fuzzy controller, process control can be implemented

quickly and easily. Many such systems are difficult or

impossible to model mathematically, which is required

for the design of most traditional control algorithms. In

addition, many processes that might or might not be

modeled mathematically are too complex or nonlinear to

be controlled with traditional strategies. However, if a

control strategy can be described qualitatively by an

expert, fuzzy logic can be used to define a controller

that emulates the heuristic rule-of-thumb strategies of

the expert. Therefore, fuzzy logic can be used to control fig2: Response of DC motor for current

a process that a human can control manually with

expertise gained from experience. The linguistic control

rules that a human expert can describe in an intuitive

and general manner can be directly translated to a rule

base for a fuzzy logic controller.

XI.CONCLUSION

Various controllers PI controller ,pole placement

controller, fuzzy logic controller, gain scheduling

controller is implemented and a comparative study is

being made. Fuzzy logic controllers give better

performance than conventional controllers. For highly

nonlinear systems gain scheduling controller gives

better performance.

Table1.: Rules for Fuzzy Logic Controller

e(t)/

PB PM PS Z NS NM NB

Δe(t)

PB PB PB PM PS NS NS Z

fig3:Response of DC motor for speed

PM PS PB PM PS NS NS NS

PS PB PB PM PS NS NM NM

Z PM PM PS Z NS NM NB

N

NS PS PM PS NM NB NB

S

N

NM PS PS PS NM NB NB

S

N

NB Z PS PS NM NB NB

S

CONTROLLER fig4:Response of DC motor with pi controller

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Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

Fuzzy Controller

Controller

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Proceedings of international conference on modeling, optimizing and computing (ICMOC 2012)

fig10.Output response of gain scheduling controller 5. Wang Fei-Yue, Huang Yue, “A Non-Trial-and-

Error Method for Phase-Lead and Phase Lag

Compensator Design”, IEEE Transactions, pp

1654-1660, 2001

6. Godhwani Arjun, “Feedback Control Systems”,

IEEE Transactions, pp 17581761, 2003

7. C Marcelo, Teixeira M, Assuncao Edvaldo,

Machado Erica R. M. D., “A method for plotting

the complementary root locus using the root-locus

rules”, IEEE Transactions, Vol. 47, No 3, pp 405-

409, 2004

8. Cavicchi J Thomas, “Phase Margin Revisited:

Phase-Root Locus, Bode Plots and Phase

Shifters”, IEEE Transactions, Vol. 46, No 1, pp

168-176, 2003

9. Dobra P, Dumitrache D, Tomesc L, Duma R,

fig11.Performance of various controllers –

Trusca Mirela, “Low-cost embedded solution for

Comparative Study

PID controllers of DC motors”, IEEE

Transactions, , 2009

10. Yeung Kai Shing, Lee Kuo Hsun, “A universal

design chart for linear time invariant continuous

time and discrete-time compensators”, IEEE

Transactions, Vol.43, No 3, pp 309-315, 2000

11. Bianchi N, Bolognani S, Luise F, “Analysis and

design of a brushless motor for high speed

operation”, IEEE Transactions , pp 44-51, 2003

12. Hurl R Hwa, Lee Jang M, Lee Suk, Lee H Man,

“Compensation of Time Delay Using a Predictive

Controller”, IEEE Transactions, pp1087-1092,

REFERENCES 1999

13. Shen J X, Tseng K J, “Analyses and compensation

1. Arnulfo Rodriguez-Martinez, Raul Garduno- of rotor position detection error in a sensorless

Ramire (2011)”PI Fuzzy Gain-Scheduling Speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor”, IEEE

Control at Startup of a Gas-Turbine Power Plant’’ Transactions, pp 81-83, 1999

IEEE transactions on energy conversion, vol. 26, 14. Bahram Kimiaghalam, Abdollah Homaifar,

no. 1, March 2011. Marwan Bikdash. “Genetic Algorithm Based

2. Matteo Corno, Mara Tanelli “ Design and GainScheduling ’’. NASA-Autonomous Control

Validation of a Gain-Scheduled Controllerfor the Engineering Center-2009

Electronic Throttle Body in Ride-by- 15. http://www.ecircuitcenter .com/circuits

WireRacingMotorcycles 16. http:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/dc_motor

3. Zhen-Yu Zhao, “Fuzzy Gain Scheduling of PID 17. N.S.Nise,control systemsengineeering,3rd

Control’’, systems, man, and cybernetics. vol. 23, edition,JohnWiley and sons Inc,newyork

no. . septemberioctober 1993 18. Control system design guide by George Ellis .3rd

4. Xu J X, Hui K E, Yang R H, “ Maximum phase edition .Elesevier publications.

added lead, minimum phase reduced lag non-trial- 19. Modelling and control of dynamic systems by

and-error compensator design”, Proceedings of Macia&Thaler .India Edition publications

4th Asia Control Conference Singapore, pp 93-98,

2002

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