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ISSN: 2040-7467

© Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2012

Submitted: August 26, 2011 Accepted: October 07, 2011 Published: February 15, 2012

for a dc-dc Converter

1

D.M. Mary Synthia Regis Prabha, 2S. Pushpa Kumar and 1G. Glan Devadhas

1

PRIST University, Thanjavur

2

Heera College of Engineering and Technology, Nedumancadu, Trivandrum

Abstract: This study deals with the design and analysis of a dc-dc converter operating in continuous conduction

mode with Proportional-Integral-Derivative control and PID based Sliding Mode Control (SMC). A small signal

model is developed using Switching Flow Graph (SFG) from which the control coefficients for the PID

controller is selected. PID based SMC uses a control law which constrains the weighted sum of the voltage

error, its derivatives and the integral of the voltage error to zero. The equivalent control technique is used in

its design which makes the converter more suitable for fixed frequency operation. Sensitivity of these

controllers to supply voltage disturbances and load disturbances is studied and results are presented.

Key words: dc-dc converter, PID based SMC, PID control, switching flow graph

technique has been demonstrated for a Buck Converter.

Switching mode dc-dc converters are widely used PID control and PID based SMC are two different

today in a variety of applications including power control techniques considered in this paper. PID control

supplies for personal computers, mission critical space is a traditional linear control, while SMC is a type of non-

applications, laptop computers, dc motor drives, medical linear control. Linear PID controllers for dc-dc converters

electronics as well as high power transmission. These are usually designed by classical frequency response

converters are non-linear dynamical systems. The non- techniques applied to the small-signal models of

linearities arise primarily due to switching, power converters (Liping et al., 2009). A bode plot is adjusted in

devicesand passive components such as inductors and the design to obtain the desired loop gain, cross-over

capacitors. frequency and phase margin. The transient response can

A control technique suitable for dc-dc converters be tuned using root locus type approaches (Prodic and

must cope with their intrinsic non-linearity and wide input Maksimovic, 2002). The stability of the system is

voltage and load variations ensuring stability in any guaranteed by an adequate phase margin. PID control is

operating condition while providing fast transient typically designed for one nominal operating point (Perry

response. Among the various control techniques available, et al., 2007). For a buck converter, the magnitude of the

sliding mode control offers several advantages, namely frequency response depends on the duty cycle. Duty cycle

large signal stability, robustness, good dynamic response variations do not change the shape of the magnitude plot

and simple implementation. The design of a SMC does of the transfer function, but only shifts the plot upward

not require an accurate model of the system. The ideal (Siew et al., 2008). Therefore, a PID controller may not

nature of the controller is to operate at an infinite respond well to significant changes in operating points.

switching. This nature enables the controlled variable to In this study, the problem of PID based quasi sliding

track a certain reference path to achieve the desired mode control of a Buck Converter is discussed. The

dynamic response and better steady state operation (Duan design of a PID controller for a dc-dc converter is

and Jin, 1999). This extreme high frequency operation discussed in detail. Finally, comparison of these two

results in excessive switch losses and Electromagnetic methods is performed in order to verify the dynamic and

Interference (EMI) noise issues. In addition sliding mode steady state responses and their robustness to sudden line

control also exhibits steady state error for the output variations.

voltage. Hence, for sliding mode controllers to be

applicable for dc-dc power converters, it becomes SYSTEM MODELING

essential to constrict the switching frequency within a

practical range. Moreover, variable switching frequency Linear controllers for dc-dc converters are often

is undesirable for power converters. A method of ensuring designed based on mathematical models. The most

constant switching frequency is to employ Pulse Width commonly used technique for modeling linear

Corresponding Author: D.M. Mary, Synthia Regis Prabha, Associate Professor, Noor ul Islam University, Kumaracoil

342

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(4): 342-349, 2012

controllers is the traditional state space averaging method. A small signal model takes a circuit and based on an

The major drawback of this method is that the linearized operating point (bias) and linearizes all the components.

models obtained through averaging process, do not Nothing changes because the assumption is that the signal

predict the large-signal stability information, and are only is so small that the operating point (gain, capacitance etc.)

sufficient to predict small-signal stability. doesn't change. A large signal model on the other hand

343

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(4): 342-349, 2012

takes into account the fact that the large signal actually Table 1: Prototype Buck Converter circuit parameters

affects the operating point and takes into account that Parameter Value Units

Input voltage, Vi 24 V

elements are non-linear and that circuits can be limited by Desired output voltage, Vod 12 V

power supply values. A small signal model ignores supply Load resistance, Ro 6 S

values. Filter inductance, L 35 :H

Filter capacitance, C 150 :F

Graphical Analysis Method (GAM): This is a ESR of inductor, RL 0.12 S

ESR of capacitor, RC 0.03 S

non-linear modeling method. This is developed for

pulse-width modulated converters. The GAM converts the

switching converter, even the multistate converter the filter capacitance C (Perry et al., 2007). The cut-off

frequency of the second order low pass filter is TC

=1/%LC Variations of D, varies the magnitude of the

systems, into a unified dynamic model. From unified

model, it is possible to derive large, small signal and

steady state models with mathematical manipulations. transfer function. Moreover, it does not change the shape

Each system can be represented by a flow graph. The of the frequency response, but shifts the magnitude plot

switching flow graph is obtained by combining the flow upward or downward.

graphs of the subsystems through the use of switching Table 1 gives the circuit parameters of the prototype

branches (Mummadi, 2004). The switching flow graph Buck Converter selected for experimentation. The

model is easy to derive, and it provides a visual nominal operating point of the prototype Buck converter

representation of a switching converter system. is chosen as follows: Input Voltage, Vi = 24 V, Desired

Buck converter shown in Fig. 1 has two modes of Output Voltage, Vod = 12 V, Duty ratio D = 0.5.

operation: (i) Switch is on (ii) Switch is off. The circuit Small signal control to output transfer function at this

diagram of the Buck converter is shown below. nominal operating point is given as:

The switching flow graph is drawn for the on-state

sub-circuit and the off-state sub-circuit which is shown in

Fig. 2 and 3, respectively. These two sub-circuits are V$0 ( s) ⎡ 24 + 10.8e − 4 s ⎤

$ =⎢ −4 −9 2 ⎥ (3)

combined together which gives the switching flow graph d ( s) ⎢⎣ 1 + 5817

. e s + 4.243 e s ⎥⎦

of the Buck converter which is shown in Fig. 4.

Derivation of small-signal model using switching flow Small Signal Input to Output transfer function at this

graph: Small signal control to output transfer function is nominal operating point is given as:

derived as:

V$0 ( s) ⎡ 1 + 45.39 e − 4 s ⎤

V$0 ( s) V0 $ = ⎢ 2⎥ (4)

= Vin ( s) ⎢⎣ 235.65e + 137 e s + s ⎥⎦

6 3

d$( s) D

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥ (1)

⎢ 1 + sRC C ⎥

⎢

Design of PID controller for a buck converter: The

⎛ RL RO L ⎞ ⎛ RO + RC ⎞ ⎥

⎢ 1 + s⎜ RC C + C+ ⎟ + s LC⎜

2

⎟⎥ open loop transfer function G(S) H(s) of the Buck

⎢⎣ ⎝ RL + RO RL + RO ⎠ ⎝ RO + RL ⎠ ⎥⎦

converter is given by Eq. (3). A PID compensator is

designed with a phase margin of 45º at a cross-over

Small Signal Input to Output transfer function is derived frequency of 125.66 kHz. The steady state error for unit

as: ramp input is considered to be 0.035%. The PID

controller has a transfer function of GC(S) = KP+ Kis

V$0 ( s) DR0 +Kds. Ki is decided by steady state requirements. Once we

=

V$in ( s) ( R0 + RL ) know KI , we can find out KP and Kd, Eq. (5) and (6).

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥ (2)

⎢ 1 + sRC C ⎥ sin θ

⎢ Kp = (5)

⎛ RL R0 L ⎞ ⎛ R0 + RC ⎞ ⎥ | G( jω ) H ( jω )|

⎢ 1 + s⎜ RC C + C+ ⎟ + S LC⎜

2

⎟⎥

⎢⎣ ⎝ RL + R0 RL + R0 ⎠ ⎝ R0 + RL ⎠ ⎥⎦

Ki − ω cosθ

In this transfer function, VO is the output voltage, D Kd = (6)

ω 2 |G ( jω ) H ( jω )|

is the duty cycle, C is the output capacitance, L is the

inductance and R is the load resistance. RL and RC are the

Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) of L and C, where, tan 2 = Kp T/Ki T2 Kd. The KP, Ki and Kd values

respectively. This transfer function is a second order low are found to be 5.80125, 119.048 and 0.0869×10G4,

pass filter, with a left-half-plane introduced by the ESR of respectively.

344

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(4): 342-349, 2012

Design of a sliding mode controller: has a form similar to a PID (Proportional, Integral

C Step 1: Determination of the state variables: The and Derivative) controller. Third, it contained a form

output voltage error decay is essentially the main of state-feedback which provides a more flexible way

control objective in real time. The selected state to close the feedback loop to obtain any type of

variables are output voltage error, output voltage responses at will.

error dynamics and the integral of the error of the C Step 4: Ensure existence of sliding mode operation:

output capacitor (Utkin et al., 1999): The local reachability condition lims÷0 + s.Ñ < 0,

must be satisfied. This is expressed as:

⎡V − βV ⎤

⎢ ref O ⎥

⎢d ⎥ S& = K T Ax + K T BU <0

s→ 0 + s→ 0 +

X = ⎢ (Vref − βVO ) ⎥

⎢ dt ⎥ S& = K T Ax + K T BU <0

⎢ ⎥ s→ 0 − s→ 0 −

⎢⎣ ∫

( Vref − βVO ) dt ⎥⎦

C Step 5: Derivation of existence condition:

C Step 2: Develop the state variables: B For S ÷ 0+ and Ð < 0 and âs ÷ 0+ = 0, we get:

⎡ x&1 ⎤ ⎡ 0

⎢ ⎥ ⎢

1

− ( L + CR0 RL )

0⎤

⎥

⎡ x1 ⎤

⎢ ⎥ [V ref ]

− β VO LC −

α1

α2

β Lic

⎢ x&2 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 0⎥ ⎢ x2 ⎥ (9)

⎢⎣ x&3 ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎥

LCRO

⎢⎣ x3 ⎥⎦ ( L + CRO RL ) βV0 ( R0 − RL )

⎢⎣ 1 0 0⎥⎦ + β ic + >0

CR0 R0

⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤

⎢ − βV ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

β V ( R − RL ) ⎥

+⎢ i⎥

u+ ⎢ 0 O B For S ÷ 0G0 and Ð > 0 and âs ÷ 0G = 1, we get:

⎢ LC ⎥ ⎢ LCR0 ⎥

⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

α α

⎣ ⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦

[ ]

β Vi > 3 Vref − βVo LC − 1 β LiC

α2 α2

(10)

C Step 3: Define the switching status and sliding ( L + CRO RL ) β V ( R − RL )

+ β ic + 0 0

equation: CR0 R0

u= ⎨ obtained by combining both Eq. (8) and (9):

⎩ 0, when S < 0

α3 α

0< [V − βVO ]LC − 1 βLiC

where ‘S’ is the instantaneous state variables α 2 ref α2

trajectory. (11)

( L + CRO RL ) βV ( R − RL )

+ βiC + 0 0 < βVi

CR0 R0

d (Vref − β VO )

S = Kd + K p (Vref − β VO )

dt The condition given in Eq. (10) provides a range of

T (7) employable sliding surface coefficients such that

∫

+ Ki (Vref − Vo )dt irrespective of the circuit parameters, the system

O trajectories near the surface are directed towards the

sliding surface itself.

S = a1x1 + a2 x2 + a3 x3 = K T x (8) Considering the design parameters, the existence

condition is modified. From the left inequality of the

where "1, "2 and "3 are sliding coefficients with KT = existence condition, we get:

["1 "2 "3].

α3 ( R − RL )

This Eq. (7) has three significant implications. First, LC (V − βVo ) + βVo O

α1 α 2 ref RO

this control law states that not only the weighted sum <

of voltage error and its derivative needs to be α2 βLic (12)

constrained to be zero but also the integral of the ⎡ 1 R ⎤

+⎢ + L⎥

voltage error must be included. Secondly, the Eq. (7) ⎣ O

CR L ⎦

345

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(4): 342-349, 2012

1.00

a3 ( R − RL ) 0.98

βVi − LC (V − βVo ) − βVo o

a1 a2 ref Ro

< 0.96

a2 βLiC (13) 0.94

⎡ 1 RL ⎤

+⎢ + ⎥ 0.92

⎣ CRO L ⎦

0.90

0.88

Dividing Eq. (11) and (12): 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Load Ro (Ω)

⎪Vo ⎢1 − L ⎥ + 3 ⎢ − Vo ⎥ ⎪

⎪ Ro ⎦ α 2 ⎣ β ⎦⎪

Vi = 2⎨ ⎣

17.6

⎬ (14) 17.4

⎪ LC − LiC − i R ⎪ 17.2

⎪ C L ⎪

⎩ CRo ⎭ 17.0

16.8

16.6

16.4

The range of input and loading conditions is 16.2

considered and the modified existence condition is 16.0

given as: 15.8

15.6

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

α ⎛ Vref ⎞ ⎛ RL ⎞ Load Ro ( Ω)

LC 3 ⎜ −Vo ⎟ +Vo ⎜⎜1− ⎟

⎟

α1 α2 ⎝ β ⎠ ⎝ Ro(max) ⎠ ⎡ 1 R ⎤

< +⎢ + L⎥ Fig. 6: Plot between Ro and 81

α2 LiC

⎢⎣ CRo(max) L ⎥⎦

for U eq = − [ K T Ax ]−1 K T [ Ax + D] (17)

⎧⎪ ⎡ RL ⎤

Vi(min) ≥ 2⎨Vo ⎢1 − ⎥+ â eq is continuous and hence 0< â eq < 1.

⎩⎪ ⎢⎣

Ro(max) ⎥⎦ Comparing Eq. (9) and (10) and mapping the

(15) equivalent control function onto the duty cycle function,

α3 ⎡ Vref ⎤ Li c ⎫⎪

we get:

⎢ − Vo ⎥ LC − − iC RL ⎬

α2 ⎣ β ⎦ CRo(max) ⎪⎭

Vcon = − λ1ic + λ2 (Vref − βVo ) + λ3βVo (18)

also

α ( R − RL )

βVi − LC 3 (Vref − β Vo ) − βVo o

α1 α2 Ro Vramp = β Vi (19)

<

α2 βLic

⎡ 1 RL ⎤ where

+⎢ +

⎣ CRO L ⎥⎦ ⎛ α1 1 R ⎞ α

λ1 = βL⎜ − − L ⎟ , λ2 = 3 LC

⎝ α2 RoC L⎠ α2

for

⎛ RL ⎞

⎧ ⎡

⎪Vo ⎢1 −

RL ⎤ α3

⎥+

⎫

⎪

and λ3 = ⎜ 1 − ⎟

⎪⎪ ⎢⎣ Ro(max) ⎥⎦ α 2 ⎪⎪ ⎝ R0 ⎠

Vi(min) ≥ 2 ⎨ ⎬ (16)

⎪⎡ Vref ⎤ LiC ⎪

⎪⎢ − Vo ⎥ LC − − ic RL ⎪ Variation of 81 and 83 with variations in the load is shown

⎪⎩⎣ β ⎦ CRo(max) ⎪⎭ in Fig. 6 and 5 respectively. These figures show that the

variation of 81 and 83 for 96.77% of load is only -11.15

C Step 6: Derivation of control equations using and 11.65%, respectively. 82 remains constant irrespective

equivalent control method: In the invariance of the variations in the load. Thus, the control signal does

condition, Ö = 0, substituting â- â eq, we get: not undergo noticeable changes for variations in the load.

346

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(4): 342-349, 2012

26

33V 18V

20 30V 13V 24

24V

15 22

25 20

10 18

5 16

5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0

0 X10-4sec

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

various inputs

11.86

Inductor current 11.85

2.0 Capacitor current 1184

11.83

1.5 11.82

11.81

1.0

11.8

0.5 11.79

11.78

0.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0

X10-4sec

-0.5 (b)

0 22 24 26 28

-4

Fig. 9: Dynamic response of the PID controlled buck

Fig. 8: Inductor and capacitor current waveforms converter to step input change from 24 to 18 V (a)

Input voltage (b) Output response

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

11.94

PID controller: Figure 7-10 illustrates the results

11.92

provided by the computer simulation of a PID controlled

Buck converter using Matlab-Simulink. 11.90

Figure 7 shows the output responses of the converter 11.88

when it subjected to various input voltages. It can be

11.86

noticed that as the input voltage decreases from 33 to 13

V, the peak overshoot as well as the settling time of the 11.84

converter decreases. The inductor and capacitor current 11.82

waveforms of the converter under continuous conduction

mode are shown in Fig. 8. Figure 9 shows that when the 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.8

-5

input voltage is changed from 24 to 18V at 0.6 ms, we can

infer that the system takes 0.09 ms to settle at a new

Fig. 10: Dynamic response of the PID controlled buck

steady state value which is less than the initial steady state

converter to load step change from 6 to 25S

value by 0.04 V. Figure 10 shows the dynamic response

of the converter for a load step change from 6 to 25S. It waveforms of the converter under continuous conduction

is clear that the system takes 0.058 ms to settle at a new mode are shown in Fig. 12 which is similar to that of the

steady state point which is 0.008 V greater than its steady waveforms of a PID controlled converter. When the input

state value. voltage is changed from 24 to 18 V at 0.4 ms, (Fig. 13),

we can infer that the system takes 0.02 ms to settle at a

SMC waveforms: Figure 11-15 illustrates the results new steady state value which is less than the initial steady

provided by the computer simulation of a PID based SM state value by 0.6 :V (Fig. 13) which is a very negligible

controlled Buck converter using Matlab - Simulink. value when compared to that of the PID controller.

347

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(4): 342-349, 2012

33V 15V

30V 13V 12.05

20 24V

12.04

15 12.03

12.02

25

12.01

10

12.00

5 11.99

11.98

0

0 2.5 3 3.5

1 2 3 X10-4 sec

X10-4sec

Fig. 11: Output response of a PID based SMC controlled buck Fig. 14: Dynamic response of the PID based SMC controlled

converter for various inputs buck converter to load step change from 6 to 25S

Inductor current PID controller

2.5 Capacitor current 20 SM controller

2.0 15

1.5

25

1.0

10

0.5

5

0.0

0

-0.5 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

X10-4sec X10-4sec

Fig. 12: Inductor and capacitor current waveforms Fig. 15: Output response of PID based SMC versus PID

controllers

26

12.05 SMC

24 PID

22

12.00

O utput voltage (VO)

11.95

20

18

11.90

16

11.85

3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.4

X10-4sec

11.80

(a) 11.75

12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Input voltage (Vt)

11.992

Fig. 16: Variation of output with variation of input

11.900

11.988 Table 2: Comparison between PID and PID based SMC Buck Converter

11.966 Parameters PID control PID based SMC

Settling time 4.7×10G4s 1.84×10G4s

11.964 Maximum peak overshoot 6.22 V 5.253 V

11.962 Steady state error 0.16 V 0.009 V

3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.4 When there is a load step change from 6 to 25S, the

X10-1sec

system takes 0.035 ms to settle with negligible steady

(b) state error (Fig. 14).

Figure 15 shows the output response of a PID based

Fig. 13: Dynamic response of the PID controlled buck SMC versus PID controller. It can be inferred from the

converter to step input change from 24 to 18 V at 0.4 figure that the SMC response has much less settling time

ms (a) Input voltage (b) Output response than that of the PID controlled Buck converter response.

348

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(4): 342-349, 2012

error is more for the latter when compared with the

former. When subjected to sudden line and load variation, Duan, Y. and H. Jin, 1999. Digital Controller Design for

the PID based SMC settles at a much less time as Switch mode power converters. Proceedings in 14th

compared to that of a PID controller. Annual Power Electronics Conference Exposition,

Table 2 gives a comparison of the performance

Dallas, Tx, 2: 14-18, 967-973.

parameters of the PID controlled Buck converter and PID

Liping, G., Y.H. John and R.M. Nelms, 2009. Evaluation

based SMC controlled Buck Converter.

of DSP based PID and fuzzy controllers for DC-DC

Figure 16 shows the variation of output with variation

in input for both converters. It can be inferred that when Converters. IEEE T. Indus Electr, 56(6): 2237-2248.

there is 56.67% variation in the input, the PID controller Mummadi, V., 2004. Signal flow graph modeling and

shows a variation of 1.072%, whereas a PID based SMC analysis of dc-dc converters. IEEE T. Aerospace

shows a variation of only 0.192%. Electr. Syst., 40(1): 259-271.

Perry, G., G. Feng, Y.F. Liu and P.C. Sen, 2007. Design

CONCLUSION method for PI-like fuzzy logic controllers for dc-dc

converters. IEEE T. Indus. Electr, 54(5): 2688-2695.

The design and analysis of a dc-dc Buck converter Prodic, A.M., 2002. Design of a digital PID regulator

operating in continuous conduction mode with based on look-up Tables for control of high

Proportional-Integral-Derivative control and PID based frequency dc-dc converters. Proceedings in IEEE

Sliding Mode Control (SMC) is studied in detail in this Workshop on Computing and Power Electronics, pp:

paper. The converter employing these two controllers is 18-22.

subjected to sudden line variation as well as load Siew, C.T., Y.M. Lai and K.T. Chi, 2008. Practical issues

variation. Analysis shows that the PID controller relies in the design of sliding mode controllers. IEEE T.

more on the operating point whereas the PID based SMC Indus. Elect., 55(3): 1160-1174.

is much robust to small-signal and large variation from Utkin, V., J. Guldner and J.X. Shi, 1999. Sliding mode in

the operating point. Moreover the PID based SMC Electromechanical Systems. Taylor and Francis,

produces negligible steady state error and settles with a London, UK.

much less settling time than the conventional linear PID

controller.

349

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