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Power Demand In Modern Era

Bibin Raj V.S Dr. Glan Devadas

Department of Electrical Engineering Dept of Electronics and Instrumentation

Heera College of Engineering and Technology Trivandrum, Noorul Islam University

India. Kumaracoil, India.

Abstract:- The human activities contribute to the global warming of or both. “Mitigation of short-term solar power intermittency and

the planet. As a result, every country strives to reduce carbon wind gust effects and minimizing its impacts on voltage,

emissions. The world is facing not only the depletion of fossil fuels, frequency, and power fluctuations in power system” [11] and

but also it’s rising prices which cause the worldwide economic

“Lowering the transmission and distribution costs by increasing

instability. By the nomenclature it is derived that the new demand

for power has been compensated by the implementation of soalr the confidence in renewable distributed generation”.[11] are

electric and photovoltaic technology. This implant a helping hand desired to be some of the key benefits for Improving power

for the upcoming needs for the economic growth of the nation and system stability, reduction of harmonics.

the speed growing power generation technology. The main intend is

to create a new system which incorporates the working PV S ystem Energy storage plays a crucial role not only in maintaining

to load and the power electronics and the methodology to track the system reliability but also in insuring energy efficiency and

solar path by introducing the MPP tracking. Because of that the power quality. The role of storage in power system determines

efficiency can be increased further and thus can improve the the size and type of storage used. The problem is to analyze the

utilization factor. Then main prominence is to be placed on the

domain of application of the storage system. With an appropriate

photovoltaic system, the modeling and simulation of photovoltaic

array, the MPP control and the DC/DC converter. The S imulink choice of storage parameters, the storage unit may be used as

model of the PV could be used in the future for extended study with multifunctional device, able to solve a wide number of problems.

different DC/DC converter topology. Optimization of MPPT The combination of storage with grid connected PV system is

algorithm can be implemented with the existing Photovoltaic and beneficial. According to [8] IEC 61727, the DC current injected

DC/DC converter. should be less than “0.5% of rated inverter output current into the

utility AC interface.” The DC current could produce inundation

Keywords—PV;MPPT; dc-dc converter; inverter; renewable of the delivery converters within the grid.

energy sources; control algorithum.

According to [7], the PV systems should have a fixed

I. INT RODUCT ION

frequency between 59.3 – 60 Hz. The PV systems should stay

To face the challenges on rising demands on global electric synchronized with the grid. For small PV systems, the frequency

power some regulatory guidelines are adopted of best practices by trip should be 59.2 Hz and 60.6 Hz. When there is variation of

utilities in terms of the Smart Grid and renewable energy frequency outside the range specified above, the inverter has to

applications. Smart Grid organization provides the consumers stop energizing the line of utility within a span of over six cycles.

with the ability to monitor and control energy consumption. By The time delay is set to avoid the PV to trip for short time

using the Smart Grid, energy consumers will have a motivation to disturbance.

create power on their own with the use of wind turbines or solar

paneling etc. Even though the output efficiency is too low from a The paper describes the physical effect of the PV system in

PV cell the installation and maintenance is bit easier in all means. combination with the developed MPP controller. A mathematic

It also offers a wide range of domestic and industrial applications. model, the photovoltaic systems, DC-DC boost-buck, boost, buck

In isolated applications PV system is directly connected and converter, MPP controller etc. have been designed. The system

coupled with a load and storage system. Thus it improves the has been demonstrated with the MATLAB.

utility of the system.

II. TOPOLOGY

The main benefit of integrating storage with renewable A. Topology of PV Module

energy is the capability of shifting the peak demands using

different technical strength. The storage can be charged from the Soeren Baekhoej et al. [4] did a classification of Inverter

renewable sources or from the grid. The demand on the grid can Topologies for photovoltaic system. The inverter could be a

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

single stage inverter, dual stage inverter. Each topology has their PWM full bridge inverter, switched at great frequencies improves

advantages and disadvantages. An optimization is necessary for the efficiency of the system.

the choice of topology. The topology should guarantee that the

output current is a high quality sine wave and in phase with

voltage if grid connected, also with low distortion harmonic.

A LGORIT HUM

Since the Photovoltaic has a non-linearity characteristic,

maximum power point controller allows operating the

photovoltaic array at MPP. The MPPT adjust the pulse width of

the DC/DC converter or DC/AC of the inverter. Cited below are

different strategies to obtain the MPP for the PV system.

measure the prior value’s power in terms of the new value and

then makes the decision of whether the voltage for the PV array

can be increased or decreased. The reference voltage value is

adjusted until the maximum power point is reached. In [3], two

parameters control the MPP: the sample rate and the reference

voltage. With this method, the DC link voltage wavers o ver the

Fig 1: T opology of PV Module

supreme point of power. The voltage is increased or decreased

Central inverter topology can be called also single stage with constant value ΔV. The choice of ΔV determines how fast

photovoltaic system. In this topology, the photovoltaic system the MPP controller tracks the voltage. It is important to note that

includes a series-parallel connection arrangement, which is the reference voltage and MPP never coincide in steady state. The

connected to a single inverter DC/AC for the transfer of higher output voltage of the PV oscillates and causes loss of energy.

amount of power possible to the grid or the load. Single stage

photovoltaic has one inverter DC/AC that must handle the A P&O algorithm is used in [9] to interface the PV module

MPPT, control the current on the grid along with the to the grid. A boost converter is used to step up the voltage from

amplification of the voltage, which makes the single stage more the PV system and a single-phase inverter DC/AC is used for the

complex to control. Sachin Jain et al. proposed, “Using connection to the grid. According to Fangrui Lui et al [9], in the

conventional H-bridge inverter followed by step up transformer event that the solar irradiation goes through a change, the

or using a PV array with sufficiently large PV voltage.” [5] Thus, voltage that is being output is prone to faster stabilization, 4 to 5

the boost converter is no longer necessary. However, the extra cycles with P&O method, instead of 12 cycles with Hill

transformer adds up to the cost and the size of the PV system. In climbing. Although the P&O algorithm is typically seen as more

addition, the large PV array has the disadvantage of “reduced appropriate in comparison to Hill climbing, , P&O method tends

safety and increased probability of leakage current through the to oscillate about the MPP. In [9], with larger step size, PV

parasitic capacitance between the panel and the system ground.” voltage and output power result in ripples of a considerable size,

[5]. in single stage PV system, the dc/ac inverter must ensure all and the dc capacitor, which is paralleled with the PV arrays,

the functions: MPPT, boosting and inversion as shown in figure

undergoes tremendous over and under voltages that can lead to

2.

the deterioration of the PV converter’s performance.

In [6] Martina Calais et al. defined the central inverter

topology as cheap, robust and highly efficient. The major MPPT INC method is used to feed a DC motor pump in

disadvantage is the low power factor 0.6 and 0.7. The actual [10]. INC has higher tracking performance compared to P&O.

The transient of the motor is better with INC MPPT when the

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

irradiance and cell temperature are constant. The tracking but have a power factor between 0.6 and 0.7. Self-commutated

efficiency result is 99.73% with step size 0.02% when a step inverters are used quite often; they are capable switching at high

change of irradiance and temperature are applied. frequency, which introduce more losses in semiconductor. The

self-commutated inverter is robust and cheap technology.

The boost converter is widely used to pinpoint the ultimate

point of power of the PV array. It is a simple circuit with good IV. PI CONT ROLLER WIT H FORWARD COMPENSAT ION

response speed. Any algorithm of maximum power point is

flexible to implement with software and hardware. The boost

converter circuit is shown in figure 3

Fig 3: Boost Converter

The modulation used to command the three-phase inverter is

space vector Pulse width modulation (SVPWM). This technique

is largely used in power electronics nowadays and is easier to

A boost buck-boost converter to find the MPP of the implement digitally. The basic techniques are the same for three-

photovoltaic array. The buck-boost stage tracks the maximum phase inverter. Jiyong Li et al. [1] have proposed a Space vector

power by matching the output load to the optimal photovoltaic PWM control scheme for three-phase PWM inverter in PV

impedance. The two power stages shown in figure 4 worked generation system. Each state voltage is calculated from the Vdc

independently, solving the problem of ineffectiveness, and input voltage of the inverter. The reference voltage vector is

transfer efficiency. The buck-boost tracks the maximum power in calculated within the appropriate region for the purpose of

continuous conduction mode and the boost minimizes the PV minimizing the time for switching along with current harmonics

current ripple. [1]. At first, the voltage in αβ reference frame is determined, then

the duration period T 1 and T2 time duration for each vector in

each PWM cycle. The advantages with SVPWM modulation

techniques are “low total harmonic distortion (THD), constant

switching frequency, well-defined output harmonic spectrum,

optimum switching pattern and excellent dc-link voltage

utilization” [1].

The simulation of the Boost converter, the photovoltaic

array and maximum power point controller in Simulink is shown

Fig 4: Dual stage Boost Buck Boost 1 in the figure6. The system has a resistive load to test the

simulation.

The function of the DC/AC inverter is presented in [4]. It

should mold the current into a waveform i.e. sinusoidal, and The simulation presents an analysis of the photovoltaic

subsequently transform the current to ac current with low array 12000W with the boost converter to track the maximum

harmonics content. The PV array is used to inject a sinusoidal power point. The PV system parameters are:

current to the grid. The topology adopted depends on the

application whether it is a standalone PV system or grid DC bus voltage Vdc: 540 V (nominal), 200 V

connected. (min)

AC output voltage of the inverter: 208 V ( LL),

The typical DC/AC inverter could be a line frequency - 120 V (L-N), 60 Hz

commutated current source inverter (CSI), a full-bridge three- The boost input voltage nominal is 337 V and, the

level, half-bridge diode clamped three-level VSI, etc. In [4], line output voltage is 540 V.

commutated inverters are qualified robust, efficient and cheap

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

Maximum power point controller is used to control the converter, MPP controller etc. have been designed. The system

boost converter. Perturb and Observe algorithm is implemented to has been demonstrated with the MATLAB. Form the simulations

track the maximu m power of the PV module. it is identified that the results from the data sheet matches the

obtained result. The designed algorithm can track the MPP of a

specific PV module. By this the efficiency can be improved. The

output verifies the effect of different physical parameters such as

irradiance, temperature, load variations, Converter outputs etc..

sinusoidal alternating current at the output of the inverter is

detected. The power of PV cell describes the amplitude of current

and the voltage at unambiguous working stipulation.

REFERENCES

[1] Jiyong Li and Honghua Wang, “A Novel Stand-alone PV generation

System based on Variable Step Size INC MPPT and SVPWM

control,” Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, 2009.

IPEMC '09. IEEE 6th International, July 2009, pp. 2155 - 2160.

Fig 6: Simulink model of the PV system with MPPT

[2] Zeng, Q., Chang L. and Song, P., “SVPWM-based Current controller

with Grid Harmonic Compensation for three-phase grid connected

V. BOOST CONVERT ER, OUT PUT POWER, VOLT AGE AND VSI,” Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2004. PESC 04.

CURRENT 2004 IEEE 35th Annual, vol. 4, April 2005 pp. 2494 - 2500.

The same simulation is performed to test the performance of [3] Azevedo, G.M.S., Cavalcanti, M.C., Oliveira, K.C., Neves, F.A.S.

and Lins, Z.D., “Evaluation of maximum power point tracking

the boost converter. Figures, respectively the output power, methods for grid connected photovoltaic systems,” Conference on

voltage and current of the boost converter. The output power of Power Electronics Specialists, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE , August

the boost converter is still 12000 W when the irradiance is at 2008, pp. 1456 – 1462

1000. [4] Kjaer, S.B., Pedersen, J.K. and Blaabjerg, F., “A Review of single-

phase grid connected inverters for photovoltaic modules,” Industry

Applications, IEEE Transactions , vol. 41, September 2005, pp.1292-

1306.

topology for solar PV systems with maximum power point tracking,”

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 22, September 2007,

pp. 1928-1940.

[6] Calais, M., Myrzik, J., Spooner, T. and Agelidis, V.G., “ Inverters for

single-phase grid connected photovoltaic systems – an overview,”

Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2002. pesc 02. 2002 IEEE

33rd Annual, vol. 4, November 2002,pp. 1995 - 2000.

Fig 7 Output at different stages

[7] IEEE Std. 929-2000, “IEEE Recommended Practice for Utility

Interface of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems”, 2000

The simulation is run with resistive load of 24.3 ohm at the

terminal of the boost converter. The PV is set at irradiance equal [8] IEC 61727 second edition 2004, “International standard, Photovoltaic

to one and temperature to 25ºC. The left side is the photovoltaic (PV) systems- Characteristics of the utility interface”, 2004

voltage, current and power. In addition, the right side is the load

[9] Fangrui Liu, Yong Kang, Yu Zhang and Shanxu Duan, “Comparison

voltage, current and power, which is the boost converter output. of P&O and hill Climbing MPPT methods for grid-connected PV

Moreover, the boost converter increases the voltage up to 540 V. converter,” 3 rd IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and

The output power is equal to the input power, which gives the Applications, 2008. August 2008, pp. 804 – 807

output current 22.22 A. The boost converter was able to track

[10] Elgendy, M.A., Zahawi, B., Atkinson, D.J., “ Analysis of the

the maximu m power of the PV by variation of its duty cycle. performance of DC Photovoltaic systems with maximum power point

tracking,”4 th IET Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and

VI. CONCLUSION Drives, 2008. PEMD 2008., May 2008, pp. 426 - 430.

The paper describes the physical effect of the PV system in

combination with the developed MPP controller. A mathematic [11] Nasiri, A. “ Integrating energy storage with renewable energy

systems”, Industrial Electronics, 2008. IECON 2008. 34th Annual

model, the photovoltaic systems, DC-DC boost-buck, boost, buck Conference of IEEE, 10-13 Nov. 2008, pp. 18

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

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