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2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

Invention of a suitable controller for a non linear

Chemical process
T.Pravin Rose Dr.G.Glan Devadhas S.Reeba Rex
Asst. Professor: EEE Asso. Professor & HOD:EIE Asst. Professor: ECE
PRS College of Engineering Noorul Islam University Mar Ephraem Engineering College
Trivandrum, India Nagercoil, India Nagercoil, India
e-mail : m

Abstract —The nonlinearities form the obstacles to control the McAvoy et al explained a general dynamic model of the
dynamic behavior of the neutralization process. In this paper pH neutralization [4] They derived a mathematical model
fuzzy logic controller is designed. The fuzzy control is developed from mass balances for species .Some studies have been made
for a pH neutralization. The controller was set up for a plant. (Buchholt [5] Wright and Kravaris [6], Shinskey [7], Jayadeva
The fuzzy controller can avoid linearity problems that occur in [8] and Kulkarni [9] on the dynamic model of the continous
the neutralization process. Thus the efficiency is improved using
this technique. This technique forms the optimized technique for stirred reactor (CSTR). They assumed perfect mixing, reaction
overcoming all non-linearities that occur in PH neutralization. at equilibrium, constant volume, and constant density.
The proposed fuzzy logic controller outperforms the usual PID The reaction invariant in modeling was proposed by
Gustafsson and Waller [10]. Component balance simplifies the
Keywords— fuzzy logic, adaptive control, pH control, modeling procedure and acceptance as a standard method for
neutralization process. pH neutralization process.
Henson and Seborg [11] proposed the dynamic model
I. INT RODUCT ION using conservation equations. The model adds hydraulic
Advanced control techniques play a major role in day relationships for the tank outlet flows. Presumptions includes
today process in terms of complexity and quality of product. constant density and complete solubility of the ions involved.
So the industries are in need of efficient and flexible control
Artificial neural network is used because it out-performs
system. To satisfy the above constraints we need to go for
the nonlinear modeling pattern. Nahas et al [12] applied a
improved forms of control. The non linearity problems can be
rectified using fuzzy control. neural network controller to simulate CSTR pH neutralization
process. Pottmann and seborg[13] applied a neural network
The nonlinearities forms the obstacles to control the model predictive control algorthim to a pH neutralization
dynamic behavior of the neutralization process. The control process. Draeger et al[14] who applied ANN based dynamic
objectives of neutralization is to drive the system to a different matrix control to a pH neutralization reactor. The use of neural
pH despite the disturbance by manipulating the flow rate of networks in the internal model control IMC structure has been
titrating stream. [1] proposed and implanted by several work [15] and has been
implemented for the control of simulated process[16]. Various
Neutralization is a common practice in wastewater nonlinear control schemes has been surveyed by Doherty[17].
treatment and waste stabilization. If a waste stream is found to
be hazardous because of corrosives, neutralization is the In this paper fuzzy logic controller is designed. The fuzzy
primary treatment used. Moreover, neutralization is used as a control is developed for a pH neutralization. The controller
pre-treatment system before a variety of biological, chemical, was set up for a plant. The proposed fuzzy logic controller
and physical treatment processes. Since many chemical outperforms the usual PID controllers.
treatment processes, such as metal precipitation, coagulatio n, Proportional Controller
phosphorus precipitation, and water softening are pH
dependent, the pH of these processes is adjusted to achieve Its actuating output is proportional to the error:
maximum process efficiency. Furthermore, the pH of the
effluent wastewater from different industrial activities also (1)
requires adjustment prior to its discharge into receiving water
bodies.[2] where
It is assumed that the neutralization process reach K = the proportional gain of the controller.
equilibrium in water solution almost instantly. So, the reaction E(t) = the error.
rate terms can be ignored in process model which can be c = the controller’s bias signal (i.e., its actuating signal when E
simplified. Model using reaction invariants was proposed by
= 0 (at steady state)).
Gustafsson and Waller [3]

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2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

Proportional-Integral Controller The gain of the main control algorithm is altered by a

superposed adaptive control loop so that, in the case of a
control deviation, the pH value of the effluent approaches its
setpoint by a prescribed trajectory. This is controlled by
(2) comparing the actual speed of the control deviation with the
Some manufacturers do not calibrate their controllers reference speed given by the reference trajectory. The
in terms of τ but in terms of its reciprocal, 1/τ (repeats per reference speed is calculated depending on the control
minute), which is known as the reset rate. it observed that deviation.
initially the controller output is K E (the contribution of the Fuzzy logic controller design
integral term is zero). After a period of τ minutes the Fuzzy logic controller mainly consists of three parts:
contribution of the integral term is: (i) Fuzzification: process of converting system inputs (process
variables) into grades of membership for linguistic of fuzzy
Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller sets, (ii) Fuzzy interference: mapping input space to output
space using membership functions, logic operations and if-
The output is given by then rule statements and (iii) Defuzzification: process of
producing quantifiable results (control valve inputs for PID
controller) in the light of given fuzzy sets and membership
(3) degree. Fuzzy logic controller performance depends on
selection of membership functions.
Where τ is the derivative time constant in minutes, with the
D The set point of the desired value is entered manually
presence of the derivative term, (dE/dt), the PID controller while other process control variables are controlled
anticipates what the error will be in the immediate future and automatically depends on plant output. The job of the fuzzy
applies a control action which is proportional to the current logic controller is to maintain the corresponding value while
rate of change in the error. Due to this property, the derivative manipulating the process control variables. Fuzzy logic
control action is sometimes referred to as anticipatory control. controller sets a new point for the PID valve flow rate
controller, when the current value is less than the desired
Adaptive Control value. The new value depends upon the difference between the
current value of the plant reactor and the desired value. The
Adaptive means it will adjust its parameters as per the
overall diagram is shown in the Fig. 1.
requirement. The various types of adaptive control systems
differ in their parameters. There are two main reasons for
using adaptive control in chemical process:
1. Most chemical process is nonlinear. Therefore, the
linearized models that are used to design linear controllers
depend on the particular steady state. It
2. Most of the chemical process are not-stationary.
The adaptive control needs an objective function that will
guide the adaptation mechanism to the "best" adjustment of
the controller parameters. Any of the performance criteria
could be used as:
• One-quarter decay ratio.
• Integral of the square error (ISE).
• Gain or phase margins, etc.
Two different mechanisms are used for the adaptation
of the controller parameters: a. Scheduled Adaptive Control b.
Self-Adaptive Control . Model Reference Adaptive Systems
(MRAS) are one popular adaptive control scheme currently
used. These schemes rely on the creation of an exact
mathematical model of the process for each application of the
controller. It requires a detailed knowledge of the transfer
Fig1: Logical diagram of fuzzy logic and PID controller.
function (plant order, time constants, dead time), usually
determined experimentally.
Fuzzy rules relate fuzzy sets. In a fuzzy system, all
rules can fire to some extent, or in other words fire partially.

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2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

If the antecedent is true to some degree of membership, then (7)

the consequent is also true to some degree.
Fuzzy systems are suitable for uncertain or As per the electro-neutrality condition the equation
approximate reasoning, especially for the system with a can be written as
mathematical model that is difficult to derive. Fuzzy logic
allows decision making with estimated values under
incomplete or uncertain information. (8)
Equation 5 can be solved for the value of
The members of a fuzzy set are members to some Hydrogen ions H+ and can be written as:
degree, known as a membership grade or degree of
membership. A fuzzy set is fully determined by the
membership function. The membership grade is the degree of
belonging to the fuzzy set. (9)

Advantages of fuzzy logic control Equation 6 is the Physico-chemical pH neutralization

The fuzzy controller can avoid linearity problems that equation for the mixer tank.
occur in the neutralization process. Thus the efficiency is Fig. 2 shows the dynamic response of the system
improved using this technique. This technique forms the which is clearly a non-linear system. pH value starts from
optimized technique for overcoming all non-linearities that 3.The variation of pH value from 3-4 is low and from 4-6
occur in PH neutralization. The proposed fuzzy logic variation is very high. However, pH from values 6-8 the slope
controller outperforms the usual PID controllers. is quite linear and the variation is moderate. From pH values
8-10, variation is again higher and finally pH from values 10-
Acid used in mixer tank is and alkaline used
NaOH is. Table.2 shows the various process variables used in
the neutralization plant.

No Process control Apparatus

1 pH value form mixer Meter
2 alkaline tank Flow meter
3 acid tank Meter

4 Flow rate of alkaline Flow meter

5 Flow rate of acid stream Flow meter

The mathematical equation for mixer tank can be written as:

Fig 2: Dynamic response of pH neutralization pilot plant .
Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) flow-rate control
(5) The characteristics curves for flow rates of acid and
alkaline valves are shown in Fig. 3. It is evident that flow
Where, V is the volume of the tank. α and β are the non - control for up scaling (opening of valve) and down scaling
reactant components of the system for acid and alkaline (closing of valve) is not the same. The error varies from 2% to
respectively. They are defined as: 6%. PID controller is designed and tuned to capture these
variations [3].

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2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

The computer control need an personal computer to interface

ADC and DAC. The ADC converts analog signal to digital
signal. The DAC converts digital signal to analog signal. The
interface unit converts analog signal to digital signal and sent
that to the computer. The output from the computer is given to
the DAC that converts digital signal to analog signal. This
analog signal is converted to 3-15mA


Fuzzy controller is used in the PH neutralization. To

discover a proposal that has been made by the fuzzy
controller, pertaining to results are also having a specific PID
controllers. To draw conclusions from examining a location
that is fixed changes and an interruption of that which is
normal a stream that flows out. In order to predict the actual
behavior was carried out to the effectiveness of course of
action in controlling the PH system. To state the process
behavior earlier than doing any Laboratory works. The
Fig 3: Flow-rates of acid and base streams.
settings order to predict the application of the controller on the
real time.
Initially the proportional gain is set to minimum
value and then increased. After that the gain is varied to
maintain constant amplitude. The gain value to maintain the
oscillations of constant amplitude is given as (G=18) at the
period (P=33).

Fig .4 pH Neutralization Process


A PH neutralization process system is shown in

figure 4. The process has acid or base that is made ready from
a 75 liter feed tank which is located at the base of the
equipment. The reagent is kept in the 45 liter tank which is
constructed using PVC. The reagent is poured into the mixing
vessel via flow meter.
The PH transmitter monitor the PH in the mixing
vessel. The transmitter output is in the range of 3-15 mA. The
converter converts into 0-5volts and gives the output to the
computer. The computer output is fed to the converter unit.
The converter converts to 3-15mA. The signal is then supplied Fig.5 PID controller
to a (I/P) converter that in turn supplies an air pressure signal
in the range 2-10 psig to operate the control valve.

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2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

Fig.7 Non-linear Adaptive control Response

Fig.6 comparison of Fuzzy Logic controller and PID controller

Fuzzy controller is the optimized controller for

neutralization when compared to other controllers. It is easier
to design. For comparation purpose a graph is plotted
between fuzzy logic controller and PID controller under the
disturbance shown in figure(5). Fuzzy control outperforms the
conventional methods. Advantage Fuzzy controller gives
better performance for PH neutralization under non-linear
conditions. Fuzzy technique is superior compared to
conventional method due to several reasons given below.
In fuzzy technique few parameters are used. It
doesn’t need the use of process dynamics. Here the PH
deviation is less compared to conventional methods. The time
needed is low when compared to other conventional methods.
The performance is high when compared to conventional Fig.8 adaptive control and fuzzy pH control
methods.Thus the fuzzy control outperforms the conventional
methods and it can be choosed as the best method for the
dynamic changes that occur due to non-linearities in the Ph
neutralization .

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2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS Sci., Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 995-1005. (1991),
[10] Gustafsson, T. K. and Waller, K. V., “ Dynamic Modeling and Reaction
This paper presents a hybrid control (PID and fuzzy logic Invariant Control of pH”, Chem. Eng. Sci., Vol. 38, pp. 389. (1983),
controller) for pH neutralization pilot plant. It covers the entire [11] Gustafsson, T. K., Skrifvars, B. G., Sandstrom, K. V. and Waller, K. V.,
operating range and is more robust against the uncertain pH “ Modeling of pH for Control”, Ind. Eng. Chem., Res., Vol. 34, pp. 820.
value variation). It is noticed that proposed hybrid controller is (1995),
more stable as compared to the Fuzzy Logic controller. [12] Henson, M. A. and Dale, E. S., “ Adaptive Nonlinear Control of a pH
Process modelling approach adopted in this paper is based on Neutralization Process”, IEEE T ran. Cont. Sys. T ech., Vol. 2, No. 3, Aug.
the Physico-chemical principles and fundamental laws. A
conventional mathematical modelling process is incorporated. [13] Nahas, E.P., Henson, M.A. and Seborg, D.E. (1992). Nonlinear Internal
Model Control Strategy for Neural Network Model, Comp. Chem. Eng.,
Practical tests are carried out on actual system to estimate Vol. 16, 1039- 1057.
manipulating variables which were not known before the [14 ] Pattmann, M. and Seborg, D.E. (1997). A Nonlinear Predictive Control
experiments. The design methodology presented in this paper Strategy Based on Radial Basis Function Models, Comp. Chem. Eng.,
is generally applicable to a pH neutralization plant, based on Vol. 21, 965- 980.
continuous steering tank reactor. The robustness of the Hybrid [15] Draeger, A., Engell, S. and Ranke, H. (1995). Model Predictive Control
controller depends upon the process variables i.e. Acid/Base Using Neural Networks”, IEEE Cont. Sys., Vol. 5, No.5, 66 61-66.
Flow rate control valve, pH value meter, flow transmitter and [16] Bhat, Nand McAvoy, T . J. (1990). Use of Neural Nets for Dynamic
concentration monitoring sensors as these instruments appear Modeling and Control of Chemical Process Systems, Comp. Chem.
as manipulating variables during controller design and
[17] Hunt, K.J. and Sbarbaro, D. (1991). Neural Networks for Nonlinear
implementation Internal Model Control, IEE Proc.-D., Vol. 138, No. 5, 431-438
In this paper, PID controller is applied for flow rate control of [1 .
acid and alkaline streams and a Fuzzy logic controller is used
to control the pH value.

The following suggestions can be considered for future work:

1. Implement other systems such as strong acid-strong base,

weak acid–strong base, weak acid-weak base with effect of

2. Adding other control strategies like feed forward control,

(Fuzzy-Neural-Genetic) control.

3. Using Genetic-Algorithms and error back-propagation as

hybrid networks for plant model to give better convergence
with the on-line training of feed forward model.


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