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Class XI: Mathematics
Chapter 5
Complex Numbers & Quadratic Equations
Chapter Notes
Top Definitions
1. A number of the form a + ib, where a and b are real numbers, is said to
be a complex number.
2. In complex number z = a + ib, a is the real part, denoted by Re z and b is
the imaginary part denoted by Im z of the complex number z.
3 1 ÷ =i is called the iota the complex number.
4. For any non – zero complex number z = a + ib (a ≠ 0, b ≠ 0), there exists
a complex number
2 2 2 2
a b
i ,
a b a b
÷
+
+ +
denoted by
1
1
or z ,
z
÷
called the
multiplicative inverse of z such that (a + ib)
2
2 2 2 2
a b
i 1 i0 1
a b a b
 
÷
+ = + = 

+ +
\ .
.
5. Modulus of a complex number z = a+ib , denoted by z, is defined to be
the non – negative real number
2 2
a b , + i.e
2 2
 z a b = +
6. Conjugate of a complex number z =a+ib, denoted as z , is the complex
number a – ib.
7. z=r(cos θ +isin θ) is the polar form of the complex number z=a+ib.
here r =
2 2
a b + is called the modulus of z and θ =
1
b
tan
a
÷
 

\ .
is called the
argument or amplitude of z, denoted by arg z.
8. The value of θ such that –π < θ ≤ π, called principal argument of z.
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9 The plane having a complex number assigned to each of its points is
called the complex plane or the Argand plane.
10.Fundamental Theorem of Algebra states that “A polynomial equation of
degree n has n roots.”
Top Concepts
1. Addition of two complex numbers:If z
1
= a + ib and z
2
= c +id be any
two complex numbers then, the sum
z
1
+ z
2
= (a + c) + i(b + d).
2. Sum of two complex numbers is also a complex number. this is known as
the closure property.
3. The addition of complex numbers satisfy the following properties:
i. Addition of complex numbers satisfies the commutative law. For any two
complex numbers z
1
and z
2
, z
1
+ z
2
= z
2
+ z
1
.
ii. Addition of complex numbers satisfies associative law for any three
complex numbers z
1
, z
2
, z
3
, (z
1
+ z
2
) + z
3
= z
1
+ (z
2
+ z
3
).
iii. There exists a complex number 0 + i0 or 0, called the additive identity or
the zero complex number, such that, for every complex number z,
z + 0 = 0+z = z.
iv. To every complex number z = a + ib, there exists another complex
number –z =–a + i(b) called the additive inverse of z. z+(z)=(z)+z=0
4 Difference of two complex numbers: Given any two complex numbers
If z
1
= a + ib and z
2
= c +id the difference z
1
– z
2
is given by
z
1
– z
2
= z
1
+ (z
2
) = (a  c) + i(b  d).
5 Multiplication of two complex numbers Let z
1
= a + ib and z
2
= c + id
be any two complex numbers. Then, the product z
1
z
2
is defined as follows:
z
1
z
2
= (ac – bd) + i(ad + bc)
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6. Properties of multiplication of complex numbers: Product of two
complex numbers is a complex number, the product z
1
z
2
is a complex
number for all complex numbers z
1
and z
2
.
i. Product of complex numbers is commutative i.e for any two complex
numbers z
1
and z
2
,
z
1
z
2
= z
2
z
1
ii. Product of complex numbers is associative law For any three complex
numbers z
1
, z
2
, z
3
,
(z
1
z
2
) z
3
= z
1
(z
2
z
3
)
iii. There exists the complex number 1 + i0 (denoted as 1), called the
multiplicative identity such that z.1 = z for every complex number z.
iv. For every non zero complex number z = a + ib or a + bi (a ≠ 0, b ≠ 0),
there is a complex number
2 2 2 2
a b
i
a b a b
÷
+
+ +
, called the multiplicative
inverse of z such that
1
z 1
z
× =
v. The distributive law: For any three complex numbers z
1
, z
2
, z
3
,
a. z
1
(z
2
+ z
3
) = z
1
.z
2
+ z
1
.z
3
b. (z
1
+ z
2
) z
3
= z
1
.z
3
+ z
2
.z
3
7.Division of two complex numbers Given any two complex numbers z
1
=
a + ib and z
2
= c + id z
1
and z
2
, where z
2
≠ 0, the quotient
1
2
z
z
is defined by
=
1
1
2 2
z 1
z .
z z
=
2 2 2 2
+ ÷
+
+ +
ac bd bc ad
i
c d c d
8. Identities for the complex numbers
i. (z
1
+ z
2
)² = z
1
² + z
2
² = 2z
1
.z
2
, for all complex numbers z
1
and z
2
.
ii (z
1
– z
2
)² = z
1
²  2z
1
z
2
+ z
2
²
iii.(z
1
+ z
2
)³ = z
1
³ + 3z
1
²z
2
+ 3z1z
2
² + z
2
³
iv (z
1
– z
2
)³ = z
1
³ = 3z
1
²z
2
+ 3z
1
z
2
³  z
2
³
v z
1
²  z
2
² = (z
1
+ z
2
) (z
1
– z
2
)
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9. Properties of modulus and conjugate of complex numbers
For any two complex numbers z
1
and z
2
,
i. z
1
z
2
 = z
1
z
2

ii. =
1 1
2 2
z  z 
z  z 
provided z
2
 ≠ 0
iii.
1 2 1 2
z z z z =
iv.
1 2 1 2
z z z z ± = ±
v.
1
1
2
2
z z
z
z
 
=


\ .
provided z
2
≠ 0
10. For any integer k, i
4k
= 1, i
4k+1
= i, i
4k+2
= –1, i
4k+3
= –
i. × = a b ab when a<0and b<0.
11.The polar form of the complex number z = x + iy is r (cos θ + i sinθ),
where r is the modulus of z and θ is known as the argument of z.
12.For a quadratic equation ax² + bx + c = 0 with real coefficient a, b, c and
a ≠ 0.
If discriminant D = b²  4ac > 0 then the equation has two real roots given by
÷ ± ÷
=
2
b b 4ac
x
2a
or
÷
=
b
x
2a
13. Roots of the quadratic equation ax² + bx + c = 0, where a, b, ceR, a ≠
0,when discriminant b²4ac < 0, are imaginary given by
2
b 4ac b i
x
2a
÷ ± ÷
= .Complex roots occurs in pairs.
14. A polynomial equation of n degree has n roots. These n roots could be
real or complex.
15. Complex numbers are represented in Argand plane with x axis being
real and y axis imaginary
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16. Representation of complex number z=x+iy in Argand Plane
17. Argument u of the complex number z can take any value in the interval
[0, 2t). Different orientations of z are as follows
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10. Addition of complex numbers satisfies the commutative law.c) + i(b . 3. the product z1 z2 is defined as follows: z1 z2 = (ac – bd) + i(ad + bc)
Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side Log on to www. such that. iv.2
9 The plane having a complex number assigned to each of its points is called the complex plane or the Argand plane. 2. the sum z1 + z2 = (a + c) + i(b + d). z + 0 = 0+z = z. z2. Sum of two complex numbers is also a complex number. For any two complex numbers z1 and z2. Then. z+(z)=(z)+z=0 4 Difference of two complex numbers: Given any two complex numbers If z1 = a + ib and z2 = c +id the difference z1 – z2 is given by z1 – z2 = z1 + (z2) = (a .” Top Concepts 1. ii.Fundamental Theorem of Algebra states that “A polynomial equation of degree n has n roots. Addition of two complex numbers:If z1 = a + ib and z2 = c +id be any two complex numbers then. z1 + z2 = z2 + z1. To every complex number z = a + ib. called the additive identity or the zero complex number. there exists another complex number –z =–a + i(b) called the additive inverse of z.d). There exists a complex number 0 + i0 or 0. for every complex number z. z3.topperlearning. this is known as the closure property. (z1 + z2) + z3 = z1 + (z2 + z3).com
. 5 Multiplication of two complex numbers Let z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id be any two complex numbers. Addition of complex numbers satisfies associative law for any three complex numbers z1. The addition of complex numbers satisfy the following properties: i. iii.
a. the quotient
z1 ac bd bc ad 1 z1. the product z 1 z2 is a complex number for all complex numbers z1 and z2.z3 7. = 2 i 2 2 z2 z2 c d c d2
z1 is defined by z2
8.topperlearning. (z1 + z2) z3 = z1. Properties of multiplication of complex numbers: Product of two complex numbers is a complex number.z2. Product of complex numbers is numbers z1. where z2 ≠ 0. (z1 + z2)² = z1² + z2² = 2z1.Division of two complex numbers Given any two complex numbers z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id z1 and z2. called the multiplicative identity such that z. z1 z2 = z2 z1 ii. Identities for the complex numbers i.zero complex number z = a + ib or a + bi (a ≠ 0. (z1 z2) z3 = z1 (z2 z3) iii. z3.z2³ v z1² .z2 + z1.3
6. ii (z1 – z2)² = z1² . z2.z2² = (z1 + z2) (z1 – z2)
Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side Log on to www.(z1 + z2)³ = z1³ + 3z1²z2 + 3z1z2² + z2³ iv (z1 – z2)³ = z1³ = 3z1²z2 + 3z1z2³ . iv.e for numbers z1 and z2. z1 (z2 + z3) = z1. i.z3 + z2.1 = z for every complex number z. There exists the complex number 1 + i0 (denoted as 1). Product of complex numbers is commutative i. The distributive law: For any three complex numbers z1. z2. there is a complex number inverse of z such that
a a b
2 2
any two complex
associative law For any three complex
i
b a b2
2
.2z1z2 + z2² iii. for all complex numbers z1 and z2. called the multiplicative
z
1 1 z
v.z3 b. For every non. b ≠ 0). z3.com
.
z1 z2 z1 z2
z z1 v. Roots of the quadratic equation ax² + bx + c = 0. z1z2 z1 z2 iv. ii. where a. i4k+3 = – i.when
x
discriminant
b²4ac
<
0.com
. 2a
14. For any integer k.topperlearning. i4k = 1. i4k+2 = –1.4ac 0 then the equation has two real roots given by
x b b2 4ac 2a
or x
b 2a
13. z1 z2 = z1z2
z1 z  1 provided z2 ≠ 0 z2  z2 
iii.
11. b. b.
are
imaginary
given
by
b 4ac b2i . where r is the modulus of z and θ is known as the argument of z. A polynomial equation of n degree has n roots. i4k+1 = i. If discriminant D = b² . 12. a ≠ 0. i. c and a ≠ 0. a b
ab when a<0and b<0. These n roots could be real or complex. Complex numbers are represented in Argand plane with x axis being real and y axis imaginary
Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side Log on to www.The polar form of the complex number z = x + iy is r (cos θ + i sinθ).For a quadratic equation ax² + bx + c = 0 with real coefficient a. 15.Complex roots occurs in pairs. c R.4
9. 1 provided z2 ≠ 0 z z2 2
10. Properties of modulus and conjugate of complex numbers For any two complex numbers z1 and z2.
topperlearning. 2).com
.5
16. Argument of the complex number z can take any value in the interval [0. Representation of complex number z=x+iy in Argand Plane
17. Different orientations of z are as follows
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