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1. Discuss terminologies of Play, Prospect, Lead & Pool!

How Petroleum Plays are defined in the


context of sedimentary basins? (Play Definition and Modeling, Slides 3-15)

Play, it is ‘generic’ thing that could be applied to the basin, prospect or lead which has favorable spatial
coincidence of petroleum generation, migration and entrapment (Petroleum system). This thing
sometime follows to stratigraphically defined such as “Triassic play or cretaceous play”. Another type
of question and answer can be followed like this:

What is your play? ➔ Carbonate reefal build up or sandstone or structural trap


What is your play type? ➔ Anticline, fourway dip closure, carbonate reefal build up, thrusted
anticline, etc.

Lead ➔ based on terminologies, it like a “direction or indication” for something which is not really
clear the existence of petroleum system. So, it is like an anomaly of the structure, closure or
stratigraphic which possibility contain of prospect and need more data to prove it by applying more
seismic data (3D) or drill a well for the location. In simple way, indication of prospect under geophysics
and/or geological data.

Prospect ➔ the termination of geological structure that potentially contains of hydrocarbon which
defined in space and time. This condition is ready for being drilled.

Pool ➔ when we drilled the prospect location and we discovered the HC accumulation, we can called
this as a pool.

The general diagrams can be illustrated as follows:

In the context of sedimentary basins, the plays are defined based on the sedimentary basin analysis.
The typology of the basins formed can influenced the petroleum system formed in the basins. For
instance, the type of the basin such as divergent, convergent, or strike slip basins can be the
parameters as well of the quality of the petroleum system potential for both static or dynamic
components. In general, in divergent margin basins, the rifting supports the basin formed and the
source rock and reservoir depositions and entrapment system are possible formed here. The
maturation will be in the shallow depth due to the intensive heat flow. In convergent, there are three
kind of possibility of the basins formed, and those three basins will have special characteristics to the
petroleum system possibility.
2. What kind of geoscience techniques are used for the modeling of various Play processes?
(Play Definition and Modeling, Slides 16-30)
3. Discuss the general framework of Play Fairway Analyses. How are GDE maps produced? Describe
the processes of Hydrocarbon Audit and Post Mortem Analyses. (Play Fairway Analyses, Slides 2-18)

Fairway analysis is an assessment of exploration risk at a basin scale, undertaken during the
exploration phase. It is a powerful tool for identifying the most prospective parts of a basin at a
specific stratigraphic level. There three parameters which important to be available for assessment.
They are Gross Depositional Environment (GDE) Map, Hydrocarbon Audit, and Post Mortem Analysis.

GDE maps are produced the objective of the GDE mapping is to provide a rapid overview of the
stratigraphic framework in support of the petroleum system assessment. GDE maps allow for a more
reliable prediction of reservoir distribution than a correlation between sparsely distributed wells, and
a better representation of sediment distribution systems from shelf to deep water.
This GDE map is produced by using the integrated data mainly from seismic and combined with the
other data such as petrophysics well log analysis, biostratigraphy, source rock analysis, etc. From
seismic data and interpretation, we can identify the structural style and margin architectures. Beside
that, seismic stratigraphy and seismic lithostratigraphy can support the timing deposition, reservoir
and seal distribution, architecture of sedimentary system, and also source rock potential distribution.
The data from well such s well logging and petrophysics can help to generate the well correlation and
produce the stratigraphic architecture and sequence stratigraphy. Moreover, the data such as
biostratigraphy can be also helping in determining the age and environment of depositional. The
combination of these parameters can produce the GDE map.
HC Audit and Post Mortem
Project post-mortems are intended to inform process improvements which mitigate future risks and
to promote iterative best practices. Post-mortems are often considered a key component of, and
ongoing precursor to, effective risk management.
The Audit process is defined based on the data available during the exploration. Combining the data
from GDE modeling, the well test data also have very valuable data for our assessment of HC
resources. the success and the failure of HC discovery being a main role to evaluate the potential of
HC resource location and estimate the risk evaluation based on the descriptive information. Mainly,
there are 4 parameters of fairway analysis in Audit and post mortem analysis. They are judgment on
Charge of HC, reservoir beds, trap and seal. These parameters will have the level of confidence based
on the data obtained.
*Make an illustration of the GDE Map and the location of well with productive well and the dry well.
4. Discuss the play analyses to Hydrocarbon Generation, Secondary Migration and Reservoir, Seal, Trap
Developments. What do Play Fairway Maps illustrate? (Play Fairway Analyses, Slides 19-31)
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5. Discuss the general characteristics of stochastic events. Why are petroleum play processes
understood as stochastic events? How do we define risk in general and specifically in petroleum play
processes? (Play Risk Assessment, Slides 2-18)
- Stochastics event is the event which cannot be defined its function but we can estimate the
probability frequency distribution of the particular event (probability of the outcome is assessable).
In other word, the outcome is not deterministic, and the probability of some outcomes are not
perceivable. For example, the forecasting of the number of leaves fall from the tree, some
economic and political forecast, including the petroleum geoscience activity.
- The petroleum play process is being a stochastic event because all the play of petroleum system
parameters is fully of uncertainty prediction. And all the petroleum system process is independent
and each of parameter has its probability of failure and success to be discovered.
- In general, we define the risk of the petroleum play process by grouping the play parameters into
the two group of discreate and continues variables. We have to evaluate the probability evidence
of petroleum model components from source rock, migration, entrapment and seal and the
reservoir development. These parameters are independent and their development have each
probability. We have to create the probability function in each parameter and the final probability
is the multiplication of these probabilities of every parameter.

6. Which are the “regular” components of a petroleum play and which are the components’ controlling
processes? Discuss the corresponding risk factors and the definition of the Geological Probability.
(Play Risk Assessment, Slides 20-42)
- Regular component and component controlling process: the regular components of petroleum
play are charge which contained of hydrocarbon generation and migration; reservoir
development, seal development, and trap development.

Charge is controlling by Hydrocarbon generation which depend on development of source rock


formation, then the organic richness which is the TOC content and the kerogen type; the organic
maturation; and finally the HC generation and primary migration.

- Risk factor: petroleum play process produces risk in every independent parameters of generation,
migration, reservoir development, seal development, and entrapment.
Charge: the risk of the charge it depends on controlling process mentioned above. Such as
insufficient the rock volume, scanty TOC concentration, immaturation or over mature, I sufficient
development of micro-fracture, low buoyancy pressure gradient, and lack of permeable
overburden

- Geological probability:

7.
8. Discuss the quantification methodology of the Geological Probability in general! How do we
quantify the Geological Probability of Reservoir, Seal and Trap Developments? (Play Risk
Assessment, Slides 44-55; 58-61)

9. Discuss the methodology of Geological Probability based segmentation of plays’ accumulation zone.
What do Play Component Probability Maps illustrate? How are Common Risk Segment Maps
produced and what CRS Maps are thought to be used for? (Common Risk Segment Mapping, Slides 2-
17).