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Controller for Solar Furnace

Mythily.R.S Dr.Glan Devadhas

PG Scholar: Dept. of E&I HOD: Dept. of E&I

Noorul Islam College of engineering Noorul Islam College of engineering

Kumara coil, India Kumara coil, India

mythilyrsnair@gmail.com glandeva@gmail.com

Abstract— This paper explores different control techniques desired level considering the nonlinear effect between the

to control the temperature of material samples in a solar incident energy and the

he temperature of the sample.

furnace. Solar furnaces

naces provide the means to concentrate

solar radiation on samples placed at their foci. The II. PLANT DESCRIPTION

objective of the system is to control the temperature of the The 6KW solar furnace (Fig.1) mainly consist of a

samples for testing purpose and the solar furnace are continuously solar tracking, flat heliostat, a parabolic

characterized to provide concentrated solar energenergy for concentrator, an attenuator or shutter and the test zone located

testing applications. Control techniques including PI, PID, in the concentrator focus[1]. The heliostat reflects the sunlight

Fuzzy MPAC are implemented and simulation results into the parabolic collector which in turn reflects them on to

demonstrate the effectiveness of each methodology. the focus; the test area where the sample whose temperature is

to controlled is positioned. The heliostat system operates

independently of the

Keywords—Linearization,fuzzy,Nearal

Linearization,fuzzy,Nearal network model predictive

adaptive control, Solar furnace, Thermal stress test

I. INTRODUCTION

Due to high demands on different renewable energies they are

becoming one of the most important topics in society industry

and research. In fact the damages caused by pollution of non-

non

renewable sources of energy and the exhaustion of fossil fuels

increases the interest towards green energy. Solar energy has

been in the spotlight of investigation in Mankind’s quest for

the ultimate, unlimited source of power. It is one of the most

interesting and important source of renewable

newable energy and

various technologies like solar water heaters or photovoltaic Fig.1 Schematic of solar furnace

panels take advantage of this.

The concentrated solar radiation is used in a solar furnace by temperature control system in such a way that the heliostat

using an optical system to focus a large area of sunlight into a movement is autonomously controlled by a computer system

smaller area. Solar power is exploited in a solar furnace for which calculates and position thee heliostat which depends on

thermal and chemical treatments or resistance test for high the geographic latitude, longitude, sun trajectory etc. The

temperature or thermal shocks [1]-[3]. amount of incident light is regulated by a computer controlled

In Odeillo, France, the solar complex plant has many types of louvered attenuator or shutter between the concentrator and

solar furnaces that are used for such experiments.

ents. Mainly, a the heliostat with a dimension of 11.5m x 11.2m

11 and 15896

6KW furnace is capable of focusing a total of 5500KW/m2 in positions between 550(closed) and 0o(open). The parabolic

a 0.5cm wide focus. In this paper, the work is mainly focussed collector concentrates the incident light from the heliostat and

to obtain an automatic control system that can be applied to multiplies the radiant energy in the focal zone. The parabolic

this system is. Obtaining a robust and reliable temperatu

temperature surface is achieved by using curved facets with a total surface

control system is of significant importance as it allows for of 98.5m2 and a reflectivity of 92%.

repeatability of experiments as well as accurate ways to The test table where the samples are placed is mobile on

subdue samples to desired temperature profiles. three axes perpendicular to each other with a dimension of

The aim of this work is to design a control system that is 0.7m x 0.6m. Te movement of test table is performed

capable of producing large gradients of temperature on the manually by acting on 6 cursors placed in the operation board

tested sample and to control the sample temperatures to that activate the corresponding step motor of the positioning

system of the table to allow the displacement in three axes and

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

to place the sample in the accurate focus before starting the linear control techniques to the obtained model equation

experiment. Once the table is positioned on the focus where (1)must be linearized.

the solar radiation is concentrated the table stands a fixed Let U(t) = Gs(t)S(θ(t)), the amount of radiation that reach the

position. Neither the positioning system of the heliostat or the sample be the input to the system. If the system is in the

movable table is useful for controlling the temperature of the equilibrium point (U0, T0), where the energy variation on the

sample. sample is null, and if a small perturbation on the input (U =

The function of the heliostat positioning system is to provide U0+u, Ts=T0+δ) is induced, a linearized model of the thermal

the maximum amount of concentrated solar energy and that of balance is obtained. Using Taylor’s Theorem for nonlinear

the table is to place the sample in the focus before each test. functions the following equation defines a linear

So as from the control side the input signal to the system is the approximation for Ts(t)

aperture of the shutter and the output signal is the temperature

of the sample. .

. . d T s (t )

T s ( t ) T s (t ) | (U U 0 ),T s T0 ) | (U U 0 ,T s T0 ) (T s T 0 )

III. MODELLING dT s

.

The basic sample temperature model is described in [1][5]. d T s (t )

The model consists of the first order nonlinear differential | (U U 0 ,T s T0 ) (U U 0 )

equation: du

dTs ( ) (3)

-1 [Ts4 (t) - Te4 (t)] - 2 [Ts (t) - Te (t)] 3G s (t)S( (t)) With (1) the linear differential equation for the temperature

dt

(1) dynamics is obtained

Here Te(K) is the temperature of the environment. The

parameters α1, α2, α3 are temperature dependent and are δ (t) = -4α1To3 δ - α2δ+α3U (4)

defined by the following equations:

Now considering initial null conditions the Laplace transform

As

1 may be applied with U(t) U(s) δ Ts(s) the resulting transfer

Cpm function for the linearised model is given by

hconv As

2

Cpm Ts ( s ) 3

s As g f hr U ( s) s 4 1To 3 2

3 (2)

Cpm Ts ( s ) b (5)

; where

Assuming the average available solar power of 1000W/m2 the U ( s) s a

gain of the furnace is then Gf=2525 b 3

It is assumed in this work that the sample being tested is a disk

a 4 1To 2

3

of alumina (Al2O3), allowing the specification of certain

matter properties required to test the developed model. This

material is commonly used in these types of experiments that

will be considered Convection factor (Hconv), heat capacity

(Cp) and emissivity () are temperature dependent and is IV. P & PI CONTROL SCHEMES

described in [2] As usual in the development of automatic control scheme the

Parameter Description Value first step in the design is the design of classical PID control

M(kg) Mass of sample 2.651×10-3 schemes[7]. As a first step proportional controller is analysed.

Emissivity 0.85 Introducing fine tuning by trial and error method Kp value is

σ[Wm-2k-4] Stefan-boltzmann 5.67 ×10-3

const chosen as 0.5. Fig. shows the simulation result of step

As Exposed sample 7.068 ×10-4 response with a P controller corresponding to two different Kp

area values. As the plant can be approximated as a first order system

αs Sample’s solar 0.14 and considering the system specifications a PI controller is

absorption factor tuned and implemented. The gain values are found using

Gf Solar furnace gain 2525 Ziegler Nichols tuning method. Introduction of the integral

Hr Heliostat& 1

concentrator

gain reduces the settling time and also the steady state error.

mirror gain Table shows different values of Kp and Ki used and their

Gs(t)[kw m-2] Max.solar flux 1 corresponding rise time settling time and overshoot. Fig.6.2.

Table 3.1: Parameters for the thermal Table dynamics model. shows the corresponding simulation results using PI controller

using three different ranges of gains. Table 4.1 shows the

The model obtained has nonlinear properties and hence characteristic values of the parameters and corresponding time

linearization techniques will be used to obtain a linear model, domain characteristics

allowing application of linear control theory. In order to apply

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

nce or comparison is then fed to another

neural network which is the controller part. This neural

V. FUZZY CONTROLLER

network controller is designed in such a way that the plant

Fuzzy logic is used to mimic the expert’s way of operating output follows the reference model output whose dynamics are

on samples [9].. In fuzzy logic fast responses without well known.Fig.5.1

Fig.5.1 shows the Simulink block of neural

overshoots were achieved

chieved without the use of any physical network MRAC

model of the system. In FLC architecture the inputs were error

and the derivative of the error of the controlled variable;

which is the sample temperature. The Simulink block for the

Fuzzy logic controlled solar furnaceace is shown in Fig. The

fuzzy controller is developed in the FIS editor provided by the

MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Fig.5.1 shows the Simulink

model of the fuzzy logic controlled solar furnace. Fig.6.3.

shows the simulation result for the fuzzy and PID controller.

cont

The training algorithms are used to optimize the performance

function. When the weights and biases of the network are

initialized the network is ready for training. The

Th process of

training a neural network involves tuning the values of the

weights and biases of the network to optimize network

performance. Levenberg Marquardt (LM) training algorithm is

being used. ‘trainlm’ is the training function which supports

trainingg with validation and test vectors. The network

performance function is the mean square error(mse) which is

given by

1 N

1 N

VI. NEURAL NETWORK MRAC M se

N

(E ) i

2

N

(Y p Ym ) 2

A neural network based Model Reference Adaptive Controller i i

(MRAC) is implemented to control the temperature of sample Where Ei is the error Yp is the plant output and Ym is the

in the solar furnace. Neural network theory can be applied model output. Objective of model reference control system is

successfully for identification and control of dynamic to obtain a control law and an updating law of the controller

systems[10].. Model reference control NN architecture is being parameters such that the tracking error

used.It requires a NN plant model and a separate NN limt ( y P (t ) ym (t ) ; 0

controller. The neural model reference control architecture Should be a minimum for some specified constant >0. The

uses two neural networks; a control network and a plant control loop is adjusted by an adaptation mechanism which

network. attempts to make the responses of process and reference model

identical. Control law is developed so that the closed loop

plant has transfer function equals the reference model. Control

algorithm or adjustment mechanism constructed by the

adaptive control rule called MIT rule which performs the

algorithm as follows;

Tracking error, e = Yp – Ym

1 2

Cost function , J ( ) (e ( ) ;

2

Where θ is controller parameter

The MIT rule says that the time rate of change of θ is directly

First the plant model is identified using a NN plant model.The

proportional to the negative gradient of J

controller is a neural networkork that is trained to control the

That is,

plant so that it follows a reference model. Plant identification

involves the recollection of information about the dynamic U U C

plant to be controlled.

ontrolled. First a neural network is designed to

identify the plant that is it learns the plant behavior through d dJ de

training and the knowledge thus obtained is used to generate e ;where γ is a tuning parameter

dt d d

an output signal which is then compared with the actual plant

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

600

Different control techniques have been used in sample

temperature control of solar furnace. In [6] an adaptive plus 400

feed forward control technique is being used with the same

physical model. The disturbance rejection problem is treated 200

in [7].In [8] the same physical model as in [5] is being used

0

with a simple algorithm. In [9] fuzzy logic techniques are

implemented. 600

Kp=0.5,Ki=0.01

comparative study between different control techniques used 400

200

Fig.6.1.shows a comparative response between two values of

Kp. It shows that increasing the value of proportional gain 0

considerably reduces the rise time and settling time. KP=0.5,Ki=0.005

Continuing the analysis by adding an integral; the introduction 600

of integral gain reduces the settling time and also steady state

400

error. Comparative response of of PI controller with different

values of controller parameters is shown in Fig.6.2. From the 200

figure it can be inferred that introduction of the integral gain

reduces the rise time and settling time but there is a 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

considerable increase in overshoot. Reduction in integral grain

reduces the overshoot from 6.98% to 2.69%

of controller parameters

500

Controller Parameter Settling Rise time overshoot

values time

400

P Kp=0.2 195.6 109.8

300 Kp=0.5 15 8.45

Kp=0.5 51.2 6.88 6.98

Ki=0.02

200 PI Kp=0.5 43.7 7.98 2.69

Ki=0.01

100 Kp=0.5 15.69 8.78 0

Ki=.005

0 Table 1.Values of characteristic parameters

500 800

PID1

PID 2

400 700

PID WITHOUT FUZZY

PID WITH FUZZY

300 600

200 500

100 400

0 300

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

200

Kp=0.5

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

rise time and also account for the constraints in the

temperature of furnace

76.072

76.071

76.07

76.069

76.068

76.067

76.066

76.065

76.064

76.063

76.062

250 300 350 400 450 500

adaptive controller

VIII. CONCLUSION

A comparative study of the control techniques for the

temperature control of solar furnace is proposed in this paper.

Control schemes incorporating P, PI and fuzzy controllers and

Neural Network Model Reference Adaptive controllers are

presented. Different plant simulation results have been shown

and a comparative study is being presented.

REFERENCES

temperature control of a solar furnace”IEEE transactions on control

systems technology,vol.20,No.5,2012.

[2] B.AndradeCosta,J.M.Lemos,”Predictive Adaptive Temperature Control

in a Solar Furnace for Material Stress Tests,IEEE international

conference on CC,2012.

[3] Andrade Costa , J.Lemos “Predictive Adaptive Temperature Control in a

Solar Furnace for Material Stress Test,IEEE conference on Control

Application 2012.

[4] Zuraida Muhammad, Zakiah Mohd Yusoff ,“Steam Temperature Control

for SteamDistillation Pot Using Model

PredictiveControl”,IEEESignalProcessing.,vol 27,no.12,pp.4952-

4964,Dec 2012

[5] M.BerenguelE.F CamachoF.J Garcia Martin,”temperature control of a

solar furnace, IEEE transaction on control sys, vol.152011

[6] B.Andrade costa, E.GulliotV”An Adaptive Temperature Control Law

for a Solar Furnace” ,16th Mediterranean conference on Contreol and

Automation 2011

[7] Aniruddha Paradkar,c”Temperature Control of a Solar Furnace with

Disturbance Accomodation Controller, IEEE conference,2010

[8] WoosungChoi,WoojongYoo“Development of Automatic temperature

control system in Blast furnace” SICE-ICASE international joint

conference 2010

[9] David Lecasa, Manuel Berenguel “Copper sintering in a solar furnace

through Fuzzy Control”IEEE international conference on Control

Applications 2009

[10] M.Y.ElGhoumari, “Non-linear Constrained MPC:Real Time

implementation of green house air temperature control ”, computers and

electronics in agriculture,Science Direct 2008

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