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After that we

found the flow rate using the Pitot tube equation. Our

ME 436 Aerothermal Fluids Laboratory next objective was to analyze the theoretical and

Caleb Kreeger experimental velocity profiles in the pipe. We plotted

the velocity profile found using the Pitot tube, then

Report 4 calculated the theoretical velocity profile using the

1

𝑟2 𝑛

equation 𝑢𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 (𝑟) = 𝑢𝑛 (1 − 2) . We chose n

𝑅

11/22/18 to be 7 to represent a case with turbulent flow. After

that we plotted the theoretical velocity profile and the

Mechanical Engineering Department experimental velocity profile in one figure. We also

analyzed the uncertainty of the flow rate at velocity

The City College of New York, USA profile using the Venturi Tube.

Abstract

In this experiment a study was done to analyze the Experimental Setup and Procedure

flow through round pipes with a venturi tube. Our

objective was to observe the pressure loss in a

viscous flowing pipe and then calculate the flow rate

in one of two ways. First, we calculated the flow rate

using a venturi tube, then calculated the flow rate

using a Pitot tube to measure the velocity profile and

integrated the results. Using our viscous-flow

analysis we were able to effectively show the

distribution of velocity in the pipe and find the

corresponding volumetric discharge.

Introduction

Air enters through the pipe at one end through a

All fluids are viscous by nature, which makes them section of straws and flows downstream. Pressure

stick to a surface when flowing over it, known as the taps were located across the pipe to get static pressure

no slip condition. When fluid throws through a pipe, readings across the flow in the pipe. A venturi meter

the pipe exerts frictional forces on the fluid resulting with d1 = 127 mm and d2 = 90 mm was used to

in pressure loss. These two losses account for all the measure the velocity. The pipe is connected to a

energy losses in the pipe flow. When analyzing the centrifugal blower with a dynamometer, shown in

frictional losses and shear stress of a fluid it is Figure 1. The blower speed is measured by a digital

essential to consider the velocity distribution of the tachometer and can is controlled by a variac.

fluid flow. The axial velocity of fluid in turbulent

𝑢(𝑟) 𝑟2 The first step in our experimental procedure was to

flows varies with radius, = (1 − ) Once the measure the locations of all the pressure taps along

𝑈𝑚𝑎 𝑥 𝑅2

distribution of the axial velocity is known, the the length of the pipe. Before continuing we

volumetric discharge can be found through calibrated the inclined manometer and dynamometer

integration. to zero. After that we swtiched on the blower and set

the flow of the pipe. We took the inlcined manometer

In our experiment, we first measured the pressure and measured the static pressure along the pipe.

drop along the length of the pipe and graphed its Following that, we measured the velocity profile

behavior. We then used the Venturi tube equation along a section of the pipe.

2 𝛻𝑝𝜈

𝑈𝑚 = √ 𝑑𝑎 ( ) to find the mean flow speed in the

( ) 𝜌

𝑑𝑏

Results

pipe. 𝛻𝑝𝜈 is the difference of a pressure taken before

the venturi tube and a pressure taken after the venturi We got a mean flow speed of 5.7 m/s.

tube. 𝑑𝑎 is the pipe diameter and 𝑑𝑏 is the venturi

tube diameter. We also used a Pitot tube to measure 𝑄𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑖 =.0947

the pressure profile and then obtained the velocity

𝑄𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑜𝑡 = .1138 Conclusions

Figure 3 shows the results after plotting the pressure Overall, our results accurately reflect the flow of

along the distance of the pipe. As we moved our first viscous fluid in a pipe. When a viscous fluid flows

meter along the pipe, the pressure loss is the greatest through a pipe, major and minor head losses occur.

at a rate of 300 Pa/m. As we moved from 1 to 5 m the As we see in Figure 3, these head losses are prevalent

pressure loss was very little. As we moved past 5 m in our data because the as we move down the length

up to 7 it decreases sharply then increases again. of the pipe the pressure is continually dropping. We

Shown below that in Figure 4 are the velocity profiles also gained insight into the behavior of the velocity

for the theoretical and experimental case. For the profiles of the fluid flow. We analyzed a theoretical

theoretical velocity profile, as r begins to increase, case and a real experimental case. We saw that the

the velocity steadily decreases, but once the radius values for the velocity are nearly identical until the

reaches .06 it drops significantly. This parabolic radius reaches a value of .05, then the theoretical

behavior is as expected, due to the growing boundary velocity profile decreases significantly. We then

layer which effects the velocity profile. For the calculated the flow rate two different ways and

experimental case, the velocity steadily decreases as received two different values. When using venturi

the radius is increased, there is no sharp decrease as tube, we found the flow rate to be .0947, and when

seen for the theoretical case. using the pitot tube, the flow rate was .1138.

List of References

[1] Goushcha, O. Aero-Thermal Fluids Laboratory

ME43600. The City College of New York, 2018.

Appendix A:

Appendix B:

Sample of all calculations from MATLAB for flow

rate and mean flow speed

Calculation:

2 𝛻𝑝 2 .9∗248

𝑈𝑚 = √ 𝑑 ( 𝜈) = √ .145 ( ) = 5.74 m/s

( 𝑎) 𝜌 ( )

.127

1.2

𝑑𝑏

m3/s

experimental case 𝑟2 𝑛

𝑢𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 (𝑟) = 𝑢𝑛 (1 − ) = 𝑢𝑛 (1 −

𝑅2

1

.052 7

) = 10.38 m/s

.06352

R=.0635

n=6

vmax=10.38

utheo=vmax*(1-

(y(6:11).^2/R^2)).^(1/n)

Appendix C: plot(y(6:11),utheo)

xlabel('Pipe Length (m)')

The data was collected using MATLAB. ylabel('Press (N-m)')

Appendix D: hold on

plot(y(6:11),v(6:11))

xlabel('r (m)')

clear all; ylabel('Velocity (m-s)')

close all;

clc; hold off

% VISCOUS FLOW IN PIPE EXPERIMENT

% PART 1 ( LENGTH VS PRESSURE

DIFFERENCE)

L=.0254*[13 28.5 52.5 80 104 128

152 176 212 218.5 228.5 250] %

length

dp=(-1*248.84).*[ 0.3 1.76 1.77

1.78 1.8 1.81 1.82 1.83 1.84 1.85

2.74 2.02]

xlabel('Ppe Length (m)')

ylabel('Press (N-m))

% PART

da=.145

db=.127

1 1.5 2 2.5]

p=(1*248.84).*[ 0.086 0.12 0.8 0.21

0.24 0.25 0.26 0.25 0.23 0.18 0.12]

figure(),plot (L,dp)

xlabel('Pipe Length (m))

ylabel('Pressure (Pa)')

areap=pi*((.145/2))^

figure(),plot (p,y

2.

2.02

dpv=.9*248

Umean= sqrt(((2/((da/db)^4)-

1))*(dpv/1.2))

qv=areap*Umean

v=sqrt(((2.*p)/1.2))

% i=[0:

Qpit=2*pi*trapz(y(6:11),v(6:11).*y(

6:11))

% 0.*y(6:11))

% 3

plot(y,v)

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