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Chemical process

T.Pravin Rose Dr.G.Glan Devadhas S.Reeba Rex

Asst. Professor: EEE Asso. Professor & HOD:EIE Asst. Professor: ECE

PRS College of Engineering Noorul Islam University Mar Ephraem Engineering College

Trivandrum, India Nagercoil, India Nagercoil, India

e-mail : Pravinrose25@gmail.co m

Abstract —The nonlinearities form the obstacles to control the McAvoy et al explained a general dynamic model of the

dynamic behavior of the neutralization process. In this paper pH neutralization [4] They derived a mathematical model

fuzzy logic controller is designed. The fuzzy control is developed from mass balances for species .Some studies have been made

for a pH neutralization. The controller was set up for a plant. (Buchholt [5] Wright and Kravaris [6], Shinskey [7], Jayadeva

The fuzzy controller can avoid linearity problems that occur in [8] and Kulkarni [9] on the dynamic model of the continous

the neutralization process. Thus the efficiency is improved using

this technique. This technique forms the optimized technique for stirred reactor (CSTR). They assumed perfect mixing, reaction

overcoming all non-linearities that occur in PH neutralization. at equilibrium, constant volume, and constant density.

The proposed fuzzy logic controller outperforms the usual PID The reaction invariant in modeling was proposed by

controllers.

Gustafsson and Waller [10]. Component balance simplifies the

Keywords— fuzzy logic, adaptive control, pH control, modeling procedure and acceptance as a standard method for

neutralization process. pH neutralization process.

Henson and Seborg [11] proposed the dynamic model

I. INT RODUCT ION using conservation equations. The model adds hydraulic

Advanced control techniques play a major role in day relationships for the tank outlet flows. Presumptions includes

today process in terms of complexity and quality of product. constant density and complete solubility of the ions involved.

So the industries are in need of efficient and flexible control

Artificial neural network is used because it out-performs

system. To satisfy the above constraints we need to go for

the nonlinear modeling pattern. Nahas et al [12] applied a

improved forms of control. The non linearity problems can be

rectified using fuzzy control. neural network controller to simulate CSTR pH neutralization

process. Pottmann and seborg[13] applied a neural network

The nonlinearities forms the obstacles to control the model predictive control algorthim to a pH neutralization

dynamic behavior of the neutralization process. The control process. Draeger et al[14] who applied ANN based dynamic

objectives of neutralization is to drive the system to a different matrix control to a pH neutralization reactor. The use of neural

pH despite the disturbance by manipulating the flow rate of networks in the internal model control IMC structure has been

titrating stream. [1] proposed and implanted by several work [15] and has been

implemented for the control of simulated process[16]. Various

Neutralization is a common practice in wastewater nonlinear control schemes has been surveyed by Doherty[17].

treatment and waste stabilization. If a waste stream is found to

be hazardous because of corrosives, neutralization is the In this paper fuzzy logic controller is designed. The fuzzy

primary treatment used. Moreover, neutralization is used as a control is developed for a pH neutralization. The controller

pre-treatment system before a variety of biological, chemical, was set up for a plant. The proposed fuzzy logic controller

and physical treatment processes. Since many chemical outperforms the usual PID controllers.

treatment processes, such as metal precipitation, coagulatio n, Proportional Controller

phosphorus precipitation, and water softening are pH

dependent, the pH of these processes is adjusted to achieve Its actuating output is proportional to the error:

maximum process efficiency. Furthermore, the pH of the

effluent wastewater from different industrial activities also (1)

requires adjustment prior to its discharge into receiving water

bodies.[2] where

It is assumed that the neutralization process reach K = the proportional gain of the controller.

c

equilibrium in water solution almost instantly. So, the reaction E(t) = the error.

rate terms can be ignored in process model which can be c = the controller’s bias signal (i.e., its actuating signal when E

s

simplified. Model using reaction invariants was proposed by

= 0 (at steady state)).

Gustafsson and Waller [3]

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

superposed adaptive control loop so that, in the case of a

control deviation, the pH value of the effluent approaches its

setpoint by a prescribed trajectory. This is controlled by

(2) comparing the actual speed of the control deviation with the

Some manufacturers do not calibrate their controllers reference speed given by the reference trajectory. The

in terms of τ but in terms of its reciprocal, 1/τ (repeats per reference speed is calculated depending on the control

I I

minute), which is known as the reset rate. it observed that deviation.

initially the controller output is K E (the contribution of the Fuzzy logic controller design

c

integral term is zero). After a period of τ minutes the Fuzzy logic controller mainly consists of three parts:

I

contribution of the integral term is: (i) Fuzzification: process of converting system inputs (process

variables) into grades of membership for linguistic of fuzzy

Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller sets, (ii) Fuzzy interference: mapping input space to output

space using membership functions, logic operations and if-

The output is given by then rule statements and (iii) Defuzzification: process of

producing quantifiable results (control valve inputs for PID

controller) in the light of given fuzzy sets and membership

(3) degree. Fuzzy logic controller performance depends on

selection of membership functions.

Where τ is the derivative time constant in minutes, with the

D The set point of the desired value is entered manually

presence of the derivative term, (dE/dt), the PID controller while other process control variables are controlled

anticipates what the error will be in the immediate future and automatically depends on plant output. The job of the fuzzy

applies a control action which is proportional to the current logic controller is to maintain the corresponding value while

rate of change in the error. Due to this property, the derivative manipulating the process control variables. Fuzzy logic

control action is sometimes referred to as anticipatory control. controller sets a new point for the PID valve flow rate

controller, when the current value is less than the desired

Adaptive Control value. The new value depends upon the difference between the

current value of the plant reactor and the desired value. The

Adaptive means it will adjust its parameters as per the

overall diagram is shown in the Fig. 1.

requirement. The various types of adaptive control systems

differ in their parameters. There are two main reasons for

using adaptive control in chemical process:

1. Most chemical process is nonlinear. Therefore, the

linearized models that are used to design linear controllers

depend on the particular steady state. It

2. Most of the chemical process are not-stationary.

The adaptive control needs an objective function that will

guide the adaptation mechanism to the "best" adjustment of

the controller parameters. Any of the performance criteria

could be used as:

• One-quarter decay ratio.

• Integral of the square error (ISE).

• Gain or phase margins, etc.

Two different mechanisms are used for the adaptation

of the controller parameters: a. Scheduled Adaptive Control b.

Self-Adaptive Control . Model Reference Adaptive Systems

(MRAS) are one popular adaptive control scheme currently

used. These schemes rely on the creation of an exact

mathematical model of the process for each application of the

controller. It requires a detailed knowledge of the transfer

Fig1: Logical diagram of fuzzy logic and PID controller.

function (plant order, time constants, dead time), usually

determined experimentally.

Fuzzy rules relate fuzzy sets. In a fuzzy system, all

rules can fire to some extent, or in other words fire partially.

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

the consequent is also true to some degree.

Fuzzy systems are suitable for uncertain or As per the electro-neutrality condition the equation

approximate reasoning, especially for the system with a can be written as

mathematical model that is difficult to derive. Fuzzy logic

allows decision making with estimated values under

incomplete or uncertain information. (8)

Equation 5 can be solved for the value of

The members of a fuzzy set are members to some Hydrogen ions H+ and can be written as:

degree, known as a membership grade or degree of

membership. A fuzzy set is fully determined by the

membership function. The membership grade is the degree of

belonging to the fuzzy set. (9)

The fuzzy controller can avoid linearity problems that equation for the mixer tank.

occur in the neutralization process. Thus the efficiency is Fig. 2 shows the dynamic response of the system

improved using this technique. This technique forms the which is clearly a non-linear system. pH value starts from

optimized technique for overcoming all non-linearities that 3.The variation of pH value from 3-4 is low and from 4-6

occur in PH neutralization. The proposed fuzzy logic variation is very high. However, pH from values 6-8 the slope

controller outperforms the usual PID controllers. is quite linear and the variation is moderate. From pH values

8-10, variation is again higher and finally pH from values 10-

II. M AT HEMATICAL M ODELLING OF PH NEUT RALIZAT ION 12 variation is low.

PILOT PLANT

Acid used in mixer tank is and alkaline used

NaOH is. Table.2 shows the various process variables used in

the neutralization plant.

T ABLE 2: PROCESS VARIABLES FOR PH NEUT RALIZAT ION PILOT

PLANT

1 pH value form mixer Meter

tank

2 alkaline tank Flow meter

3 acid tank Meter

Fig 2: Dynamic response of pH neutralization pilot plant .

(4)

Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) flow-rate control

design

(5) The characteristics curves for flow rates of acid and

alkaline valves are shown in Fig. 3. It is evident that flow

Where, V is the volume of the tank. α and β are the non - control for up scaling (opening of valve) and down scaling

reactant components of the system for acid and alkaline (closing of valve) is not the same. The error varies from 2% to

respectively. They are defined as: 6%. PID controller is designed and tuned to capture these

variations [3].

(6)

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

ADC and DAC. The ADC converts analog signal to digital

signal. The DAC converts digital signal to analog signal. The

interface unit converts analog signal to digital signal and sent

that to the computer. The output from the computer is given to

the DAC that converts digital signal to analog signal. This

analog signal is converted to 3-15mA

discover a proposal that has been made by the fuzzy

controller, pertaining to results are also having a specific PID

controllers. To draw conclusions from examining a location

that is fixed changes and an interruption of that which is

normal a stream that flows out. In order to predict the actual

behavior was carried out to the effectiveness of course of

action in controlling the PH system. To state the process

behavior earlier than doing any Laboratory works. The

Fig 3: Flow-rates of acid and base streams.

settings order to predict the application of the controller on the

real time.

Initially the proportional gain is set to minimum

value and then increased. After that the gain is varied to

maintain constant amplitude. The gain value to maintain the

oscillations of constant amplitude is given as (G=18) at the

period (P=33).

figure 4. The process has acid or base that is made ready from

a 75 liter feed tank which is located at the base of the

equipment. The reagent is kept in the 45 liter tank which is

constructed using PVC. The reagent is poured into the mixing

vessel via flow meter.

The PH transmitter monitor the PH in the mixing

vessel. The transmitter output is in the range of 3-15 mA. The

converter converts into 0-5volts and gives the output to the

computer. The computer output is fed to the converter unit.

The converter converts to 3-15mA. The signal is then supplied Fig.5 PID controller

to a (I/P) converter that in turn supplies an air pressure signal

in the range 2-10 psig to operate the control valve.

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

neutralization when compared to other controllers. It is easier

to design. For comparation purpose a graph is plotted

between fuzzy logic controller and PID controller under the

disturbance shown in figure(5). Fuzzy control outperforms the

conventional methods. Advantage Fuzzy controller gives

better performance for PH neutralization under non-linear

conditions. Fuzzy technique is superior compared to

conventional method due to several reasons given below.

In fuzzy technique few parameters are used. It

doesn’t need the use of process dynamics. Here the PH

deviation is less compared to conventional methods. The time

needed is low when compared to other conventional methods.

The performance is high when compared to conventional Fig.8 adaptive control and fuzzy pH control

methods.Thus the fuzzy control outperforms the conventional

methods and it can be choosed as the best method for the

dynamic changes that occur due to non-linearities in the Ph

neutralization .

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS Sci., Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 995-1005. (1991),

[10] Gustafsson, T. K. and Waller, K. V., “ Dynamic Modeling and Reaction

This paper presents a hybrid control (PID and fuzzy logic Invariant Control of pH”, Chem. Eng. Sci., Vol. 38, pp. 389. (1983),

controller) for pH neutralization pilot plant. It covers the entire [11] Gustafsson, T. K., Skrifvars, B. G., Sandstrom, K. V. and Waller, K. V.,

operating range and is more robust against the uncertain pH “ Modeling of pH for Control”, Ind. Eng. Chem., Res., Vol. 34, pp. 820.

value variation). It is noticed that proposed hybrid controller is (1995),

more stable as compared to the Fuzzy Logic controller. [12] Henson, M. A. and Dale, E. S., “ Adaptive Nonlinear Control of a pH

Process modelling approach adopted in this paper is based on Neutralization Process”, IEEE T ran. Cont. Sys. T ech., Vol. 2, No. 3, Aug.

(1994)

the Physico-chemical principles and fundamental laws. A

conventional mathematical modelling process is incorporated. [13] Nahas, E.P., Henson, M.A. and Seborg, D.E. (1992). Nonlinear Internal

Model Control Strategy for Neural Network Model, Comp. Chem. Eng.,

Practical tests are carried out on actual system to estimate Vol. 16, 1039- 1057.

manipulating variables which were not known before the [14 ] Pattmann, M. and Seborg, D.E. (1997). A Nonlinear Predictive Control

experiments. The design methodology presented in this paper Strategy Based on Radial Basis Function Models, Comp. Chem. Eng.,

is generally applicable to a pH neutralization plant, based on Vol. 21, 965- 980.

continuous steering tank reactor. The robustness of the Hybrid [15] Draeger, A., Engell, S. and Ranke, H. (1995). Model Predictive Control

controller depends upon the process variables i.e. Acid/Base Using Neural Networks”, IEEE Cont. Sys., Vol. 5, No.5, 66 61-66.

Flow rate control valve, pH value meter, flow transmitter and [16] Bhat, Nand McAvoy, T . J. (1990). Use of Neural Nets for Dynamic

concentration monitoring sensors as these instruments appear Modeling and Control of Chemical Process Systems, Comp. Chem.

Vol-17,573-584

as manipulating variables during controller design and

[17] Hunt, K.J. and Sbarbaro, D. (1991). Neural Networks for Nonlinear

implementation Internal Model Control, IEE Proc.-D., Vol. 138, No. 5, 431-438

In this paper, PID controller is applied for flow rate control of [1 .

acid and alkaline streams and a Fuzzy logic controller is used

to control the pH value.

weak acid–strong base, weak acid-weak base with effect of

buffer.

(Fuzzy-Neural-Genetic) control.

hybrid networks for plant model to give better convergence

with the on-line training of feed forward model.

REFERENCES

Equalization and Neutralization” 2006

[2] Dong Kyu Kim , Joeng Ho Ahn “The Application of control using neuro-

Dynamic Programing with a Feature Map” , Department of Chemical and

Biological Engineering , Korea University , Seoul , Korea .1998

[3] Gustafsson, T . K., “ An Experimental Study of a Class of Algorithm for

Adaptive pH Control”, Chem. Eng. Sci., Vol. 40, pp. 827-837. (1985),

[4] McAvoy, T .J., Hsu, E., and Lowenthal, S., “ Dynamics of pH in a

Controlled Stirred T ank Reactor”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Dev.,

Vol. 11, pp. 68. (1972),

[5] Flemming, B. and Kummel, M., “ Self-T uning Control of a pH

Neutralization Process”, Automatica, Vol. 15, pp. 665-671. (1979),

[6] Wright, R. and Kravaris, C., “Nonlinear State Feedback System”, T hesis

for pH Control, World Congr. 3 of Chem. Eng., T okyo, pp.731 -734,

(1986),

[7] Shinskey, F. G., “ Process Control System”, McGraw-Hill, New York,

(1988).

[8] Jayadeva, B., Rao, Y. S. N. M., Chidambaram, M. and Madhavan , K.

P.,“ Nonlinear Controller for a pH Process”, Comp. Chem. Eng., Vol. 14,

No. 8, pp. 917-920. (1990),

[9] Kulkarni, B. D. and Sanjeev, S. T ., “Nonlinear pH Control”, Chem. Eng.

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