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22, 2011

1. Mark the following statements true or false. If false, correct the statement so that

it is true.

false.

f. A compound proposition that is always false, no matter what the truth values of the

propositional variables that occur in it, is call a contradiction.

h. The quantifiers and have higher precedence than all logical operators from

propositional calculus.

i. An example of a vacuous proof is that 'p q' is true based upon the fact that p is false.

a proposition when each of its variables is assigned a value and bound by a quantifier.

variables that becomes a proposition when each of its variables is assigned a

value or bound by a quantifier.

2. Using P(x), Q(x), and R(x), express the following argument assuming the domain of x

to be all creatures.

"Some lions do not drink coffee."

"Some fierce creatures do not drink coffee."

x(P(x) Q(x))

x (P(x) R(x))

x (Q(x) R(x))

(p q) (p q) (p q) (p q) Logical equivalence

( p q) (p q) De Morgan's law

( p p) ( q q) Associative and commutative laws

TT Negation laws

T Domination ( or idempotent) laws

or

p q p q) (p q) (p q)

T T T T

T F F T

F T F T

F F F T

4. The following statement relates to inhabitants of an island on which there are

three kinds of people: knights who always tell the truth, knaves who always lie, and

spies who can either lie or tell the truth. You encounter three people, A, B, and C. You

know one of these people is a knight, one is a knave, and one is a spy. Each of the three

people knows the type of person each of other two is. For each of these situations, if

possible, determine whether there is a unique solution and determine who the

knave, knight, and spy are. When there is no unique solution, list all possibilities and

when there is no solution possible, say so. Give the reason for your answer.

A says, "C is the knave", B says, "A is the Knight", and C says, "I am a Spy".

statements

knight knave spy A(F), B(T), C(T) no

knight spy knave A(T), B(T), C(F)

knave knight spy A(F), B(F), C(T) no

knave spy knight A(F), B(F), C(F) no

spy knight knave A(T), B(F), C(F) no

spy knave knight A(F), B(F), C(F) no

5. Suppose there are signs on the doors to two rooms. The sign on the first door reads “ In

this room there is a lady, and in the other one there is a tiger”; and the sign on the second

door reads “ In one of these rooms, there is a lady, and in one of them there is a tiger.”

Suppose that you know that one of these signs is true and the other is false. Behind which

door is the lady? Show your reasoning.

statements possible?

lady ¬ tiger tiger ¬ lady A(T) B(F) y

tiger lady lady tiger A(T) B(T) y

Since “ In one of these rooms, there is a lady, and in one of them there is a tiger.” is

true when “ In this room there is a lady, and in the other one there is a tiger” is true

or false and we know that only one sign is true, the other sign must be false and the

lady is in the second room.

6. Let p ,q, and r be the propositions

p : You have the flu.

q : You miss the final examination.

r : You pass the course.

Express each of these propositions as an English sentence.

a. (p ¬ r) (q ¬ r)

If you have the flu or you miss the final examination, then you will not pass the

course.

b. (p q) (¬ q r)

You have the flu and you miss the final examination or you don't miss the final

examination and you pass the course.

p : You get an A on the final exam..

q : You do every exercise in this book.

r : You get an A in this class.

Write these propositions using p ,q, and r and logical connectives (including

negations).

a. Getting an A on the final and doing every exercise in this book is sufficient for

getting an A in this class..

(p q) r

8. Using the domain 'a student', translate the following into a logic expression. Label

each statement before using:

A student in your school knows Java and knows C++ but does not know Mathlab.

J(x) a student that knows Java.

C(x) a student that knows C++.

M(x) a student that knows Mathlab.

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