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# Viscous Pipe Experiment profile by using a Pitot tube equation.

After that we
found the flow rate using the Pitot tube equation. Our
ME 436 Aerothermal Fluids Laboratory next objective was to analyze the theoretical and
Caleb Kreeger experimental velocity profiles in the pipe. We plotted
the velocity profile found using the Pitot tube, then
Report 4 calculated the theoretical velocity profile using the
1
𝑟2 𝑛
equation 𝑢𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 (𝑟) = 𝑢𝑛 (1 − 2) . We chose n
𝑅
11/22/18 to be 7 to represent a case with turbulent flow. After
that we plotted the theoretical velocity profile and the
Mechanical Engineering Department experimental velocity profile in one figure. We also
analyzed the uncertainty of the flow rate at velocity
The City College of New York, USA profile using the Venturi Tube.
Abstract
In this experiment a study was done to analyze the Experimental Setup and Procedure
flow through round pipes with a venturi tube. Our
objective was to observe the pressure loss in a
viscous flowing pipe and then calculate the flow rate
in one of two ways. First, we calculated the flow rate
using a venturi tube, then calculated the flow rate
using a Pitot tube to measure the velocity profile and
integrated the results. Using our viscous-flow
analysis we were able to effectively show the
distribution of velocity in the pipe and find the
corresponding volumetric discharge.

## Figure 1- Blower Figure 2- Pipe and V. meter

Introduction
Air enters through the pipe at one end through a
All fluids are viscous by nature, which makes them section of straws and flows downstream. Pressure
stick to a surface when flowing over it, known as the taps were located across the pipe to get static pressure
no slip condition. When fluid throws through a pipe, readings across the flow in the pipe. A venturi meter
the pipe exerts frictional forces on the fluid resulting with d1 = 127 mm and d2 = 90 mm was used to
in pressure loss. These two losses account for all the measure the velocity. The pipe is connected to a
energy losses in the pipe flow. When analyzing the centrifugal blower with a dynamometer, shown in
frictional losses and shear stress of a fluid it is Figure 1. The blower speed is measured by a digital
essential to consider the velocity distribution of the tachometer and can is controlled by a variac.
fluid flow. The axial velocity of fluid in turbulent
𝑢(𝑟) 𝑟2 The first step in our experimental procedure was to
flows varies with radius, = (1 − ) Once the measure the locations of all the pressure taps along
𝑈𝑚𝑎 𝑥 𝑅2
distribution of the axial velocity is known, the the length of the pipe. Before continuing we
volumetric discharge can be found through calibrated the inclined manometer and dynamometer
integration. to zero. After that we swtiched on the blower and set
the flow of the pipe. We took the inlcined manometer
In our experiment, we first measured the pressure and measured the static pressure along the pipe.
drop along the length of the pipe and graphed its Following that, we measured the velocity profile
behavior. We then used the Venturi tube equation along a section of the pipe.
2 𝛻𝑝𝜈
𝑈𝑚 = √ 𝑑𝑎 ( ) to find the mean flow speed in the
( ) 𝜌
𝑑𝑏
Results
pipe. 𝛻𝑝𝜈 is the difference of a pressure taken before
the venturi tube and a pressure taken after the venturi We got a mean flow speed of 5.7 m/s.
tube. 𝑑𝑎 is the pipe diameter and 𝑑𝑏 is the venturi
tube diameter. We also used a Pitot tube to measure 𝑄𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑖 =.0947
the pressure profile and then obtained the velocity
𝑄𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑜𝑡 = .1138 Conclusions

Figure 3 shows the results after plotting the pressure Overall, our results accurately reflect the flow of
along the distance of the pipe. As we moved our first viscous fluid in a pipe. When a viscous fluid flows
meter along the pipe, the pressure loss is the greatest through a pipe, major and minor head losses occur.
at a rate of 300 Pa/m. As we moved from 1 to 5 m the As we see in Figure 3, these head losses are prevalent
pressure loss was very little. As we moved past 5 m in our data because the as we move down the length
up to 7 it decreases sharply then increases again. of the pipe the pressure is continually dropping. We
Shown below that in Figure 4 are the velocity profiles also gained insight into the behavior of the velocity
for the theoretical and experimental case. For the profiles of the fluid flow. We analyzed a theoretical
theoretical velocity profile, as r begins to increase, case and a real experimental case. We saw that the
the velocity steadily decreases, but once the radius values for the velocity are nearly identical until the
reaches .06 it drops significantly. This parabolic radius reaches a value of .05, then the theoretical
behavior is as expected, due to the growing boundary velocity profile decreases significantly. We then
layer which effects the velocity profile. For the calculated the flow rate two different ways and
experimental case, the velocity steadily decreases as received two different values. When using venturi
the radius is increased, there is no sharp decrease as tube, we found the flow rate to be .0947, and when
seen for the theoretical case. using the pitot tube, the flow rate was .1138.
List of References
 Goushcha, O. Aero-Thermal Fluids Laboratory
ME43600. The City College of New York, 2018.

Appendix A:

Appendix B:
Sample of all calculations from MATLAB for flow
rate and mean flow speed

## Figure 3- Pressure vs. Pipe Length

Calculation:

2 𝛻𝑝 2 .9∗248
𝑈𝑚 = √ 𝑑 ( 𝜈) = √ .145 ( ) = 5.74 m/s
( 𝑎) 𝜌 ( )
.127
1.2
𝑑𝑏

m3/s

## Figure 4- Velocity Profiles for theoretical and 1

experimental case 𝑟2 𝑛
𝑢𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 (𝑟) = 𝑢𝑛 (1 − ) = 𝑢𝑛 (1 −
𝑅2
1
.052 7
) = 10.38 m/s
.06352
R=.0635
n=6
vmax=10.38
utheo=vmax*(1-
(y(6:11).^2/R^2)).^(1/n)
Appendix C: plot(y(6:11),utheo)
xlabel('Pipe Length (m)')
The data was collected using MATLAB. ylabel('Press (N-m)')

Appendix D: hold on
plot(y(6:11),v(6:11))
xlabel('r (m)')
clear all; ylabel('Velocity (m-s)')
close all;
clc; hold off
% VISCOUS FLOW IN PIPE EXPERIMENT
% PART 1 ( LENGTH VS PRESSURE
DIFFERENCE)
L=.0254*[13 28.5 52.5 80 104 128
152 176 212 218.5 228.5 250] %
length
dp=(-1*248.84).*[ 0.3 1.76 1.77
1.78 1.8 1.81 1.82 1.83 1.84 1.85
2.74 2.02]
xlabel('Ppe Length (m)')
ylabel('Press (N-m))
% PART
da=.145
db=.127

## y=.0254*[ -2.5 -2 -1.5 - -0.5 0 0.5

1 1.5 2 2.5]
p=(1*248.84).*[ 0.086 0.12 0.8 0.21
0.24 0.25 0.26 0.25 0.23 0.18 0.12]
figure(),plot (L,dp)
xlabel('Pipe Length (m))
ylabel('Pressure (Pa)')
areap=pi*((.145/2))^
figure(),plot (p,y
2.
2.02
dpv=.9*248
Umean= sqrt(((2/((da/db)^4)-
1))*(dpv/1.2))
qv=areap*Umean
v=sqrt(((2.*p)/1.2))
% i=[0:
Qpit=2*pi*trapz(y(6:11),v(6:11).*y(
6:11))
% 0.*y(6:11))

% 3
plot(y,v)