This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
IV. Siva Kumar U. S. Rao
ABSTRACT. The paper develops value based management guidelines from the famous Indian treatise on management, Kautilya's Arthashastra. Guidelines are given for individual components of a total framework in detail, which include guidelines for organizational philosophy, value based leadership, internal corporate culture, accomplishment of corporate purpose and feedback from stakeholders.
Arthashastra still remains relevant today (Bhagat, 1990). Studies in Kautilya's Arthashastra are being
The increase in corruption in business and other organizations has clearly shown the necessity for value based management in organizations. The recent scam in the Indian stock market which outraged the country is a clear indication to the deteriorating trend in the moral behavior of people who participate in decision making in organizations (Basu and Dalal, 1993). As such, there is an urgent need for guidelines which can promote moral behaviour among managers. This paper tries to provide such guidelines from the traditional Indian perspective as enunciated in the famous Indian treatise on management namely Kautilya's Arthashastra. The treatise is supposed to have been written during the 4th Century B.C. (Bandopadya, 1980). After a lapse of some 2300 years Kautilya's
conducted even today from various perspectives. Studies have been reported from the political perspective (Bandopadya, 1980; Bhagat, 1990; Dikshitar, 1953; Ghoshal, 1953; and 1Kao, 1979), the administrative perspective (Kangle, 1965; Rangarajan, 1992;) and even from the management perspective (Gangal, 1986). Chunder (1970) and Verma (1956) deal with the ethical aspects in Kautilya's Arthashastra. The present paper focuses on the ethical, moral and value based guidelines in Kautilya's Arthashastra which will be useful for present day management and organizations.
A value based m a n a g e m e n t f r a m e w o r k
N. Siva Kumar finished his M.B.A. in 1989 and is at present a lecturer having completed research under the title 'Value Based Management - Historical Roots in India and Current Practices'. Prof. U. S. Rao is presentty the Dean of School of Business Management, Accounting and Finance in Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning. He has over 20 years of academic and industrial experience in various organizations. He has published papers in the areas of Corporate Planning, MIS and Industrial Engineering.
Kautilya's guidelines for value based management are not mere quick fix solutions. They are based on a total framework. In Kautilya's value based management model, the philosophy of the organization is clearly defined. Leadership for the organization should be in consonance with and based on the organizational philosophy. Based on the organizational philosophy and leadership a corporate culture is developed which defines the values that are supposed to guide behavior of the members of the organization and check instances of unethical behavior. All the above components viz. organizational philosophy, leadership and corporate culture are supplemented with general value guidelines. Finally the organization as a whole achieves its purpose as defined in its philosophy, and the leader tries to get feedback on the performance from various stakeholders affected by the organization.
Journal of Business Ethics 15: 415-423, 1996. © 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
174).ness. According to Watson (1992: p. Thus the notion of value based management according to Kautilya begins with defining the organizational philosophy. 1970: p. (h) . 1953: p. Each of these components has been described in detail in the following sections of this paper. the organization philosophy defines the values of the organization.K S H E M A implies the idea of welfare. but what is dear to the subjects is beneficial to him" (1. Pastin (1986: p. Primary goal of the leader The leader's primary goal according to Arthashastra is to fulfill the philosophy of the organization. According to Peters and Watermann (1982).416 N. "Business gives PeoPle a higher cause to serve than profits. In Kautilya's framework the king was the leader. As such. The topic of value based leadership can be studied in terms of the following criteria: 1. Leadership values In order to achieve the primary goal of the organization. 22). (f) Prompt. By serving the society it enriches not only the individual but all of the society". 1992). (e) Liberality. (g) Freedom from vices. S. (d) Gratefulness. "By any definition the Kautilyan state was a welfare state par excellence in which the king was a model of personal purity and sobriety and is called upon to work for the happiness o f the people (Chunder. Kautilya thus gives a list of values the leader has to possess which among others include: (a) Piety. 100). Organizational philosophy The organizational philosophy defines the basic purpose of the existence of the organization (Gupta. wellbeing. in fact Y O G A .34). the government was the organization and its basic philosophy was to create a welfare state. (b) Truthfulness. Kangle (1965: p. This purpose is a way of operating. Kautilya insisted on a leader who was virtuous. This implies something more than mere protection of person and property. Many contemporary scholars have reiterated the proposition that the philosophy of the organizations including business should be defined in terms of service to the society. (c) Reliability. thereby contributing to the growth of human civilization". 224) gives the importance o f organizational philosophy when he states that "the high ethics firm sees its activities in terms of a purpose. in all places and at all costs (Dikshitar. 193) "it was for the happiness and welfare of his subjects that the king existed". According to Buono and Nichols (1985: p. "corporate activity will not be fully responsible until a sense of altruism has transformed business practice and a new spirit restores the lost sense of community. that the members of the firm value"." As such the fundamental basis for value based management according to Kautilya is to define the organizational philosophy in broad terms of welfare of the various stakeholders and the society. S. prosperity and so on.K S H E M A (Welfare). including the idea of happiness. Kautilya gave a lot of emphasis on the king as a leader because successful achievement of the organizational purpose largely depended on him. In the words of Kautilya. Matsushita (1988: p. self realization and service".19. 118) arrives at the same conclusion regarding the philosophy of the organization in his observation: "the duty o f the ruler is expressed in terms of Y O G A . 2. What is dear to the king is not beneficial to him. Kumar and U. 226) defined his company's creed in the following terms: "In full Value based leadership The second component in the framework is value based leadership. 55). In Kautilya's treatise. According to Bhagat (1990: p. "In the happiness of the subjects lies the happiness of the king and in what is beneficial to the subjects his own benefit. Rao awareness of our responsibilities as a manufacturer we will devote ourselves to the progress and the development of the society and the wellbeing of people. 1 Thus the king was a constitutionalist who promoted the people's welfare at all times.
88) has stated that "leaders should lead not only through knowledge.17).9. not first.41).6. Those who are known for demonstrating such behavior are trusted and respected". According to Kautilya "the subjects - - Several modern scholars of leadership have also stressed the importance of values for a leader and have enumerated the values a leader should possess. 164) states that "the leader who cannot control himself can never control others. In a similar vein Crosby (1990: p. that character the constituents come to have.11). In leadership a garland of humility is more to be prized than any crown. The king should avoid even a big profit that would be injurious to the subjects (2. A consciousness o f mission is seen in the value that what is good for society is good for the company". 183) terms the management which leads to social benefits as 'Quality of life management' and states that. association with harmful persons and any transaction associated with unrighteousness or harm (1. Kautilya further goes on to enumerate the benefits of a righteous leader.Management in Arthashastra Longterm vision. T h e king should be ever active to carry out the management of material wellbeing (1. 9) states that "the best reputation a leader can possess relates to displaying ethical conduct in all things. These include: The leader with his senses under control must avoid doing injury to others. (d) Loyalty of dependent members. competence and skill but through vision.1. (c) Management by example.6). 41. 9. being dependent on him in the matter of energetic activity and remissness" (8. Bennis and Nanus (1985: p. "a king endowed with personal qualities endows with excellence the constituent elements not so endowed" (6. "Administration w h e n rooted in the self discipline (of the leader) brings security and wellbeing to all living beings (1.7. These include: (a) Personal benefits. "quality of life management calls for the transformation focus on broader long term societal needs and objectives transcending the firm's own immediate interests.35).7. which will in turn lead to spiritual wellbeing and happiness (1. material wellbeing and happiness" (1. Benefits of a righteous leader Having given the values of the leader. 3. "the king . (i) Conduct in conformity with the advice of elders.2).5. A good leader should be willing to do the lowest and the most difficult task. A righteous leader gains the loyalty and love of dependent members.12). Further.16). Kautilya provides a firm base for quality o f life management through a righteous leader who has a strong value base.4. He should feel that it is his place to serve others".16. "when the king is active the servants become active following his example. Similarly Hill (1958: p. Such an administration endows the subjects with spiritual wellbeing. According to Kautilya.1. Bass (1985: p. Thus Drucker (1955: p. A righteous leader sets an example for other members of the organization. Futher. If he is remiss they too become remiss along with him" (1.81). The righteous leader establishes an administration which leads to social benefits. Apart from the above list of values Kautilya also gives reference to the values of the leader throughout his treatise.7. responsibility and integrity". capriciousness. 417 w h o protects the subjects according to law earns spiritual merit" (3. A sense o f contributing to the greater good is fostered.7. sloth. 46 and 87) states that "a true leader puts his personal wishes last. 186) state the importance of management by example by stating that "the leader is responsible for the set of ethics or norms that govern the behavior of people in the organization. (b) Social benefits.3. Finally Wakers (1987: pp.19. courage.2). "a king w h o adheres to his special duties finds joy in this life" (1.60 and 9.1. According to Kautilya.16) for "whatever character the king has. He should demonstrate by his own behavior his commitment to the set of values he is trying to institutionalize". Self control sets a mighty example for one's followers".
Kangle (1965: p. infatuation.7. - - 5. - - (e) Attraction of right talent and support. speech and action (1.4. Some of the methods of valuetraining included (a) (b) (c) (d) Study of scriptures Association with elders Advice of ministers Formal instructions The main areas of training in values included (a) Self control (1. Control over the senses.6.1. According to Kautilya. Bird and Gandz (1991: p.12).11). According to Hoffman (1986: p. 8.1-2) (b) Removal of vices and developing a good character (1. keeps the mind steady in adversity and prosperity and bring about profi- Organization culture The third c o m p o n e n t in Kautilya's model of value based management was an organization culture which promoted value based management. "a . The king should set the preceptors or ministers as the bounds of proper conduct for himself. (f) Effects of an unrighteous leader. which is motivated by training in the sciences. help the king who behaves justly but suffering from a serious calamity" (7.5. Rao ciency in thought. should prick him to do his duty (1. 144) in this respect state that "many times candidates themselves approach companies because they are attracted to its ethical commitment. jealousy and foolhardiness).6. The leader demonstrates the power of selflessness and the unity of all creation".13. The young price should be diverted from all evil and should be instructed in what is conducive to spiritual wellbeing and material wellbeing (1. A righteous leader not only passes on his qualities to others. Further "any king attacking a righteous king is hated by his own people and by others" (7. Kautilya aimed at providing a similar leader for the organization.2. who should restrain him from occasions of harm or w h e n the king is erring in private. Heider (1986: p.5.5.4. pride. S. Spiritual leader The final aim of Kautilya was to provide the organization with a leader who was ultimately guided by a spiritual way of life. 629). 4. "the fact that the king would be brought up to regard the vedic (spiritual) way of life as sacred and the performance of his own duties in accordance with that scheme of life as a means of achieving spiritual ends would serve to make the king behave with moderation".1-2). These include: Study of philosophy confers benefit on the people. Kautilya gave a lot of emphasis on the training of such a leader.10) and "subjects support in every way the weak but just king w h e n attacked" (7. Kautilya while advising an aspirant to ministership tells that "he should seek service with a king endowed with personal excellences" (5. Making of a leader Because a righteous leader is so important.35). 143) in this respect states that "a wise leader models spiritual behavior and lives in h a r m o n y with spiritual values.8). but also attracts right talent to further his mission. greed.6.3. should be secured by giving up the six vices (lust. an unrighteous leader not only ruins himself but ruins all his constituent elements (5. Many candidates do consider the moral climate of organizations when they are looking for jobs".8) Specific guidelines regarding the making of a good leader are given throughout the Arthashastra.418 N. Kumar and U. S.4).12 and 1.7.11).17. The prince should have constant association with elders in learning for the sake of improving his training (1.2.28). Absence of imprgper sense indulgence gives such a control (1. 6.1). 139) puts this as.17.
(h) Friendliness.14). Promotion of righteous behavior The second aspect o f the corporate culture is the promotion o f righteous behavior.9).Management in Arthashastra major reason why we have witnessed outbreaks o f corporate wrong doing recently as well as in the past. (d) Character. (f) Perseverance. The person who proves to be honest by all tests will be made the king's counselor (1. This comp o n e n t o f corporate culture under Kautilya's scheme can be studied under the following aspects: 419 2. not only the leader but also the other organizational members are expected to have a high moral caliber. Heads o f departments w h o do not consume king's goods and increase them Thus in Kautilya's scheme o f things. is not that people are less ethical than others. The minister should not cause any excellent object o f pleasure to be made for his own use (5. (c) Loyalty. "screening o f applicants for ethical awareness and concern is a necessary first step and one which is often overlooked".43) and should not appoint him in those positions.10.16. (i) Devotion.11. The guidelines of Kautilya regarding this include: The superintendent w h o carries out the work as ordered or better should receive a high position and honor (2. 1. - - - - - - (b) Extrinsic rewards. This is done through various means which include: (a) Appointments.91). - . An envoy endowed with the excellences o f a minister shall be appointed plenipotentiary (1. (]) Amicability (1. (b) Capability. one o f the major factors that have to be taken into consideration while appointing officials to various posts is their character and conduct. According to R e i n d e n b a c h and R o b i n (1989: p. The director o f stores should bring the stores into being by appointing trustworthy m e n under him (2. 188). avoid harmful persons.5.2).4. Organization member values Kautilya understood the necessity o f promoting values among other members o f the organization (administrative set up) to fulfill the corporate philosophy.43). one can find various reference to the values expected in various officials.13.9. Apart from the above list. even if only son. 10 and 15).13). not make statements that are uncultured or not based on personal knowledge or untrustworthy or untrue. Kautilya states the guidelines for appointments through the following statements: Only those persons who pass various tests o f integrity will be appointed to the various posts o f administration (1. tolerate frightful words being full o f forbearance like the earth (5. The magistrate should be impartial and decide a case remaining neutral between the king and the subjects (4. These include: The goldsmith must be skilled in his profession and trustworthy (2.9. According to Bird and Gandz (1991: p. Righteous behavior under Kautilya's scheme has to be rewarded.11 and 27. but rather business gives so little thought to developing a moral corporate culture within which individuals can act ethically". The king should install the price in the position o f c o m m a n d e r in chief or crown prince only if he possess the excellences o f self (1. should declare what is in the king's interest.10. Such members apart from being experts in their own field o f work must have a m o n g others the following values: (a) Integrity.2) The aspirant for ministership should not indulge in bellicose talk.8. (g) Dexterity.18). 146) "through reward and punishment systems organizations send signals about the extent to which they value various virtues".17. (e) Intelligence.17.6.21).51). if indisciplined (1.1. According to Kautilya.
15. even though help is small. There is ample proof in the Arthashastra. He should maintain children. to show that there were many policies which were implemented by the government to achieve the final aim of a welfare state. nobility and loyalty and that are not cheating in the matter of money and honor.14).1-20). freedom from malice. Lust leads to favouring of evil persons while The final aspect of the value-based management model in Kautilya's scheme is the accomplishment o f the organization's purpose as defined in its philosophy.3.3-22 and 4. the king should make a store of seeds and foodstuffs and show favour to the subjects or constitute the building of public works with the grant of food or share his provisions with them (4. Such guidelines include: Supervision and inspection of activity (2. but also gives guidelines to keep unethical behavior under check among the administrators. shyness.9.4. Deliberation in its five aspects are: 1) The means of starting of undertakings 2) The excellence of m e n and material 3) Suitable appointment of place and time 4) Provision against failure and 5) Accomplishment of work (1. factories.3. (b) Crisis management.11.3.4 and 22). skill.38). Punishment for fraudulent behavior like manipulation o f accounts. renders great help over a long period of time (7.36). the centre of ranks (10. Some of these guidelines are: Values c o m m o n to all are abstinence from injury. Values which act as hindrance to gain i n c l u d e . Accomplishment of organizational purpose General value guidelines The three components of organization philosophy. mistrust and contempt (9. uprightness.25). Anger and lust are two foremost vices. nervousness.2. Kumar and U. S.17). for a kingdom is that which has men (7.passion.65).30).6.1-39). jealousy. and set going work on mines.9.7).4. - - 3.9.4. 2. Proper deliberation has to be done before any work is executed. Decisions have to be made keeping in mind their long term impact. 4. Men are more important than any other resource.3. Check on unethical behavior Kautilya not only promotes righteous behavior. ignobleness. Gain should always be lawful and obtained in a praiseworthy manner (9.17). cause irrigation works to be built. During times of calamity trustworthy men should be made incharge of the treasury and army (5. S.13).7.4). The king should cause villages to be settled.3.2.8 and 4. A source of help. truthfulness. During a famine.1. abjectness. anger leads to the suppression of good people (8. compassion and forbearance (1. wickedness. haughtiness. anger. corrupt trade practices and misappropriation of resources (2.9. The person who observes his special duties earns spiritual merit and joy (1. make lands to be cultivated. Thus Kautilya's organization is supposed to have a value-based culture which furthers the organization philosophy.42).420 N. Rao - - - in just ways should be made permanent in their offices (2. if rendered continuously.1. forests and trade routes (2.25). Some such policies include: (a) Community development works.7. leadership and corporate culture are further supplemented under Kautilya's system by general value guidelines applicable to all. The king should make troops that are possessed of bravery. aged persons and - .9. The king should endow the constituents with power and success in accordance with their integrity (6.
1985. The king should be ever diligent and should take steps right before hand against the reasons because of which he might suffer a calamity of the constituents (8. value based leadership. Roads.31). According to him "the king should allow unrestricted entrance to those wishing to see him in connection with their affairs. The king should establish an animal park where all animals are welcomed as guests and given full protection (2. Kautilya clearly states that the king should find out whether the policies o f the government have been implemented.1.13. stake holder policies and feedback on performance for the effective practice of value based management. disease or old age shall receive food for maintenance (2.27). Randall.1). Kautilya's approach recognizes the importance of various components such as organization philosophy. The king should institute a righteous custom not initiated before and continue one initiated by others and he should not institute an unrighteous custom and should stop any. 1990. T h e relevance o f Kautilya's f r a m e w o r k for value based m a n a g e m e n t The preceeding discussion shows that Kautilya's (e) Consumer welfare.. 1986. The king should also inspect the works of the heads of the departments and their subordinates (4.3.8).2.1) and ascertain whether all the policies have been implemented properly.19. Arthashastra provides a total framework for the practice of value based management.36.4). love and concern for others. Persons w h o injure animals or cattle for w h o m safety has been proclaimed will be punished (2.28).26.21. holy places. For officers dying on duty. (f) Environmental and ecological welfare. Like these models. Kautilya's approach strongly affirms that all the above components are needed for value based management and thus integrates these components into a framework.9.28.K S H E M A ' (social welfare) which forms the basis of the organization philosophy and the other components of the value based management framework.26-27). the sons and wives of such officers shall receive their food and wages (5.3. The controller of shipping should rescue boats that have gone out of course or are tossed about by a gale 421 (2. The uniqueness of the Arthashastra framework is the higher order goal o f an organization explained in terms o f ' Y O G A . various stakeholders. 1990.25). (g) Customs for righteous behavior. Strong and Meyer. royal palaces have to be kept clean. 1992 and Trevino.5. which have been initiated by others (13. A superordinate goal of social welfare can promote values in the organization in terms care. Shelby and Vitell. Punishment will be accorded to those who dirty them (2. (d) Employee welfare. Jensen and Wygant. A king difficult of access is made to do the reverse of what ought to be done and what ought not to be done by those near him" (1. The officer in-charge should make good goods stolen away from traders on the trade routes (2. A striking feature of Kautilya's approach is the similarity one can observe in his approach with the existing models of managerial ethical behavior developed by Ferrell and Gresham. Feedback on performance The leader should finally try to get feedback on the performance of his administration from . The controller of customs should cut out goods that are harmful to the people and that are worthless. Goods stolen from traders in caravan have to be made good by the master of the village (4.5. Stead et al.26). He should make goods that are highly beneficial duty free (2.17).26).3. the leader is supposed to sustain various activities and thus fulfill the organization philosophy.Management in Arthashastra persons in distress (2. (c) Insurance against loss.21). Through such feedback. 1986. paving way for a leadership and corporate culture which promotes service. 1989. Horses which are incapacitated for work by war. organization culture.21.4 and 24).
B. Hoffman and J.: 1970. New York). New Delhi). pp. Basu. M. New York). Heider.: 1953.). Wygant: 1990. 'Manager . Buono. of Kautilya's Arthashastra translated by Kangle (1972). Gangal.: 1986. The Mauryan Polity (University of Madras. W.: 1965. P.: 1972. Drucker. Moore (eds.: 1953. B. R. T. K: 1988. P. and J.: 1992. Gupta. March. A. Good Management (Prentice Hall. The Indian Journal of Political Science 51(2). Rao caring for stake holders. 'The Authority of the King in Kautilya's Political Thought'. The Kautilya Arthashasstra Translation (Motilal Banarsidass. Hill. Vishristi . P. F. W. C. Hoffman and J. L. India). 'Stockholder and Stakeholder Interpretations of Business' Social Role'. Ghoshal. Development of Hindu Polity and Political Theories (Munshiram Manoharlal. Bass. Bennis. Bhagat. India). Matsushita. corporate culture. F. New York. chapter number and verse number respectively.The integrated framework developed from Kautilya's Arthashastra can provide t h e m a total approach towards the practice of value based management. Conn. Kangle. and S. The Tao of Leadership (Bantam Books. R. Gandz: 1991. New York). Crosby. C. 'The Developmental Self Valuing Theory: A Practical Approach for Business Ethics'. V. Further the philosophy based on social welfare induces an organization to strive for p r o m o t i n g social progress. Pilania. RBSA Publishers. and S. Dalal: 1993. 328-350. Oct. Kyoto).422 N. A business organization which believes that the basic aim of business should be to help society in attaining progress and welfare and a manager w h o believes in a sense o f personal fulfilment achieved through contributing to social welfare would find Kautilya's framework useful. Ontario). Moore (eds. Nanus: 1985. D. Madras. 170-175. honesty. 87-96. S. Ferrell. Journal of Marketing (Summer). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations (The Free Press. Gresham: 1985. . The Kautilya Arthashastra . C. in W.A Kautilyan Profile'. Kumar and U. U. Contemporary Management (Ashish Publishing House. quoted in Leadership by G. Nichols: 1990. Conclusion Kautilya thus gives a comprehensive model for value-based m a n a g e m e n t for an organization.: 1986.The Journal of Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management. and L. Business Ethics (McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Leaders (Harper and Row. C. R. Dedication The authors humbly dedicate the paper to Bhagavan Sri Sathya Sai Baba. Harper and Row. V. Hoffmann. G: 1990. integrity and ethical behavior in the organization. Kautilya on Love and Morals (Jayanthi. V. Kangle. R. Jensen. Thus Kautilya's Arthashastra proves its relevance even today. New Delhi.). Journal of Business Ethics 9(3). B: 1985. Bird. C. Starting from an organization's philosophy. New York). New York). N. India). 628-634. New York). S.). development and welfare which. New Delhi). J. E and L. P. A. 186-212. The Scare (UBS Publishers. Chunder. 'Developing the Ethical Corporation'. M. M. India). Leading (McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. and B. 22-28. Business Ethics (McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.: 1980. O. in turn also helps the members o f the organization in achieving a sense of self fulfilment.: 1985. Greenwich. Not for Bread Alone (PHP Institute. Dikshitar. The Principles of Management.: 1955. The Indian Historical Quarterly XI. New Delhi. Note 1 The numbers in the parentheses refer to the book number. Think and Grow Rich (Fawcett Publishing Inc. P. N. pp.A Study (Motilal Banarsidass. in W. 215-227. Calcutta. P. N.: 1990. welfare policies and finally getting feedback on performance. 'A Contingency Framework for Understanding Ethical Decision Making'. the Chancellor of Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning. he gives guidelines for leadership.: 1990. India. 'Kautilya Revisited and Revisioned'. New Delhi). References Bandopadya. Jaipur.
The Art of Supportive Leadership (Sterling Publishers Pvt..Management in Arthashastra Pastin. and R. K. Ltd. K.: 1992.: 1989. M. Journal of Business Ethics 9(3). L. P. 233-242. V. Robin: 1989. N. Rao. K. New Delhi. 'Taking Stock: Can the Theory of Reasoned Action Explain Unethical Conduct?'. School of Business Management. Studies in Hindu Political Thought and its Metaphysical Foundations (Motilal Banarsidass. L. E. Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning. 873-882. 423 Journal of Business Ethics 11(2). Varma V. Stead: 1990. D. Strong. San Francisco). 601616. and G. India. 55-61. D. G. H. The Arthashastra (Penguin Books. Business Horizons 35. India). New Delhi. Reidenbach. In Search of Excellence (Warner Books. India). J. M. E. February. New Delhi). 'Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: A Person-Situation Interactional Model'. 'An Integrative Descriptive Model o£ Ethical Decision Making'. M. Wakers. 'An Integrative Model For Understanding and Managing Ethical Behavior in Business Organizations'.: 1986. T. Worrell and J. Ethics and Profits (Prentice Hall. Accounting and Finance. New York). L. New Delhi). E. . J. Journal of Business Ethics 8. D. Meyer: 1992. Randall.: 1979. Peters. C. Stead W.: 1974. R. Rangarajan. and D. Watermann: 1982. Watson. D. Academy of Management Review 11. 'The Meaning of Service in Business'. 8995. March. C. Prashanti Nilayam-515134.: 1986. Trevino. Englewood Cliffs).. P.: 1992. Studies in Kautilya (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.: 1987. The Hard Problems of Management (Jossey Bass.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.