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A RBEITSGEMEINSCHAFT FOR

S PARSAMEN AND
U MWELTFREUNDLICHEN
e NERGIEVERBRAUCH EV

Concepts, data, technical rules

Gas Installation:
Tips for practice

Updated 2010 edition


editor
ASUE Working Community for sparsa men and
environmentally friendly union Ener gy consumption
ver eV
Stauffenberg Straße 24, 10785 Berlin
info@asue.de · www.asue.de

eV DVGW German Association for


Gas and Water
- Technical and Scientific Association -
Josef-Wirmer-Straße 1-3, 53123 Bonn
info@dvgw.de · www.dvgw.de

processing
Gerhard Gunne man, Dortmund Fritz
Gunther, Hausham Georg Maatsch,
Munich Kai-Uwe Schuhmann, Bonn
Dieter Vass Wolf, Bonn Reiner Zieprig,
Berlin

Bernhard Blomberg, Münster Heinz-Dieter


Corsten, eating Hans-Joachim Dausch,
Mannheim Bernd Hädicke, Schoenebeck
Herbert Kiefer, Friedberg Michael
Kleine-Hermelink, Stuttgart Pia Kolb,
Darmstadt Steffen Krause, Leipzig Georg
Radlinger, Doauwörth Michael Scheile,
Hannover Ingram Täschner, Berlin Wolfgang
Walther, Kaiserslautern Ulrich Wenge,
Dortmund Gerhard Wolf, Dortmund

editorial staff
gti.publik, Essen-Kettwig

graphic
Kristina Weddeling, eating

distribution
Efficient use of natural gas Verlag
Postfach 30 37 27, 10726 Berlin

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4 contents

page

introduction 8th

A Natural Gas Basics 9

1 Gas specific terms 9

2 gases 13

2.1 gas families 13

2.2 natural gases 14

2.3 device categories 15

B gas installation 16

1 Framework, definitions 16

1.1 General 16

1.2 terms 16

2 line system 17

2.1 Terms of the line system 17

2.2 Creation of the line system 21

2.2.1 external lines 21

2.2.2 Introduction of the service line 22

2.2.3 interior lines 23

2.2.3.1 Laying technology: Metallic interior line 24

2.2.3.2 Laying technique: the plastic inner pipe 26

2.2.4 Protection against interference by unauthorized persons 29

2.3 Testing of gas lines 33

2.3.1 Lines with operating pressure up to 33


100 mbar

2.3.1.1 Load or leak test 33

2.3.1.2 Usability testing 34

2.3.2 Lines with operating pressure 36


> 100 mbar to 1 bar

2.3.2.1 combined loading 37


and leak test
5

2.3.2.2 Assessment of in-service 38


Gas pipeline systems with operating pressure

> 100 mbar to 1 bar for leaks

2.3.3 Connections 38
with operating pressure up to 1 bar

2.4 Admitting gas in line systems 39

2.4.1 Procedure for admitting 41


Gas in newly laid gas lines

2.4.2 Procedure for admitting 43


Gas for re-commissioning of disused gas
pipes

2.4.3 Procedure for admitting 45


Gas for re-commissioning of
decommissioned gas lines

2.4.4 Procedure for admitting 46


of gas after a brief interruption of
operation

2.5 Instruction of Users 47

2.6 Working on gas pipes 47

2.6.1 metal bridge 47


district boundary

3 Rated the line system 48

4 Boiler installation 50

4.1 terms 50

4.1.1 Gas equipment types - Distinction 50


according to combustion air and flue gas
discharge

4.1.2 Gas appliances - distinction 67


by purpose

4.1.3 Terms from the heat and 70


device technology

4.2 General Requirements 75

4.2.1 CE marking 75

4.2.2 Gas Device Identification / Nameplate 76


6 contents

4.3 gas connection 78

4.3.1 fire safety 78

4.3.2 Fixed and detachable connection 79

4.4 Requirements for installation rooms 80

4.4.1 General requirements 80


for installation rooms

4.4.2 Installation rooms at Gesamtnennleis- 82


obligations of gas appliances over 100 kW

4.4.3 Installation sites for gas appliances of the type A 82

4.4.4 Installation sites for gas appliances of the type B 83

4.4.5 Installation sites for gas appliances of the type C 86

4.5 Combustion air supply 87

4.5.1 Gas Appliance type A 87

4.5.2 Gas appliances type B 87

4.5.2.1 Combustion air supply via 89


Outer joints of the installation
- Total nominal power up to 35 kW

4.5.2.2 Combustion air supply 90


via exterior joints in the boiler ventilation

- Total nominal power up to 35 kW

4.5.2.3 Combustion air supply via 98


Outer joints together with outside air
passage elements - Total rated power up
to 35 kW or 50

4.5.2.4 Combustion air supply via 98


special technical equipment
- Total nominal power up to 35 kW

4.5.2.5 Combustion air supply 99


through openings into the open

4.5.3 Gas Appliance type C 102


7

4.6 flue gas discharge 103

4.6.1 The Bezirksschornsteinfegermeister 103


as a knowledgeable consultant

4.6.2 Distance from exhaust pipes to 104


combustible materials

4.6.3 Exhaust mouths of 105


Gas appliance type C

4.7 Commissioning of gas appliances 110

4.7.1 Adjustment and functional testing of gas 110


appliances

4.7.2 Functional test of the exhaust system for gas 110


appliance type B 1 and B 4

4.7.3 Instruction of Users 112

5 operation and maintenance 113

C 1. Federal Immission Control Ordinance (1. 114


BImSchV)

D Laws and Regulations 116

e Index 117
8th

introduction

This brochure "Gas Installation: Tips for practice"


aimed at employees of network operators and
installation companies. It is intended to quickly
and easily display and the extensive aspects of
the TRGI 2008 give the user so valuable
assistance in everyday life. The brochure has
been designed so that it can be used both for
rapid Orien tation as well as a reference in special
situations. In construction and design tailored to
the character of a practical working aid.

The responsibilities and requirements of the


domestic gas installation can only be summarized
here, however. The practical tips are no substitute
for careful reading of the law and the technical
regulations. A guarantee for completeness and
accuracy of the information can not be accepted.
A Natural Gas Basics 9

1 Gas specific terms

density ( ρ)
Ratio of the mass (the volume in kg / m 3).
For the sake of comparison, the density is typically refers to
the standard state.

ρ = m (kg)
V (m 3)

STP
State of the gas at standard conditions: standard
temperature T n = 273,15 K (0 ° C) standard pressure
ρ n = 1013.25 mbar (1013.25 hPa)

Relative density (d)


Ratio of the density of a gas to the density of air under the same
state conditions. The result is a dimensionless number.

d = ρ ρ L, n
G, n

ρ G, n = Density of a gas (at standard conditions kg / m 3)


ρ L, n = Density of air at standard conditions (kg / m 3)

The relative density tells whether a gas is heavier or lighter than


air. at STP air has a density of 1.2931 kg / m Third This means in
practice:

d <= 1, the gas is lighter than air d> = 1, the


gas is heavier than air
10 A Natural Gas Basics

Calorific value (H In) 1

It indicates the amount of heat that is at the complete combustion


of one cubic meter of gas (calculated at standard conditions, i.e. at
0 ° C and 1013.25 mbar) free, when the water formed during the
combustion is present in vaporous form. The net heating value (H I,
B) refers to the operating state of the gas. Calorific value (standard)
and net heating value are respectively in kWh / m 3 specified.

Calorific value (H S, n) 1

It indicates the amount of heat that is (calculated at STP) from the


complete combustion of one cubic meter of gas released when the
water formed during combustion is liquid. He also takes into
account the heat that is bound in the water vapor content of the
exhaust gases. Therefore, it is higher than the calorific value. The
calorific value (H S, B) refers to the operating state of the gas.
Calorific value (standard) and calorific value are respectively in
kWh / m 3 specified.

operating condition

State of the gas under prevailing operating conditions,


characterized by pressure and temperature.

Wobbe index
Characteristic value for the interchangeability of gases. It
represents the relationship between calorific value or calorific
value and the density ratio of the gases. One differentiates the
upper (W S, n) and lower Wobbe index (W In):

H S, n H In
W S, n = W I, n =
√d √d
The result in each case in kWh / m 3 shown.

1) With older gas appliances, instead of H S or W S ( S = Superior) the


German abbreviation H O or W O for "upper" calorific value (= focal value) or the Wobbe
index and instead H I or W (I I = inferior) the abbreviation H u or W u used for "lower" calorific
value or Wobbe index.
11

Gases with the same Wobbe index result in the same heat load of
the burner under the same state variables within a gas family, and
with the same nozzles.

In practice, the Wobbe index (nozzle pressure setting method) is


used primarily to adjust via the nozzle pressure, the heat load of
a burner. The Wobbe index can be obtained from the relevant
network operator.

To z. to make as nameplates for equipment European standard,


uses the following abbreviations and units:

Abbreviations [ kWh / m 3 or MJ / m 3]

New (European) Old (national)

condensing HS HO

calorific value HI Hu

Upper Wobbe index WS WO

Lower Wobbe index WI Wu


(1 kWh = 3.6 MJ)

Ignition
Combustible gases have different ignition temperatures (Figure
1).

Temperature in ° C

560560605640

470

365
305
220220
s
ga
e

l
ne

se
al
s
e

tro
tan
len

​ga

tur
pa

ide

die
bu

ge

pe
ety

pro

na
ox
city

dro
ac

on
nm
hy

rbo
Ca

gaseous liquid

Figure 1: ignition temperatures of flammable substances


12 A Natural Gas Basics

explosion limits
Combustion gases ignite only when they are mixed in a certain
ratio with air or oxygen. Does such. For example, a natural
gas-air mixture less than 4% methane, it does not ignite; it is
"lean" to. A mixture containing more than 17% methane content
can no longer be ignited, either, because it is "rich" to (Figure
2).

Ignition energy
[mJ]

too ignitable mixture too


lean CH4 / air fat

0.28

4 9.5 17 % By volume of methane (CH 4)

Explosions area

Figure 2: Flammability limits in air at 20 ° C


13

2 gases

2.1 Gas families

The technical regulations (DVGW G 260) set forth the


requirements for fuel gases for public gas supply (at 0 ° C and
1013.25 mbar) firmly. After the burning characteristics a
subdivision between gas families and groups takes place. but the
boundaries of the individual groups in G 260 are identical to those
of test gas to the European Standard DIN EN 437 not congruent
(Figure 3; see also section 2.2).

1. Gas family
The first family of gases comprises hydrogen-rich gases. They are in
town gases 1) and remote gases divided.

designation city ​gas remote gases

Wobbe index 6.4 to 7.8 7.8 to 9.3

condensing 4.6 to 5.5 5.0 to 5.9

relativ density 0.40 to 0.60 From 0.32 to 0.55

Unit: in kWh / m 3

2. gas family
The second gas family includes methane-rich gases such as natural
gas, synthetic natural gas and exchange of gases. You are in the
groups L (low) and H (high) divided (see section 2.2).

designation group L group H

Wobbe index 10.5 to 13.0 12.8 to 15.7

condensing 8.4 to 13.1 8.4 to 13.1

relativ density From 0.55 to 0.75 From 0.55 to 0.75

Unit: in kWh / m 3

1) City gases currently are not for use in Germany.


14 A Natural Gas Basics

3. gas family
The third gas family includes liquefied a DIN 51,622th For
them, the TRF (Technical rules for LPG) apply.

the responsible network operator informed of the nature of


the publicly distributed gases.

2.2 Natural Gases

In Germany, natural gases of two groups are distributed in the


public gas supply, in essence, be divided into groups of natural
gases "H" and "L" after the DVGW work G 260th These roughly
correspond to the European test gases "E" and "LL" according to
DIN EN 437 (see Fig. 3).

National Distributed gas


European test particularities species to DVGW
gases DE G 260

2H 2E
16 G21 G21 H
16.1 16.1
15.7

15 G20 G20
15.0
14.9 14.9
14

13.4 2L 2LL L
G23
1013.25 mbar) 17
13 G26 G26
13.1 13.1 13.0

G25 G25
12.0 12.0 12.4
12 G231 12.2 12.2
G27
11.5

11

10.0 10.0
10 G271
WS (kWh / m3) (0 ° C

Normprüfgas according to EN 437 Denominations to G 260

Figure 3: limits of gas quality, the gas group of the second gas
family
15

2.3 Device Categories

DVGW Code of Practice G 600 as well as the European


standard DIN EN 437 different gas appliances according to their
suitability for use with gases of gas families:

• Category I: suitable for gases only one gas family


• Category II: suitable for gases of two gas families
• Category III: suitable for gases of all gas families

In Germany, most following gas device categories are


used:

category Test gases Supply pressure (in


mbar)

I 2ELL G 20, G 25 20

II 2ELL3B / P G 20, G 25, G 30 20, 50

III 1abd2ELL3B / P G 110 G 120 G 20, G 8, 20, 50


25, G 30

Where:
• the indices at III-III: 1/2/3. Gas family (s. Section 2.1 "gas
families"). (The letters a, b, d are different town gas qualities.)

• E or LL: hochkaloriges or niederkaloriges natural gas (roughly corresponds to natural


gas H or L in accordance with DVGW G 260)
• B / P: Butane / Propane
B gas installation

1 General terms

1.1 General

The specifications for the design, creation, modification,


maintenance and operation of gas installations in the DVGW
worksheet G 600 "Technical rules for gas installations; DVGW
TRGI "(2008) regulated. The DVGW TRGI applies to the design,
creation, modification, maintenance and operation of gas
installations with gases in accordance with DVGW G 260 -
operated bar in buildings and land with operating pressures up 1
- except LPG. It applies to the area behind the main shut-off
(HAE) to the removal of the exhaust gases into the atmosphere.

1.2 terms

Decisive for the definitions of gas installations DVGW


TRGI of 2008.

gas installation
Gas installations consist of line systems, gas appliances and
systems for combustion air supply and exhaust systems.
Starting (HAE) behind the main shut-off and extend to the
removal of the exhaust gases into the atmosphere.
17

2 line system

2.1 Terms of the line system


(in alphabetic order)

Shut-off device (AE)


Component for shutting off the gas supply.

branch line
Line section leading from the consumption line for device
connection fitting. It is only for powering a gas appliance.

outside line
Pipe downstream of the HAE, which is installed outside
buildings, either in the open (free laid outside line), or in the
ground (underground outer pipe). They are also referred to as a
court or land lines.

Single supply
Line part of HAE to device connection fitting for connecting
only one gas appliance.

Gas Pressure Regulator (GR)

The gas pressure regulator (House-pressure control device or

counter-pressure control device) controls the pressure in the downstream

portion of the conduit system.

Gas outlet (GSD)


Safety gas connection fitting for the connection of gas
appliances (eg. B. Gas cooker) or gas devices for outdoor
use (eg. As gas grill or gas burners).

Gas flow switch (GS)


Means that the gas flow locks automatically when reaching
the reseat flow.
18 B gas installation

3
4 4
T T

3
45 45
T T

5 5

2 6

Figure 4: Example A

3
4 4 4
T T T

5 5 5

3
4 4 4
2 T T T

5 5 5

Figure 5: Example B

5 T

5 44

3 5
3 4
4
T

1
5

Figure 6: Example C
19

Gas meter (Z)


Gas meters measure the gas flow rate. For domestic and
similar use usually diaphragm meters are used. For larger
volume flows rotary or turbine meters are used.

Device connection cable


Lead part to the connection on the gas appliance leads from the
device connection fitting.

Main shut (HAE)


She sits at the end of the service line and serves to shut off the
gas supply one or more buildings.

Legend for the 4, 5 and 6:

line system
1 Service line (HAL, DVGW worksheet G 459-1)
2 Distribution line (optionally riser)
3 Consumption line (optionally riser)
4 branch line
5 Device connection cable
(Optionally Safety gas hose line
6 buried outside line

components

insulating

Main shut (HAE) excess flow valve

(GS) detachable connection Gas

Pressure Regulator Gas Meters

Shut-off device (AE)

Thermo stop cock (TAE) gas appliance

Safety gas outlet safety gas hose


20 B gas installation

inside line
In the building gas line moved behind the HAE. It may consist of
single feed line, distribution line, riser, consumption management,
branch management and device connecting cables (Figures 4, 5
and 6).

insulating
A component for interrupting the electrical conductivity of
a longitudinal pipe.

line system
Collective term for the gas-phase lines and the interior gas
pipes.

riser
Lead part of lead projectile perpendicular to floor.

Thermo stop cock (TAE)


It causes the automatic shut-off of the gas flow when the
temperature of the component exceeds a predetermined
value.

consumption line
Line section starting from the branch distribution line or from
HAE up to the branch lines.

distribution line
Line part to several gas meters.
21

2.2 Creation of the line system

Gas pipes must not be frost-free. You do not need insulation and are
merely to protect against corrosion.

2.2.1 External lines

Buried outside line


When laid in the ground, the overlap to 0.6 m to 1 m, but not more
than 2 m (Figure 7).

In open wiring, it is necessary to insert a Warning tape at a distance


of about 0.2 m above the gas pipe. has the wiring concealed laid
cables
z. As documented by the preparation of a site plan and given to
the plant operator.

Free Shifted outside lines


Gas lines can be installed on the building and outside. Freely laid
outside lines must be protected by appropriate measures against
severe temperature changes and mechanical stress (eg., By
compensators, shading, collision, using jacketed pipe sections). it is
important also that appropriate measures are taken to protect
against corrosion.

min. 60 cm

line
as
ng
utio
Ca

about 20 cm

Figure 7: Buried outside line


22 B gas installation

2.2.2 Introduction of the service line

For introducing the gas service line, no special space is required.


It can also be introduced into the installation of the gas appliance
(Figure 8).

10 11
12

13
4

9
8

7
2 3 5

6
1

1 supply line
2 Excess flow valve outside the building
the responsibility of the network operator
3 Service line
4 optionally external shut-off device (AE)
5 House lead-pipe combination as a capsule
Fixed point in the masonry or Hauseinführungskom- bination of
steel casing pipe and pull-out
6 eventually pull out protection
7 Main shut (HAE),
possibly with integrated insulating
8th Detachable connection
9 Gas flow switch (GS)
10 Zählerabsperreinrichtung
11 House Pressure Regulator
12 Double connector for gas pressure regulators and gas meters
13 Diaphragm gas meters

Figure 8: Example of a natural gas service connection with controller / counter


connection

The particular construction of the house lead is to be inquired at


the responsible service provider.
23

2.2.3 internal lines

Creation of inner pipe


Gas lines can:
a) exposed on distance,
b) under plaster without a cavity or
) To be laid in ducts or channels, c.


Pipes with operating pressures> 100 mbar may not
be laid under plaster.

No other lines or loads may be attached to gas lines.

nominal width outer diameter mounting pitch


da
DN mm m

- 15 1.25

15 18 1.50

20 22 2.00

25 28 2.25

32 35 2.75

40 42 3.00

50 54 3.50

- 64 4.00

65 76.1 4.25

80 88.9 4.75

100 108 5.00

Table 1: Guidelines for fixing distances horizontally laid


metallic pipes
24 B gas installation

2.2.3.1 laying technology:


Metallic inner pipe

In horizontally laid lines, the distance of the fastening


elements aligned with each other by the pipe diameter (see.
Table 1).

The lines must be installed so that Schwitzund dripping


water can not affect them. Therefore metal gas pipes should
be laid above water pipes.

Laying in front of or in the wall

Flush type
The cable must be protected by plastic wrap against
corrosion if gypsum-based industrial plasters are used. The
previously common Filzbinden are not suitable.

Laying on plaster (Figure 9)


The line does not have to be frost-free. Z serves as a fastening
means. As a commercially available plugs. The supporting parts
of pipe fittings must be made of non-combustible materials. Only
if in case of fire, the mechanical strength (longitudinal clamping
force) of the pipe connection is not guaranteed (for. Example,
clamping connections with non-metallic seal brazed joints of
copper lines), metal plugs are to be used.

Figure 9: pipe support system

Laying in the shaft


The shaft is vent sections or as a whole to loading and. The
vents have about 10 cm 2
25

be great. They must not be placed in stairwells. When not loaded and
vented wells or cavities, the gas pipe is to be laid in a shell. A shaft is
no longer considered cavity when it is filled dimensionally stable and
dense with non-combustible materials.

cables without additional compounds other than the device


connector fitting or the gas outlet can be installed in cavities without
any additional protective measures (z. B. ventilation tube or sleeve).

Special fire protection requirements for buildings with more than


7 m high floor upper edge of the highest floor and more than two
units of use

Without special measures, the laying of pipe systems in stairwells


necessary steps, their exits to the outside and in generally accessible
hallways that serve as escape routes, inadmissible. When sufficient
"special measure" the laying of the cable under plaster without a cavity
at least 15 mm wall covering on non-combustible plaster base is
considered.

Permitted the relocation is in a bay that meets the following


conditions:
1. It must be ventilated (openings at least 10 cm 2). However, the
ventilation openings must not end in stairwells and their connecting
paths to the outside. 2)

2. Depending on the requirements of the shaft made of


non-combustible materials must be made with a fire resistance
period of 30 minutes (F 30) to 90 minutes (F 90).

performed wires through walls and ceilings, the fire resistance


requirements (F 30 or F 90) are subject, these lines must be passed
through bulkheads with at least the respective required fire
resistance.

2) ventilation can be omitted if the line is carried out without compounds (s. "Laying in
the shaft")
26 B gas installation

2.2.3.2 laying technology:


plastic inner pipe

The TRGI 2008 now allows the laying of plastic pipes inside
buildings up to an operating pressure of 100 mbar. The term
"plastic inner pipe" fall multilayer pipes made of plastic /
aluminum / plastic and pipes of crosslinked polyethylene (PE-X).
These plastic inner cables are available with pipe connectors as
systems (Figure 10). The pipes must be tested in accordance
with the applicable product standards for the use of the "gas"
(marking G100) and certified!

Thus, gas lines safety requirements made of plastic, the


same as secure fulfill gas lines of metallic materials, are as
security elements gas flow switch (GS) type K in combination
with thermal shut-off devices (TAE) use.

Examples of plastic pipe systems:

Figure 10.1: Radial compression (Uponor GmbH)

Figure 10.2: Axial compression (TECE GmbH)


27

As metal lines may plastic inner lines:

a) exposed on distance,
b) under plaster without a cavity or
) To be laid in ducts or channels, c.

In horizontally laid lines, the distance of the fastening


elements aligned with each other by the tube outer diameter
(see. Table 2).

Outer diameter d a mounting pitch


mm m

16 1.00

20 1.25

25 1.50

32 1.75

40 2.00

50 2.00

63 2.00

Table 2: Reference values ​for fixing distances horizontally laid


plastic inner leads

Laying in front of or in the wall

Flush type
The line is with suitable protection against material harmful
influences such. to protect as aggressive and
corrosion-causing substances. The information from the
manufacturers must be observed.

Surface Installation
The attachment of the cable must be suitable for static operation
case. Pipe supports made of combustible materials are
permitted.
28 B gas installation

Laying in the shaft


The shaft is partially or on the whole loading and bleed. The
vents have about 10 cm 2 be great. They must not be placed in
stairwells. When not loaded and vented wells or cavities, the gas
pipe is to be laid in a shell. A shaft is no longer considered cavity
when it is filled dimensionally stable and dense with
non-combustible materials.

Where no fire zones are crossed and the lines no other


connections comprise devices other than the terminal fitting or
the gas outlet, may be installed in cavities without additional
protective measures.

Special fire protection requirements for buildings with more


than 7 m high floor level of the highest floor and more than 2
units of use.

Plastic inner leads are not allowed in stairwells necessary steps


and their exits to the outside as well as in generally accessible
corridors which serve as escape routes.

performed wires through walls and ceilings, the fire resistance


requirements (F 30 or F 90) are subject, these lines must be
routed through bulkheads that both a building inspection
reference 3 and at least each of which has required fire
resistance.

3) General building control test certificate (ABP) and General


Technical Approval (ABZ)
29

2.2.4 Protection against interference by unauthorized persons

Accidents or disruptions of gas installations are statistically rare.


However, they can have a significant impact.

A majority of the accidents or disturbances is due to deliberate


tampering or accidental interference by unauthorized persons.

To limit the consequences of such interventions in the gas


installation of buildings with domestic and similar use, measures
are generally active and passive possibly required, and active
measures always take precedence. The active measures to
manipulate defenses must be adapted to the load and are
accordingly interpreted the design specifications for the line
system.

active measures
As an active measure the installation of components that
interrupt the gas supply in case of irregular gas outlet is
considered (Figure 11).
• Excess flow valve (GS) according DVGWPrüfgrundlage VP
305-1 (s. Table 3)
• Gas pressure regulators with integrated GS according to
DIN 33822

Figure 11: excess flow valve (Mertik Maxitrol GmbH & Co. KG)
30 B gas installation

GS type perm. Operating pressure Mounting


Max. Closing factor GS nominal value color

M 15 to 100 mbar 2.5 yellow rule comes


f S max = 1.8 4610 orange before or after
brown the gas
green red pressure
16

K 15 to 100 mbar 1.6 white rule comes


f S max = 1.45 2.5 yellow before or after
4610 brown the gas
green red pressure
orange
16

Table 3: excess flow valve according to DVGW test specification VP 305-1. Note:
GS M type can be used only for metal pipes

Functional Description gas flow switch (GS)


• In normal operation with flow rates up to the
predetermined nominal flow (V n)
the GS remains open.
• V n to the closing factor f Smax is exceeded, the GS automatically
closes and remains closed until the fault is eliminated.

• If the fault is eliminated, the GS opens automatically and the


system can be operated again.

The locking factor of the GS may be of the installation position (horizontal


or vertical) dependent. Therefore, it is important to follow the manufacturer
with respect to the mounting position (s) the requirements.

The first component is an active measure to install directly


behind the HAE or downstream of the gas pressure regulating
device when it is arranged directly behind the HAE (except
apartment building with one flat application in low-pressure
gas-distributing ≤ 25 mbar).

These active measures are input at a load up to 138 kW at a


plurality of gas appliances and 110 kW at only a single device is
used.
31

Gas flow switch (GS) outside main shut Gas flow switch (GS)
the building in the building
according to VP (HAE) after VP 305-1
305-2 in scope
G 459-1

1
Gas Pressure
Regulator (GR) Gas Meter

2
A gas pressure

regulating device (GR) with Gas Meter


integrated GS

Figure 12: Active measures for the manipulation difficulty in


single-family house at Gasverteildrücken about 25 mbar to 100 mbar.


With plastic inner lines the required for these systems as
security elements GS type K already meet all the
requirements for active measures.

passive measures
In one- and two-family houses is dispensed with an additional
passive fuse sections of pipe. In apartment buildings, the
installation of GS as a rule must be complemented by passive
measures.

Suitable passive measures are:


• avoiding line ends
• the arrangement of the gas installation in "not generally
accessible rooms" (this is only relevant in apartment
buildings)
• the use of safety closures or constructional protective
measures for detachable connections

In "generally accessible rooms" passive measures in line


sections are required which are active measures.
32 B gas installation

➜ Since the supply pressures and protections of the service


lines by the network operator and the local installation
conditions are differently, for measures to tampering
defense is always recommended coordination between
installation contractor (VIU) and network operators (NB).

Duration
There is no general obligation to retrofit GS (grandfathering). If
there are significant changes to existing gas installations,
however, an adjustment to the state of the art is required. This
also applies to applications for which are to be expected with a
critical user behavior or critical use situations. For retrofits, the
use of passive measures "generally accessible rooms" may
represent the only possible and therefore sufficient measure.
33

2.3 inspection of gas lines

2.3.1 lines with operating pressure up to


100 mbar

2.3.1.1 load or leak test


For pipe systems with an operating pressure up to 100 mbar, the tests
described below are carried out. The tests may be carried out in
sections. The load test and the Leak testing be carried out before the
lines to be plastered or covered and coated or sheathed their
connections.


The results of the tests must be documented!

load test Leak testing

scope Pipes without fittings (exception: Pipes with fittings, but care
Max. Operating pressure (MOP) of institutions without gas
the instrument = test pressure) equipment and related control
and Safe

execution Conduit openings with metal components


(Plug, Kap pen etc.) tightly seal with no connections
gas pipes

Test medium Air or inert gas (eg., Nitrogen,


Carbon dioxide, no oxygen)

Test pressure 1 bar 150 mbar

temperature not mandatory required, see Table 4


compensation

Test duration 10 mins see Table 4

gauge z. As piston pump with z. B. U-tube Manometerprin-, zip with


pressure gauge water and hand pump container or
"Blasengel" mechanical or electronic
pressure measuring devices

Requirements for Mindestaufl dissolution 0,1 bar Mindestaufl dissolution


measuring devices 0.1 mbar (0.1 mbar = 1 mm
water column) must be
recognizable.

demanded no pressure drop no pressure drop


test result
34 B gas installation

Line volume adjustment period * min. test period

<100 l 10 min 10 min

≥ 100 l to 200 l 30 min 20 min

≥ 200 l 60 min 30 min

* benchmarks

Table 4: adaptation times and test duration in


dependence on the pipe volume

2.3.1.2 Serviceability test


Low pressure lines in operation up to 100 mbar can be
distinguished according to their degree of usability. the
corresponding measures are then carried out in dependence
on the degree of usability.

the following criteria are distinguished:


• Unlimited serviceability: Gas leakage quantity at operating
pressure is less than one liter per hour and there is no
additional lack such. As gas odor before. Lines can be
operated.

• Reduced serviceability:
The amount of gas leakage at operating pressure is between
one and less than five liters per hour. These cables are to be
sealed or replaced. The leak must be made within four weeks
as for newly laid pipes.

• No serviceability:
The amount of gas leakage at operating pressure is five or more
liters per hour.

➜ These lines are immediately disabled!


35

In addition to the determined amount of gas leakage and the


externally visible state (z. B. corrosion) and the functionality of
the components to assess the usability must be considered.

For repaired pipe sections and their restarting the finding of


usability is not enough, but subject to the same requirements as
for newly laid pipes (ie, the line must be tight!).

In practice, the state of gas pipe systems with leak amount


measuring instruments, or by measuring the pressure drop per
minute can be detected with suitable test equipment while
referring to the test method and evaluation diagrams according to
DVGW TRGI, Appendix 4.


The test results must be documented.
36 B gas installation

2.3.2 lines
Operating pressure> 100 mbar to 1 bar

For cables with a working pressure from 100 mbar to 1 bar,


including the tests described below are carried out.

➜ The test results must be documented!


37

2.3.2.1 Combined Belastungsund leak


test

The test is carried out before the compounds of the pipe to be


coated or sheathed.

Combined Belastungsund
leak test

scope Pipes with fittings but without pressure


regulators, gas meters, gas appliances and
associated control and safety devices
(provided the valves are off set for this test).

execution closed conduit openings with metal


components (stoppers, caps, etc.) thick;
no compounds with gas pipes

Test medium Air or inert gas (eg., Nitrogen, carbon


dioxide, no oxygen)

Test pressure 3 bar (2 bar pressure increase maximum /


min)

temperature compensation required (duration about


three hours)

Test duration after temperature equalization at least two


hours, at passage volume
> extend 2.000 l, 100 l per additional order for 15
minutes each

gauge z. As piston pump with pressure gauge

Requirements for simultaneous use of pressure recorder (class 1)


measuring devices and pressure gauge (class 0.6), measuring
range: 1.5 times of the test pressure gauges take
immediately after application of the test pressure
in operation

demanded no pressure drop


test result

Annotation:
The test pressure is safely let off after the test.
38 B gas installation

2.3.2.2 Assessment of in-service gas pipe systems


with operating pressure
> 100 mbar to 1 bar for leaks

Leaks from continuously accessible gas line systems are to be


located with a gas detector according to DVGW Note G 465-4 or
foaming agents in accordance with DIN EN 14,291th After
repairing the leak is determine by appropriate means.

2.3.3 Connections with operating


pressures up to 1 bar

From the leak test or the combined load and leak test following
parts can be excluded when tested under operating pressure
with gas detectors according DVGWHinweis G 465-4 or
foam-forming agents in accordance with DIN EN 14291:

• Junctions with the main shut-off (HAE), with gas pressure


regulators, gas meters and gas appliances, devices,
connecting lines, connection fittings, as well as devices with
gas pipes.

• Device connecting cables


• Closures of test ports
39

2.4 admitting gas in line systems

The leakage test is required when admitting gas:

• in newly laid line systems


• for restarting of disused line systems

• re-commissioning of decommissioned line systems

• in pipeline systems after a brief interruption of operation

The types of tests are the same for any occasion. but requires a
different combination of types of test before admitting gas.
Showing the outline in Table 5 below.


In leaky pipes no gas is to be admitted!

line systems

newly laid still- interruption by


set apartoperating operating
Types of tests set kurzzei- tiger

Load test (1 bar)

Leak test (150


mbar)

tungs- combined Belas-


and leak test (3 bar)

Checking the connections and

links with operating pressure up

to 1 bar pressure measurement

Use Aptitude test

Table 5: Type of test occasion and when admitting gas


40 B gas installation

2.4.1 Procedure for admitting gas in newly


laid gas lines

Examples:
• reinstalling
• greater wiring and enlargement of gas
equipment
• larger pipe laying in the course of
maintenance of gas equipment

Legend to Figure 13:

1 Ready to meet the connected gas appliances


tung openings the same criteria as sealed LEI.

2 Of the stress and tightness tests


the following components can be excluded if they
equipment or operating pressure with gas detection are
checked with overall foaming agents:

• Junctions with the main shut device (HAE), lines with


gas pressure regulators, gas meters and gas
appliances, equipment terminal device connection
fittings as well as with gas pipes

• Device connecting cables


• Closures of test ports
41

Newly laid line systems

before introducing the gas

Operating pressure> 100 mbar?

No Yes

Load test pressure 1 combined loading


bar Test duration 10 and tightness test: Test
min pressure 3 bar temperature
equalization for 3 h + 2 h
testing period for pipe volume

Leak testing test pressure


to 2000 l
150 mbar test duration from 10
to 30 min *

immediately prior to admitting the gas

If the leak test or the combined load and leak


testing
time immediately prior to admitting
the gas carried out?

No Yes

Pressure measurement Tour of the entire


at least operating management system on
pressure on closed tight packaging connected
conduit openings 1 (custody) conduit openings
1

while admitting the gas

vent line system safely

by introducing the gas

Unrecognized connection points with gas detectors


Check or foam-forming agents 2

* depending on the line volume, s. table 4

Figure 13: Procedure for admitting gas in newly laid pipe


systems
42 B gas installation

2.4.2 Procedure for admitting gas to the


re-commissioning of disused gas lines

Plants that have not been operated in the longer term (eg. As in
empty apartments or buildings) are considered to be
decommissioned if they were no longer extended period of time
under operating pressure and the gas meter was expanded.
Unused, but operational systems are not considered closed down
(as defined in Section 5.7 1.2 TRGI).

Legend to Figure 14:

1 Lines intended to
Period were no longer operated.

2 The subsequent exposure of disused


Line systems is not required.

3 Ready to meet the connected gas appliances


the same criteria as sealed lead holes.

4 Of the leak test or the combined


Load and leak testing nachste- rising parts can be excluded
when tested under operating pressure with gas detectors or by
foam generation means Denden:

• Junctions with the Hauptabsperreinrich- device (HAE),


lines with gas pressure regulators, gas meters and gas
equipment unit connection, device connection fittings, as
well as with gas pipes

• Device connecting cables


• Closures of test ports
43

Decommissioned line system 1

before introducing the gas

Inspection in good condition

Operating pressure> 100 mbar?

No Yes

Leak testing test pressure Combined load and leak


150 mbar 10-30 min test test:
period 2 3 bar test pressure
temperature compensation 3
+ h 2 h testing period for pipe
volume
to 2000 l 2

immediately prior to admitting the gas

If the leak test or the combined load and leak


testing
time immediately prior to admitting
the gas carried out?

No Yes

Pressure measurement Tour of the entire


at least operating management system on
pressure on closed tight packaging connected
conduit openings (custody) conduit openings
3

while admitting the gas

vent line system safely

by introducing the gas

equipment not covered joints with gas detection or


check foaming agents 4

Figure 14: Procedure for admitting gas in disused line


systems
44 B gas installation

2.4.3 Procedure for admitting gas to the


recommissioning of decommissioned gas lines

Reason for this are, for example:


• Maintenance measures (especially if they last longer and
being handled by unauthorized persons on the gas installation
can not be ruled out)
• Renewal or modification of short pipe sections (the
exchange of complete line pieces is a new installation)

• Connection of a new domestic power of existing


distribution line
• Measures in the exchange of gas appliances
• At times, blocking of the gas supply (z. B. when
tenants change)
• Recommissioning of the gas supply after work on the
gas network

Legend to Figure 15:

1 is at decommissioned lines
the gas supply temporarily.

2 Subsequent exposure of out of service


set lines is not required.

3 Ready connected gas appliances meet diesel


ben criteria such as sealed lead holes.

4 Of the leak test, Gebrauchsfähigkeitsprü-


Fung and the combined load and leak test can be excluding
the following parts when equipment or operating pressure with
gas detection are tested using foaming agents:

· closing taps connection points with the main shut-off (HAE),


with gas pressure regulators, gas meters and gas appliances,
devices, connecting cables, as well as with gas pipes
Gerätean-
· Device connecting cables
· Closures of test openings.
45

decommissioned line systems 1

before introducing the gas

Could the lines have become leaky due to


work performed?

Yes

No

Operating pressure> 100 mbar?

No Yes
No

Leak testing test pressure combined loading


150 mbar 10-30 min test and leak test: Test
period 2 pressure 3 bar temperature
equalization for 3 h + 2 h
testing period for pipe volume
Gebrauchsfähig- impact
assessment
to 2000 l

immediately prior to admitting the gas

If the leak test, utility ability test or the combined load


and leak test time directly

carried out before introducing the gas?

No Yes

Pressure measurement
at least operating
pressure on closed
conduit openings 3

while admitting the gas

vent line system safely

by introducing the gas

equipment not covered joints with gas detection or


check foaming agents 4

Figure 15: Procedure for admitting gas in


decommissioned gas lines
46 B gas installation

2.4.4 Procedure according while


admitting gas
short-term business interruption

Examples:
• Maintenance procedures that can be performed in a very
short time
• Replacement of gaskets, but wherein no line sections to be
dismantled
• Maintenance of the gas installation

• Working with blocking of the gas supply (z. B. work on


gas-carrying parts within the gas appliances)
• Gas meter replacement and implement changes that can be
implemented in a very short time
• Functional testing of medium pressure control devices that
can be done in a very short time
• Equipment replacement with a change of the installation if this
is done in a very short time. An interruption of the gas supply
is required, but so briefly that manipulation by a third party is
excluded on the gas installation.

Once work is required on the line installation, how to proceed in


"out of service line systems". There is taken into account
whether the management system can be developed leaks
through the work.

Short-term business interruption 1

immediately prior to admitting the gas

By measuring pressure or other suitable means to


determine if all line openings are closed.

engage gas

1 The short-term business interruption is for. example for


Maintenance of the gas installation and changing the gas meter. Figure 16:

Short-term business interruption


47

2.5 Instruction of Users

The operator of the gas system shall be informed of the proper


operation and maintenance of the line system. The minutes of
the pressures and leak testing and maintenance instructions
must be handed over to him.

2.6 Work on gas pipes

Before starting work, the associated shut-off device is to be


closed and z. securing, by removal of the key or hand wheel.
The shut-off line is to relax; the while escaping gas must be
discharged safely.

2.6.1 Metallic bridge separating points

Must metal lines are disconnected or when working reconnected,


it is before the separation to produce protection against electrical
contact voltage and sparking an electrically conductive bridging.
Serves an insulated copper cable according to DIN 46440 having
a cross section of at least 16 mm 2 and not more than 3 m in
length (Figure 17).

Figure 17: Jumper Cables


48 B gas installation

3 dimensioning of the pipeline system

The critical design of the pipeline system, the information in the


DVGW-TRGI of 2008.

The procedure for selecting and dimensioning of the pipeline


system has been revised with the DVGW-TRGI 2008
fundamentally. For individual supply lines to 110 kW nominal load
simplified diagram method can be applied. Other gas installations
must be calculated according to the table method.

Here is an example discussed the application of the diagram


process.

Due to the predetermined conditions, the diagram method is


applicable only for individual supply lines with a total pressure loss
of 300 Pa (3 mbar). Depending on the rating of the installed gas
appliance component selection (excess flow valve, gas meter and
device connection fitting) and the determination of the maximum
allowable pipe length done. The number of 90 degrees is taken into
account by lines having a different number of angles.

Example: Combined water heater with 20 kW load connection


fitting DN 15 (passage shape), 8 angle, GS type K copper
material.

Result see diagram 1 (page 49): gas flow


switch GS = 4, the gas meter G = 2.5

Max. permissible tube length = 15 m.

If a Eckformarmatur used instead of the devices connecting


fitting straight through, the angle number is to be increased to
eight.

For plastic pipes the appropriate tables and charts of the


respective manufacturer must be used.
49

Maximum pipe length L in m

24 8
22 16
24
8

16
20

24
18

da 15
16
15 D

14

12 15
8th

10
24 16 8th
16
9
D 18 D

78
24
56
15 15

8 12
4 da da

3 10

16 14 12 18 20 25
Rated load Q NB in kW

Gas flow limiter:


GS 2.5 GS 4
Gas meters: G 2.5

8th Number of angles

as pipe diameter

15 D devices connecting fitting DN (passage)

Extract from DVGW TRGI 2008, chart 1


50 B gas installation

4 Boiler installation

4.1 terms

4.1.1 Gas device types -


air supply distinction on combustion and
exhaust gas removal

Gas appliances are divided according to different criteria


and designated accordingly. After the combustion air supply
and flue gas discharge, there are three types:

A Gas appliances without exhaust system

B room air from dependent fireplaces


C room air inde dependent fireplaces

When gas appliances type B and C of the first index ranks (1 to


9) to the device a structural group. The second index (for type A
is the only index) stands for the installation of the fan:

1 without fan
2 with fan behind the heat exchanger
3 with fan upstream of the burner

Gas Appliance type C may have an additional index:


x = All parts under overpressure of
Exhaust gas path are surrounded by combustion or
meet increased tightness requirements, so that
exhaust gases in hazardous quantities can not
escape (see p. 55).
51

Examples of marking the most common gas appliances:

All of the following representations are symbolic and


schematic examples.

type A
Gas appliance without exhaust system The combustion air is
taken from the boiler room (z. B. Gas stove, stool boiler, built-in
oven).

exhaust

combustion air

combustion air

type A 1

Figure 18: room air from hängiges gas appliance without fan (z. B. gas
cooker)
52 B gas installation

type B
Gas appliance with flue gas discharge, the combustion air
takes the installation room (room air
from hängiges gas appliance)

type B 1

Gas unit with diverter

exhaust

combustion air

type B 11

Figure 19: room air from hängiges gas appliance with flow assurance without
fan (z. B. Gas instantaneous water heater)

exhaust

combustion air

type B 13

Figure 20: room air from hängiges gas appliance with flow assurance and blower upstream
of the burner (z. B. combi boiler with premixing burner)
53

type B 2

Gas appliance without draft diverter

exhaust

Vent 1 x 150 cm 2
or 2 x 75 cm 2

combustion air

type B 22P

Figure 21: room air from hängiges gas appliance without flow fuse
with blower downstream of the heat exchanger; Flue gas discharge
with overpressure without special tightness requirement, so vent
required.
54 B gas installation

exhaust
combustion air

cleaning closure

type B 23

Image 22: Indoor Air from hängiges gas appliance without flow fuse with fan
upstream of the burner (z. B. Gas boiler unit, gas-jet burners), gas discharge
with negative pressure.

Vent 1 x 150 cm 2
or 2 x 75 cm 2
combustion air

exhaust

cleaning
closure

type B 23P

Picture 22b: Indoor Air from hängiges gas appliance without flow fuse with fan
front of the burner; Flue gas discharge with overpressure without special
tightness requirements, so vent required.
55

type B 3

Gas appliance without draft diverter, wherein all under


overpressure parts of the exhaust passage are lapped by
combustion air.

combustion air

Measurement / test opening

exhaust

type B 32

Figure 23: room air from hängiges gas appliance without flow fuse with
blower downstream of the heat exchanger. All under overpressure parts of
the exhaust passage are surrounded by combustion (z. B. Gas-fired
boiler).
combustion air

Measurement / test opening

exhaust

type B 33

Figure 24: room air from hängiges gas appliance without flow fuse with fan
upstream of the burner. All over-pressurized parts of the exhaust path are
surrounded by combustion.
56 B gas installation

type B 4

Gas appliance such as type B 1: Exhaust system is part of the gas

appliance (system certification)

type B 5

Gas appliance such as type B 2: Exhaust system is part of the gas

appliance (system certification)

type C
Gas device that draws the combustion air via a
closed system the outdoors
(Room air inde hängiges gas appliance).

type C 1

Gas appliance with horizontal Verbrennungsluftzuund flue


gas discharge through the outside wall. The mouths are
located close together in the same pressure range.

exhaust

combustion air

type C 11

Figure 25: room air inde hängiges gas appliance without fans; Openings for
combustion air and flue gas discharge in the same pressure range (eg. B.
outer wall space heaters)
57

combustion air

exhaust

type C 12x

Figure 26: room air inde hängiges gas device with blower downstream of the heat
exchanger; horizontal combustion air and removal of exhaust guide through the outer
wall; by combustion exhaust gas exhaustion; Orifices in the same pressure range (eg.
B. outer wall device for heating with a maximum of 11 kW rated power, for hot water
production with a maximum of 28 kW rated power).

combustion air

exhaust

type C 13x

Figure 27: room air inde hängiges gas device with blower in front of the
burner; horizontal combustion air and Abgasabfüh- tion through the outer
wall; Orifices in the same range of pressure; by combustion evacuation.
58 B gas installation

type C 2

Gas unit with combustion air and flue gas discharge for
connection to a common shaft for air and exhaust gas.

➜ This Gasgeräteart is not permitted under building


regulations in Germany.

type C 3

Gas appliance with combustion air and flue gas discharge


through the roof. The mouths are located close together in the
same pressure range.

exhaust

combustion air

0m
0.4
n.
mi

Measurement / test opening

type C 32x

Figure 28: room air inde hängiges gas device with blower downstream of the heat
exchanger; air supply vertical combustion and exhaust-gas discharge through the
roof; Mouths in the same chen pressure range; By combustion exhaust gas path (z.
B. condensing device in the roof installation).
59

exhaust

combustion air

0m
0.4
Thermowell
n.
mi

Measurement / test opening

type C 33x

Figure 29: room air inde hängiges gas device with blower in front of the
burner; vertical combustion air and flue gas exhaustion over the roof;
area and exhaust path by combustion air openings at the same
pressure.
60 B gas installation

type C 4

Gas appliance with combustion air and flue gas discharge for
connection to an air exhaust system.

combustion air

test opening

exhaust

cleaning
closure

Overflow measuring /

type C 42x

Figure 30: room air inde hängiges gas device with blower downstream of the
heat exchanger; Combustion air and flue gas discharge for connection to an air
exhaust system. All under overpressure parts of the exhaust passage are
surrounded by combustion (z. B. wall-mounted combination devices, multiple
allocation is possible).
61

combustion air

Measurement / test opening

exhaust

cleaning
closure

overflow

type C 43x

Figure 31: room air inde hängiges gas device with blower in front of the
burner; Combustion air and flue gas discharge for connection to an air
exhaust system. All over-pressurized parts of the exhaust path are
surrounded by combustion.
62 B gas installation

type C 5

Gas appliance with separate combustion air and flue gas


discharge. The mouths are in different pressure ranges.

exhaust

structural protection

Measurement /
Vent 1 x 150 cm 2 test opening

or 2 x 75 cm 2

combustion air

type C 52

Figure 32: room air inde hängiges gas device with blower downstream
of the heat exchanger; separate combustion air and flue gas discharge;
Orifices areas in different pressure; Flue gas discharge with
overpressure without special tightness requirements, so vent required.
63

exhaust

structural
protection

Measurement / test
opening

incineration
air

Vent 1 x 150 cm 2

or 2 x 75 cm 2

type C 53

Figure 33: room air inde hängiges gas device with blower in front of the
burner; separate combustion air and flue gas discharge; Orifices in
different printing areas; Removal of exhaust management with pressure
without special tightness requirements, so vent required.
64 B gas installation

type C 6

Gas appliance certified separately: Combustion air and flue gas


discharge were approved separately from the gas appliance.

exhaust

combustion air

exhaust

Combustion air

Measurement / test opening

Measurement / test opening


cleaning closure

Ventilation

type C 62x / C 63x

Figure 34: room air inde hängiges gas device with blower downstream of the heat
exchanger; room air inde hängiges gas appliance with overall blower upstream of the
burner and combustion air and flue gas exhaustion not tested together with the gas
appliance; Construction artzulassung required; either verbrennungsluftum- preflushed
exhaust path as a component or combustion air from the annular gap (z. B.
condensing boiler)
65

type C 7

Gas appliance with vertical combustion air and flue gas discharge:

Currently this type of equipment is not included in the German

placement rules.

type C 8th

Gas appliance with flue gas connection to an exhaust system and

separate combustion air supply from the outdoors.

combustion air

exhaust
Measurement
/ testing
opening

type C 82x

Figure 35: room air inde hängiges gas device with blower downstream of the

heat exchanger; also gas appliance type C 8th 3x


possible; separate supply of combustion air from the outdoors; common
exhaust system in the vacuum operation; all under overpressure parts of
the exhaust passage are surrounded by combustion, multiple use
possible (eg. B. Gas combination boiler).
66 B gas installation

type C 9

Gas appliance similar type C 3 with flue gas discharge


vertically above the roof. The combustion air is supplied in
counterflow, the exhaust pipe umspülend, in a shaft provided
by customers, the stock is part of the building.

type C 93x

Figure 36: room air inde hängiges gas device with blower in front of the
burner; Combustion air and flue gas discharge vertically above the roof.
The mouths are located near beieinan- of the same pressure range;
verbrennungsluftumspülter exhaust gas path; Combustion air supply via an
existing shaft as a building component.
67

4.1.2 Gas appliances - distinction by


purpose
(Examples for the most common gas appliances)

Fuel cell heating


By energy conversion in an electrochemical process stream
and heat is generated at the same time.

Gas-heated household tumble dryer (. Up to 6


kW)
Heats the air, which is required for drying the laundry, using a
gas burner and the exhaust gases leads together with the
exhaust air from the outside.

gas burner
Sets the energy bound in the fuel combustion in order to heat,
by means of heat transfer medium (air or water) is used directly
or indirectly.

On the type of combustion air supply, a distinction:

• Atmospheric burner (atmospheric burner): It sucks the


required combustion air through the injector effect of the gas
flow.
• Burner with fan: The combustion air is provided with a fan.

• Premix burner: gas and combustion air are mixed


before combustion.

Gas-fired condensing boiler

Heat generator, which can additionally make use of its special


design, the heat of condensation, which is bound in the water vapor
content of the exhaust gases. There are wall and floor models.

Gas instantaneous water heater

Heats the water in the removal as it flows through the device.


68 B gas installation

Gas Heizherd
Is used for cooking and baking. In addition, he heats the
boiler room by direct heating of the room air.

Gas boilers
Heated circulating heating water and possibly indirectly drinking
water.

Gas heater
Heat source (for. Example, for the heating of large spaces),
which transfers heat primarily by radiation in the infrared range.
In contrast to these so-called light radiators are also radiant -
used as a complete unit from gas jet burner and Heizstrahlrohr -
called beamlines.

gas cooker

Is used for cooking and baking.

Gas air conditioning unit

Is used for cooling or heating of buildings.

Gas fired combi boiler


Heated by running drinking water that can be taken directly and
heated circulating heating water.

Low temperature gas boiler (low temperature boiler)

Generates heat for space heating and water heating. After


defining the EGWirkungsgradrichtlinie NT boiler must allow a
partial condensation without corrosion.

Gas space heaters

Heats the boiler room by direct heating of the room air.


69

Gas water heaters


Provides heated water into a directly heated memory.

Gas heat pump


The gas heat pump is suitable for heating single-family houses
or other larger objects. It deprives the environment (eg. As
groundwater or surface water, ambient air) thermal energy and
transfers it to a circuit in which circulates a working fluid that is
constantly changing by absorbing and releasing heat its state (it
evaporates and becomes liquid again). The required drive
energy for this process provides a gas burner.

Gas Heaters
Heated rooms by direct heating of air. In central-air heaters, the
heated air via a channel system in the connected rooms is
distributed.

Micro- and Mini-CHP


Ready-to-power-generating heating, for example, serves as a
motor-driven cogeneration plant for simultaneously generating
electricity and heat (up to 50 kW of electric power).
70 B gas installation

4.1.3 terms from the heat and


Device Technology

Flue gas loss (q A)


It indicates how much heat energy with the exhaust gases
escape through the exhaust system. The maximum permissible
values ​are in the 1st Federal Emission Control Regulation (1
BlmSchV or small combustion regulation, see section B 4.5) set.
In plants with nominal power above 4 kW comply with the limits
is checked by the chimney sweep.

The exhaust gas loss is calculated according to the expanded


"Siegert'schen formula" based on the measured carbon dioxide
content in the exhaust gas:

B+
CO 2

t A = Exhaust gas temperature in ° C t L = Room


air temperature in ° C

Fuel-dependent factors in natural gas A 1 = 0.37 B


= 0.009
is already considered quite good. q A = ( t A - t L) · A 1

and determination
The thermally poorly
of the flueradiator.
built A system
gas losses after the efficiency
1st BImSchVof 80%
can not
be applied for condensing boilers.
the heated rooms. Some of the heat is lost in the heating pipes
Plant efficiency
It indicates what percentage of the heat produced is used in
71

Power consumption (V A)

Flow in cubic meters per hour (m 3 / h) a gas appliance at the


rated load.

in m 3 / H
H I, B

Load (B)
The supplied gas in the energy flow in kW, based on the calorific
value. In other words, the power supplied to the gas quantity of
energy in kWh per hour.

Standby loss (q B)
It originates in the breaks in operation by radiation to the
equipment room or by the air flow through the heat generator.

Calorific value (H S, B)
Heat quantity of a cubic meter gas in the operating state, which
is released on complete combustion, if the start and end
products have a temperature of 25 ° C and is present, the water
formed during the combustion of liquid.

Net calorific value (H I, B)


Heat quantity of a cubic meter gas in the operating state, which
is released on complete combustion, if the start and end
products have a temperature of 25 ° C and is present, the water
formed during the combustion vapor.

Setting value (V e)
Volumetric flow in liters per minute (l / min), to which the burners
of gas appliances must be adjusted in order to reach the rated
load.

Conversion example: V A = Q NB

l 1.000 lm 3 h
V e = Q NB · f1 f 1 = 16.7 = · ·
H I, B min 60 min
72 B gas installation

The setting is important if the burner is adjusted by the gas


meter and clock. Another option is hiring about Wobbe index
and nozzle pressure.

Setting tables are available in the respective device


manufacturers both for volumetric and for the nozzle pressure
method.

Combustion efficiency ( η F)
It indicates what percentage of the energy of the exhaust gas
after deducting losses are still usable for heating. It is measured
by the chimney sweep. The firing efficiency does not detect
radiation and standby losses.

Total capacity ( Σ Q NL)


Sum of the power ratings of all units placed in a room,
apartment or other utilization unit furnaces that can be operated
together. Can only be a fireplace or more are operated in a
certain combination at the same time, only the power ratings of
these furnaces for the total nominal output shall prevail.

Annual efficiency ( η a)
It indicates what percentage of the energy used per year is used
as heat. When annual efficiency all losses are considered. He is
therefore the decisive parameter for the efficiency of a heating
technology installation.

Boiler efficiency ( η K)
It indicates what percentage of the energy contained in the gas
in the boiler is converted into usable heat (taking into account
the radiation losses). Modern gas boilers achieve a boiler
efficiency of over 90%. In condensing boilers, the values ​are
even higher.
73

(Q L)
The harnessed by a gas appliance heat flow in kW.

Nominal load (Q NB)


Between the heaviest loads (Q Bmax) and very small load (Q B min) fixed
set load in kW.

Rated power (Q NL)


The harnessed at rated load of a gas appliance heat flow in kW.

Nominal capacity range


Indicated by the manufacturer on the device tag area in
which the rated output can be adjusted or allowed.

Standard efficiency
He conducted using standardized measurement and evaluation
methods to the test. Therefore, he is a parameter for the energy
assessment and comparability of heat generators.

utilization
It indicates what proportion of the energy used is available for
the heating system (after deducting the exhaust gas, radiation
and standby losses). He is an important parameter for the
assessment of a heat generator. The degree of utilization is (on
the calorific value H I ) based. For gas-fired condensing boilers
can, based on the calorific value, reach more than 100%.

Radiation loss (q ST)


It is caused by radiation from the outer surfaces in the
operating hours of the heat generator.
74 B gas installation

heat demand
The calculated heat demand of a new building in kW. It results in
accordance with DIN EN 12831 / DIN 18599 and is the basis for the
design of the heat generator. The heat generator must not be too
great because he usually works uneconomical. Exception: For
gas-fired condensing boilers can exceed the performance of the
calculated heat demand, because these devices in the partial load
range to work particularly economical and may need to meet the
drinking water heating requirements.

heat loss
The Wirkungs- or efficiency of heat generators depends on the
losses that arise in the heat generation and distribution. This
mainly includes the exhaust loss q A, the willingness loss q B and
the radiation loss q ST.

efficiency ( η)
The efficiency is the ratio of usable made and supplied energy.
A distinction is more efficiencies.
75

4.2 General Requirements

4.2.1 CE marking

On January 1, 1996, the DIN-DVGW approval of gas appliances


has been finally superseded by the conformity assessment
according to the EC Gas Appliances Directive. Since then, gas
appliances may only be marketed if they carry a CE mark. "CE"
means "Communauté Européenne" (= European Union).
Devices with this symbol meet the applicable European
Directives and can be marketed in all member countries of the
European Union.

The CE marking consists of the letters "CE" and the


identification number of the monitoring body, for example CE
0085 (DVGW Cert GmbH, Germany). Other European
inspection and surveillance bodies include 0049 (AFNOR
Certification SA, France), 0063 (Gastec Certification BV, The
Netherlands), 0086 (BSI Product Services, England) or 0433
(Austrian Association for Gas and Water, Austria). The CE mark
is only for compliance with the minimum safety requirements.

Gas appliances for domestic application must bear the European


"CE" mark and be suitable for Germany. Ensure this is by
specifying the permissible for Germany equipment category and
the connection pressure on the rating plate (s. Examples below).
The additional indication of the abbreviation "EN" for the country
of Germany facilitates the assignment on site.
76 B gas installation

Examples of the CE mark:

EN II 2ELL3B / P 20; 50 CE 0085,


for gas appliances which are of natural gas to liquid (and
vice versa) changeable,

EN I 2ELL 20 CE 0063,
for gas appliances that are operated with natural gas,

EN I 3B / P 50 CE 0051,
for gas appliances that are operated with liquid gas.

The operating and Set up instructions must be taking into


account the German assembly instructions in German.

The voluntary DVGW quality mark documented certain standards


beyond the earlier requirement for award of the DIN-DVGW mark
(z. B. with respect to merchantability, durability, reliability,
usability, energy savings) were. Gas appliances, which are also
marked with the DVGW quality characters can be used without
problem in Germany.

4.2.2 Gas Equipment marker / nameplate

The rating plate is the most important indication of suitability


and set-up options of a gas appliance. Under current rules (EC
Gas Equipment Directive) The following must be on the label
next to the CE mark:

• Name or identifying mark of the manufacturer


• Trade name of the device
• Type of power supply
• Equipment category in terms of the country of destination (according
to DIN EN 437)
• Year of affixing the CE marking
77

Types of gas and mains pressures, but also the regulations on


connection conditions are different in the various European
countries. Only the unique country assignment of device category
and connection pressures and any additional marking with "DE"
ensures that the device in the specified country can be operated
with the indicated gases safely.

Is the country specification does not appear on the label, the


evidence to meet the German assembly and the German
installation and operating instructions must be requested from
the manufacturer.

device categories
Manufacturer

destination Trade name


countries

power supply

Type of

Year of CE marking
Product Ident.

monitoring body (DVGW Cert GmbH)

Figure 37: Example of type plate

The indication on the imaged nameplate means, for example:


DE = Country code (country Germany)
II = Equipment category II, suitable for gases of two gas families

2E = 2. Gas Family, Group E


(With sufficient accuracy in as natural gas H)
2LL = 2. Gas Family, Group LL
(With sufficient accuracy in as natural gas L)
3B / P = 3. Gas family, group B / P (butane, propane and
mixtures thereof)

C 13x = Assignment for gas supply type (eg. B. C = room air


inde pending, Index 13x = type of flue gas discharge)

G20 = Normprüfgas for natural gas E


= 20 mbar pressure supply of natural gas
78 B gas installation

4.3 Gas connection

4.3.1 fire safety

All gas appliances for heating rooms, hot water and gas
domestic cooking appliances must be provided in the device
connection line immediately before these gas appliances with a
thermally triggering blocking device (TAE), except the gas
appliances themselves were already equipped. This does not
apply to industrial and commercial applications, unless the gas
appliances are in the home or similar location, such. B. in a
bakery or a gastronomischern operating in a residential block.

The TAEs DIN 3586 must comply (including operating


temperature around 100 ° C, resistance temperature 650 ° C,
leakage over a period of 30 minutes no more than 30 l / h)
and, in the DVGWKennzeichnung.
79

4.3.2 Fixed and detachable connection

Gas appliances are set to join; Gas appliances for operating


pressures up to 100 mbar can be releasably connected.

The fixed terminal equipment consists of a connection fitting, a


releasable only with a tool connection and the gas appliance
connecting cable. The device connection management may be
embodied as hose made of stainless steel or rigid.

The releasable connection consists of a safety connecting


fitting (gas outlet = GSD) and the safety gas hose line
(embodiment M = metal) with connector plug.

Installation area Location of the GSD Probable device

kitchen Below gas cooker

countertop
Above Wok burner, rice
countertop cooker or tabletop
grill

Living room with ground gas stove


chimney
connection possibility

Utility room ground gas dryer

Terrace Ground floor Gas grill


level or freestanding patio

underground heater, gas lantern

Table 6: Example equipment with gas outlets


80 B gas installation

4.4 Requirements for installation rooms

4.4.1 General Requirements for


installation rooms

Gas appliances can be set up under certain conditions in any


room. Similar provisions are Musterfeuerungsverordnung
(MFeuV) or defined in the Länderfeuerungsverordnungen and in
the Technical Rules for Gas Installations (DVGW-TRGI 2008).

Suitability and design of the rooms:


• Location, size, structural characteristics and type of use
must not lead to hazards.
• The installation rooms must be such that gas appliances can
be kept properly operated and maintained.

• The installation instructions of the manufacturer must be observed.

• Adequate combustion air supply must be ensured.

• Minimum spacing of gas appliances to flammable building


materials and built-in furniture are described in the installation
instructions of the manufacturer; No information is given to a
minimum distance of 40 cm must be observed.

• For gas-fired condensing boilers local regulations for the


condensed water discharged into the public sewer system
must be observed.
81

Prohibited areas:
• necessary stairways and generally accessible corridors
which serve as escape routes
• internal spaces that are vented via collection chambers
without ventilator (valid for room air from pending gas
appliances)
• Spaces from which fans suck air (room air except for safe
operation from dependent gas appliances is ensured)

• Rooms where open fires or stoves are set up without its own
combustion air supply (except the operational safety of the
ambient air from pending gas appliances is ensured)

• Rooms in which flammable or explosive substances are or


can occur (other than so-called "garage furnaces")


Note: According to the EC Gas Appliances Directive and
gas appliances without flame monitoring device (. Eg
without thermoelectric flame) CE marked in Europe may
(also in Germany) are freely traded and operated. The
development of these devices, however, a mechanical
forced ventilation during operation must ensure a hourly
five air changes. In gas-household cooking appliances, a
fresh air flow rate of at least 100 m is sufficient 3 / h during
operation. Since the cost of additional ventilation measures
is very high, only fully secured equipment should be used.
82 B gas installation

4.4.2 installation rooms in total nominal services of


gas appliances over 100 kW

In total power ratings above 100 kW, the installation must:

• are not used for other purposes and


• have no further openings apart densely and self-closing
doors to other rooms.

The rooms must be provided with ventilation and outside the


installation must be an "emergency switch-firing" through
which the burner of the gas appliances can be taken out of
service at any time.

4.4.3 installation sites for gas appliances of type A

Gas household cooking appliances (eg. As gas cookers) do not require


any exhaust system. Through the air exchange in the installation and
the Aufstellraumgröße is to ensure that no danger can arise from the
exhaust gas.
• For gas-Household cooking appliances with a nominal load of
not more than 11 kW, the Aufstellraumluftvolumen must be at
least 15 m 3 amount and the installation room must have a
window that can be opened or have a door to the outside.

• the Aufstellraumvolumen for gas domestic cooking appliances


with more than 11 kW but not more than 18 kW (z. B. Gas
stove with more than four burners or gas stove and additional
wok burner) must be more than 2 m 3 per kW volume
respectively. The installation must have a door to the outside
or a window that can be opened and an exhaust hood (no air
recirculation) or a controlled ventilation of at least 15 m 3 / h
each have kW. Appropriate intake openings must be present.
83

4.4.4 installation sites for gas appliances of type B

Safety objective 1: Safe operation in the startup mode


(exhaust gas dilution space)
In room air from pending gas appliances with flow fuse (Type B 1 and
B 4, Figures 19 and 20, page 52) can momentarily flow out through
the exhaust gas flow safety device into the installation under
unfavorable conditions in the exhaust system. Therefore, the
installation in its clear dimensions must be large enough to
accommodate this gas and dilute to the point where the exhaust
gas concentration remains safe.

Solution 1: volume ≥ 1m 3 / kW

Solution 2: Total ≥ 1m 3 / kW

Figure 38: Protection Goal 1 - Exhaust dilution space


84 B gas installation

To achieve this goal, there are three


possible solutions:

1. Possible solution:
The installation comprises regardless of the total rated power

of the gas appliances types B 1 and B 4


a volume of at least 1 m 3 per kW total rated output on (Figure
38).

Example:
Total rated output 12 kW; required
capacity ≥ 12 m 3

2. Possible solution:
If the installation location itself of this minimum size, it may use
the immediately adjacent areas in each case via two openings
each at least 150 cm 2 free cross-section are connected, when
the total rated power of the gas appliances of species B 1 and B 4 less
than 50 kW. The openings are preferably to be mounted in the
doors (the upper opening of preferably not lower than 1.80 m,
the bottom near the floor) (Figure 38).

3. Possible solution:
Regardless of the total capacity of the gas appliances of types
B 1 and B 4 can at installation rooms with less than 1 m 3 per 1 kW
done the exhaust dilution through vents to the outside with
appropriately performance-based free cross-sections.

• To 50 kW total power rating is an upper and a lower vent hole


with at least 75 cm 2 free cross-section required.

• With more than 50 kW, the required opening area is outside


at least 150 cm 2 plus 2 cm 2 beyond each about 50 kW kW,
distributed on either an upper and a lower vent hole of the
same size.
85

Example:
If the installation location is less than 100 m 3 is, but the total
rated power is 100 kW, the area of ​the required ventilation
openings must be 150 cm 2
+ 2 cm 2 x 50 = 250 cm 2 and be - divided into two equal-sized
openings of 125 cm 2 - directly into the open (no ventilation pipe,
see also the combustion air supply through openings into the
open, Chapter 4.5.2.5).

After longer exhaust gas recirculation flow, the exhaust


monitoring means for each gas appliance of the type B switches 1
and B 4 can be used, the gas burner automatically to fault. The
cause is to fathom and shortcomings must be rectified
immediately.

Safe operation in the starting


(At open flue gas fireplaces
with flow fuse to 50 kW)

Checklist for protection goal no. 1

If the installation location a volume of at


least 1 m 3 per 1 kW Yes goal achieved

Total output?

No

Reached, the installation in common with


immediately adjacent rooms a total volume of
Yes goal achieved
1 m 3 per 1 kW?
(Ventilation openings of 2 x 150 cm 2 required)

No

If the installation room ventilation


openings into the open? Yes goal achieved

(Minimum cross-section 2 x 75 cm 2)

Figure 39: Checklist for reaching the exhaust dilution space


86 B gas installation

In room air from pending gas appliances of species B 2, B 3


and B 5 ( Gas appliances without flow control, images 21 to 24,
pages 53 to 55) of the exhaust gas needs to be Dilute voltage
space not taken into account, as these gas appliances have no
flow control.

The exhaust gases are intended discharged under pressure, gas


appliances type B 22P, B 23P, B 52P and B 53P,
the installation room via a leading into the open gap of at
least 150 cm must 2 or two openings of at least 75 cm 2 feature.

4.4.5 installation sites for gas appliances of type C

Room sealed gas appliances of type C


In fan-assisted gas appliances of type C, another protective aim
in mind: the exhaust gas must not escape in dangerous
quantities into the installation. This is guaranteed if the flue gas
discharge for. B. concentrically by combustion.

For gas appliances which comply with this protection objective,


an additional index marking was introduced ( "x"). Gas
appliances with fan, but without the "x" marking may be installed
only in rooms that are sufficiently ventilated. For this, a ventilation
opening of at least 1 x 150 cm 2 or 2 x 75 cm 2 required.
87

4.5 combustion air supply

4.5.1 Gas Appliance type A

For gas appliances Art A sufficient supply of combustion air


is determined by the exhaust-related demands on the nature
and size of the installation (Chap. 4.4.3).

4.5.2 gas appliances type B

Protection Objective 2: Sufficient combustion air supply


This objective is met as a rule, if the installation room naturally or
through technical measures hourly combustion air volume of 1.6
m 3 1 per kW rated power of all indoor air from dependent
fireplaces flows to (for solid, liquid and gaseous fuels) at an
hourly air change from n = 0.4.

The combustion air supply can be achieved in several ways:

• via exterior joints of the installation


• via exterior joints in the boiler ventilation
• through openings into the open
• via exterior joints together with outside air passage
elements in the installation
• by special technical equipment

The protection of adequate combustion air supply must be


confirmed by the functional test of the exhaust system (see
Section 4.7.2).
88 B gas installation

Combustion air supply


(At open flue gas appliances up to 35 kW)

Checklist for protection goal no. 2

If the installation room external windows or


Exterior doors and a volume of space Yes goal achieved

of 4 m 3 1 per kW total
output?

No

Can the required compensable


power in immediate boiler ventilation to
Yes goal achieved
reach?
(Preferably, on the inner door joints)

No

Can the required compensable


power in indirect boiler ventilation to Yes goal achieved
reach?
(One or more composite rooms)
after TRGI Diagram 7

No

If the boiler room a combustion air


opening directly to the outside? Yes goal achieved
(Opening cross section of 1 x 150 cm 2 or 2 x 75 cm 2)

No

If the installation room for. B. a central


ventilation system according to Yes goal achieved
DIN 18017 Part 3 ventilated?

Figure 40: Checklist for achieving sufficient combustion air


supply
89

4.5.2.1 combustion air supply via exterior joints of the


installation - Total nominal power up to 35 kW

Gas appliances type B may be installed in rooms that at least


one door to the outside or a window that can be opened, and a
volume of 4 m 3
per 1 kW total power rating have (Figure 41).

Demanded room for money


4 m 3 per kW total rated output

Figure 41: combustion air supply via exterior joints

This space-value (RLV) is exclusively the combustion air supply


of room air from pending fireplaces type B with a total rated
capacity of not more than 35 kW. to account for the total
nominal output are (taking into account the simultaneous
operation), all room air from pending fireplaces for

• gaseous fuels (gas appliances of the type B 1 till B 5)


• liquid fuels (eg. B. Fuel Oil)
• solid fuels (eg. as wood, coal)
90 B gas installation

4.5.2.2 combustion air supply via exterior joints in


the boiler ventilation
- Total nominal power up to 35 kW
Frequently, the installation to the required space Value (4 is too
small, m 3 ever reaching 1 kW) or he has no windows or exterior
doors. Under certain conditions, adjacent spaces with outer
joints of doors or windows (combustion air spaces) can then be
used to achieve the RLV. Then one speaks of the boiler
ventilation.

Depending on the assignment of the combustion air to the boiler


room, a distinction the immediate (direct) and indirect (indirect)
boiler ventilation.

Immediate boiler ventilation:


Here the installation room can have one or more directly
adjacent combustion air spaces, the required combustion air
flow to (Figure 42).

combustion
incineration incineration
airspace
airspace airspace

Setting up
space

incineration
airspace

Figure 42: Immediate boiler ventilation


91

For ventilation connection, there are two options:

Option 1:
If the installation location is greater than 1 m 3 per 1 kW rated
power, can be from the diagram (curve 1 to 3), the
chargeable capacity of the combustion air spaces as a
function of their size and the nature of the internal doors are
determined (Figure 43). If the installation room, a window is
applied to him curve. 4

·
chargeable power Q LANR in kW

30
4 3
25

2
20

15

10

1
5

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

Volume in m 3

Interior door with three wraparound sealing and ... 1 ...

curve uncut door leaf

Curve 2 ... circumferential sealing and 1.0 cm shortened door leaf or


Internal door without circumferential seal with uncut door leaf curve 3 ...

circumferential sealing and 1.5 cm shortened door leaf or


Internal door without circumferential seal with 1.0 cm shortened door leaf

Curve 4 installation room with outside window or door and inner door with
Combustion air opening of min. 150 cm 2 free cross section

Figure 43: Determination of the allowable power from the volume of the
combustion air spaces that belong to the respective combustion air
composite, and, optionally, of the installation
92 B gas installation

If the installation location is less than 1 m 3 per 1 kW rated power,


must in gas appliances with flow fuse (B 1 and B 4) First, the
required exhaust gas dilution with 2 x 150 cm 2 are opening
cross-section to directly adjacent rooms geschaf fen.

The execution of the protection objective 1 hereby at the same time fulfills the

requirements of the air opening for the protection objective. 2

If the installation room, a window or a door into the open air, it


applies to the curve 4. For the rest immediately adjacent combustion
air spaces, the curves 1 to 3 of the diagram apply depending on the
size and internal door construction (Figure 43).

Option 2:
If combustion air spaces with the installation room through an
opening of at least 150 cm 2 Cross-section are connected, its
volume can be fully charged to the space Value according to
curve. 4

Indirect boiler ventilation:


In many homes, the immediate boiler ventilation is not possible
because the rooms are just too small next to the boiler room or
do not have a window. Then the indirect boiler ventilation is
used. Here, the combustion air flows from each of the
combustion air space above the inner door in one or more
consecutive composite space and from there via the
Aufstellraumtür to ​the gas appliance (Figure 44).
93

incineration Setting up incineration


airspace space airspace

Networks room

incineration
airspace

Figure 44: Indirect boiler ventilation

For the ventilation connections, the following requirements


apply:
• Between the installation room and the composite space is
independent of the volume always a combustion air opening
of 150 cm 2 required.
• If the installation location is less than 1 m 3 per 1 kW of total
capacity in gas appliances (with diverter type B must 1 and B 4) First
here the exhaust dilution with 2 x 150 cm 2 be created to
directly adjacent rooms. The consideration of the protection
objective 1 at the same time fulfills the requirement of
protection objective. 2

• For the connection between the composite chamber and the


combustion air rooms the same rules as for the immediate
boiler ventilation apply. That means:

- Determination of the allowable power in dependence on


the volume of the combustion air spaces and the nature
of their interior doors according to Curves 1 to 3 of the
DVGWTRGI diagram (Figure 43), or
94 B gas installation

- each have an opening with 150 cm 2 in the inner doors and


determination of the allowable power in accordance with curve. 4

In many cases, however, openings are undesirable in interior


doors, so that preferably the former solution should be chosen.

Examples of the determination of the combustion air network:

Various solutions to be tested for the combustion air to a


composite layout example (Figure 45). Different variants are
accepted for the equipment room and the performance of the
heat generator.

Sleeping Bath kitchen


room 36 room 20 27 m3
m3 m3

corridor 12 m3

Living room 100 m3

Figure 45: Ground plan example for determining the combustion air services network
95

Case 1: gas appliance with flow assurance in the bathroom, rated

power 23.2 kW

Step 1: Test of Aufstellraumgröße


Since the volume of the installation is less than 1 m 3
per 1 kW rated power, are two openings of 150 cm 2 required in
the bathroom door.

Step 2: determination of the allowable power


Since the combustion air only indirectly composite can be
produced (on the hall as a composite space) in the bathroom door
is an opening cross-section of 150 cm 2 required. He is (see above)
already achieved through the openings by step first

boiler room
(With window, curve 4 in Figure 43) 5.0 kW

Living room (door without special


Seal, door leaf unabridged / curve 2) 16.1 kW kitchen (door
without special seal, door leaf unabridged / curve 2)
6.0 kW

= 27.1 kW

Result: Since the determination of the creditable


performance with 27.1 kW a greater value than
23.2 kW showed sufficient combustion air supply is
ensured.
96 B gas installation

Case 2: gas appliance with flow assurance in the hallway, rated


power 17.0 kW

Step 1: Test of Aufstellraumgröße


Since the volume of the corridor is less than 1 m 3 per 1 kW
rated power, must in any case two openings of 150 cm 2 be
created to an adjacent room, a window or a door to the outside
was (eg. as the kitchen).

Step 2: determination of the allowable power

Installation room (no window) 0 kW

Kitchen (2 ports à 150 cm 2


to the corridor / curve 4 in Figure 43) 6.7 kW

Living room (door leaf in full, circumferential


seal / curve 1) 5.5 kW

Bedroom (door leaf in full, circumferential


seal / curve 1) 4.4 kW

Bathroom (door leaf in full, circumferential


seal / curve 1) 3.3 kW

= 19.9 kW

Result: Since the determination of the allowable heat output


of 19.9 kW has resulted in a value greater than 17.0 kW, a
sufficient combustion air supply is ensured.
97

Case 3: gas appliance with flow assurance in the kitchen,


rated 11.0 kW (gas heat center)

Step 1: Test of Aufstellraumgröße


Since the volume of the installation is greater than 1 m 3
per 1 kW rated power, the rules are met.

Step 2: determination of the allowable power


Since the combustion air only indirectly composite can be
produced (on the hall as a composite space), in each case an
opening cross-section of 150 cm 2

required in the kitchen door.

chargeable for the set-up (with


window, curve 4) 6.7 kW

Living room (door leaf in full, circumferential


seal / curve 1) 5.5 kW

= 12.2 kW

Result: Since the determination of the allowable power


12.2 kW a greater value than
11.0 kW found, is given an adequate supply of combustion
air.
98 B gas installation

4.5.2.3 combustion air supply via exterior joints together


with outside air passage elements
- Total rated power up to 35 kW or 50
The combustion air can be supplied as a combination of the
combustion air supply via external joints or exterior joints in the
boiler ventilation and outdoor air passage elements (ALD). The
manufacturer's specifications for qualifying air coverage of the
ALD to consider.

The supplied via exterior joints combustion air flow must be


taken into account only up to 35 kW. to 50 kW, the supplied
combustion air quantity may be realized only via ALD and
detected via addition 35 kW.

4.5.2.4 combustion air supply special technical


equipment
- Total nominal power up to 35 kW
Gas appliances of the type B 1 with diverter (z. B. gas instantaneous
water heater, gas fired combi boiler) allowed in rooms with single
channel system without a fan in accordance with DIN 18017 Part 1
and its own air supply opening are set up when the gas appliances
pay their gas together with the exhaust air (picture

49). The outlet pipe must meet the requirements for exhaust
systems. This option is available only in the modernization of old
buildings that have internal sanitary facilities. The supply air is
thereby supplied either through its own shaft ( "Cologne
ventilation") or from neighboring rooms ( "Berliner ventilation").
Supply air may be used as combustion air openings when they
are open during the operation of gas appliances.
99

4.5.2.5 combustion air supply through openings into the open -


total rated output up to 35 kW and greater
As an alternative to the boiler ventilation, the combustion air supply
can at a total nominal output of the ambient air from dependent gas
appliances to 35 kW
via openings into the open.

If the room air from dependent fireplaces a rated power of more


than 35 kW, the combustion air supply must be from the outside.

In both cases, a free opening cross section of at least 150 cm must 2


be respected. He can two openings with at least 75 per cm 2 be
divided (Figure 46).

free cross section of at least 150 cm 2

air duct

1 x 150 cm 2 or 2 x 75 cm 2

Figure 46: combustion air supply through openings into the open
100 B gas installation

The openings may be a combustion air line downstream of also


(for. Example, in interior rooms), which can be performed both
within the installation room and by further compartment (Figure
46 above).

The dimensioning of the combustion air line takes place in


dependence on the straight length after the diagrams 8 and 9 of
DVGW TRGI 2008 (Figures 47 and 48). Here direction changes
with the following equivalent lengths must be considered:

3.0 m at 90 °
1.5 m at 45 ° and
0.5 m in grating

Cross section of A L in cm 2
400

350

300

250

200

150 0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Line length L in m

LA L 0.7
A L = A · [1 + 15.8 · ----] 0.5
where: A L Cross-section of the combustion air duct in cm 2

A cross section of the combustion air opening = 150 cm 2


L length of the combustion air conduit in m

(AL) drying air lines equivalents square wire cross-sections,


depending on the line length L for even combustion, the combustion
air opening into the open air of 150 cm: Figure 47 2 free cross-section
meet.
101

Cross section of A L in cm 2

220

200

150

100

75 0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Line length L in m

(Calculation Equation see Figure 47)

(AL) drying air lines equivalents square wire cross-sections,


depending on the line length L for even combustion, the combustion
air opening to the outside from 75 cm: Figure 48 2 free cross-section
meet.

The total rated power of all fireplaces


more than 50 kW, the opening has a free cross section of at
least 150 cm 2 to have; beyond for each 50 kW rated power kW
are 2 cm 2 to. Again, a combustion air pipe can be installed
downstream of the opening. the slide are programs for
dimensioning 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 applied in the DVGW TRGI of
2008.

Note: If in the preparation of gas appliances of type B 1 and B 4 ( with


flow assurance), the installation is less than 1 m 3 per 1 kW rated
power, the required opening cross-section must be in two
equal-sized openings directly into the open lead, are divided.

Openings for exhaust gas dilution may be followed by any air


lines. This means that the installation room must be on an
outside wall.
102 B gas installation

exhaust

exhaust

supply air

Figure 49: air supply special technical equipment (example Cologne


ventilation)

Gas appliances type B 1 may be set up irrespective of the volume in


areas with or without windows, if the spaces are connected 18017
part 3 at central ventilation systems with fan according to DIN and
dissipate the gas appliances its exhaust gas together with the
exhaust air.

4.5.3 Gas Appliance type C

Gas appliance type C is fed to the combustion air via conduits


to the outside directly. For this purpose, combustion air pipes
are used as:
• belonging to the gas appliance and (together with this certified
system z. B. Gas Equipment Type C 1, C 3, C 5 and C 8th)

• (With the building of related shaft z. B. Gas


Appliance type C 4 and C 9) or
• (Part of a separately authorized pipe system z. B. Gas
Equipment Type C 6)
for use.
103

4.6 exhaust gas removal

The "exhaust system" is the generic term for exhaust pipe,


chimney and connector. are chimneys
z. B. when using solid fuels such as wood and coal (soot fire
resistance) is required. The exhaust gases from gas appliances must
be discharged into the open air with exhaust pipes in general. much
less stringent than provided (eg. as no soot fire resistance) to
chimneys at exhaust pipes.

4.6.1 The district chimney sweep master as a


knowledgeable consultant

The evaluation of an exhaust system by the flue Master (BSM) is of


great importance. Therefore, the installation company must agree to
an exhaust system with the BSM before starting work.

but many facilities as to connectivity to its own, multiply or mixed


occupied exhaust system (z. B. elimination of the power limitation, the
maximum number of devices to be connected) require in a particular
case may a calculation in accordance with DIN EN 13384-1 and -2.

Flues that bridge floors within a building must be laid usually in


separate wells. Multiple exhaust gas lines in a shaft will be allowed if
they are made of non-combustible materials or a corresponding
building approval exists. The shafts must have a fire resistance time of
30 minutes (L class 30) or 90 minutes (class L 90) corresponding to
the building classes.

Flues operated with positive pressure and are laid in such shafts must
be ventilated over the entire length. This Anforde tion is automatically
satisfied if:
104 B gas installation

• the exhaust pipe is concentrically surrounded by combustion


in a double pipe or
• the combustion air is supplied to the gas appliance in the annular gap
between the shaft and the exhaust pipe (the specifications of the
manufacturer's instructions).

Exhaust pipes may also be installed outside without shaft on the


building. You must then windows have a lateral distance of at least
20 cm, even if they are surrounded by combustion.

4.6.2 distance of flue pipes for combustible


materials

the minimum distance to combustible materials are much lower for most
modern gas appliances with exhaust temperatures of between 85 ° C
and 160 ° C (see Fig. 50).

Thus, let the exhaust pipes of gas appliances, which are set up in
the attic, install under simplified conditions.

The use of gas-fired condensing boilers with exhaust temperatures are usually
below 85 ° C, here brings the additional advantage that eliminated the spacing
requirements completely.

exhaust Insulation Distances must be


Component made from or with combustible materials

temperature min. In left open for


in ° C cm ventilation!

Abgasleitung1 > 300 40 cm

> 300 2 20 cm

> 160-300 20 cm

> 160-400 2 10 centimeters

Exhaust pipe > 160-300 2 5 cm 5

connector or
> 85-160 cm
exhaust pipe
exhaust pipe Verbindungsstück2
1) and connector to mixed occupied chimney or exhaust gas
temperature> 160 to 400 ° C
2) mixed occupied chimney or exhaust gas temperature> 160 to 400 ° C exhaust pipe

Figure 50: distances of flue pipes and connectors to combustible


components
105

4.6.3 exhaust mouths of gas


appliances type C

Gas Appliance type C 1

room air inde dependent gas appliances without blower type C 11

may be as a space heater up to a rated power of 7 kW, and as


a device for heating water up to a rated power of at most 28 kW
installed only on the outer wall (Figure 25, page 56). When
these gas appliances (especially in the new measures) are the
building regulations of the countries observed.

za

y
d
b
d

exhaust
mouth
b
a

no windows or doors must be located in this area.

Figure 51: Minimum distances of a single exhaust port to windows that


can be opened or outer doors at facades with projection

room air inde dependent gas appliances with fan type C 1 2x and C 1
3x can be placed either directly on the outer wall or inner walls.
For heating and 11 kW for hot water allowed 28 kW rated power
are not exceeded (images 26 and 27, page 57).
106 B gas installation

a a

b
d
d

from exhaust
estuary

d> 0.25 m d 0.25 m

no windows or doors must be located in this area.

Figure 52: Minimum distances a single exhaust port to windows that can
be opened or outer doors, with smooth facades

For the mouth of the exhaust gases on the facade conditions, a


number of (sometimes difficult to meet) are making a very
accurate planning is required (examples to show the
DVGW-TRGI 2008).
107

Gas appliances of type C 3

room air inde dependent gas appliances with fan type C 3 2x and C 3 3x have
a combustion air supply and exhaust gas discharge vertically above
the roof line in a concentric arrangement. These gas appliances
may be placed (Figures 28 and 29, page 58/59) not only on the top
floor, but also in deeper levels.

It should be noted that the lines for the combustion air supply and
exhaust gas discharge outside the installation for floor bridging
usually in a shaft with a fire resistance of at least 30 minutes (class L
30) or 90 minutes (class L 90) corresponding to the building class
according Bauordnung must be accommodated.

However, above the boiler room only the roof structure and is
required for the ceiling no fire rating, sufficient mechanical
protection of non-combustible, dimensionally stable construction
materials.

, Is sufficient for no more than 50 kW rated power for the mouth of


the exhaust pipe of these gas appliances, a minimum distance to
the roof surface of 40 cm. However, the mouth must be
roof-mounted or roof hatch window surpass at least 1 m or at least

1.5 m distance from them have (country FeuV note).

Gas appliances of type C 4

room air inde dependent gas appliances with fan type C 4 2x


and C 4 3x are designed for connection to an air exhaust system
(LAS) designed (Figures 30 and 31, page 60/61). Here is between
two systems to differ: When Inventory LAS (usually in the old
building) is used in an existing chimney group two adjacent
chimney trains so that from a shaft unit, the combustion air to the
gas conducted and the waste gas is introduced into the other
compartment.
108 B gas installation

At the New-LAS prefabricated storey-high devices are used.


They consist of two in a component integrated shafts, which are
arranged either concentrically or juxtaposed. The parts are
supplied with all the required form and connecting stones. They
can be optimally placed in the new building at the planning
stage.

Both systems are officially approved.

Gas appliances of type C 5

In the case of gas appliances with blower, type C 52x and C 53x, an
"X" marking is possible only if the manufacturer confirms a flue
gas discharge through the roof with increased tightness request
or the over-pressurized parts of the exhaust path are
surrounded by combustion in the building. Otherwise, a vent to
the outside with 1 x 150 cm 2 provide (images 32 and 33, page
62/63).

In contrast to the device type C 3 the Zuluftzuführung is in a


different pressure range (eg. B. on the facade) as the
evacuation.

Gas appliances of type C 6

Gas appliances of type C 62x and C 63x are tested, approved and
delivered without combustion air or exhaust pipe. The exhaust
systems must be approved separately by building. They can be
performed both on the facade and inside of manholes. The
combustion air is supplied in the shaft via an annular gap (Figure
34, page 64).

As an annular gap z. Example, the following dimensions are available (information

from the manufacturers of exhaust systems are to be observed):

• Distance between the exhaust pipe and circular shaft at


least 3 cm
• Distance between the exhaust pipe and a rectangular slot at
least 2 cm
109

Gas appliances of type C 8th

room air inde dependent gas appliances with fan type C 82x and C 83x be
supplied via a line with combustion air from the outdoors. The
exhaust gases are discharged via a normal domestic chimney or
via an exhaust line in the negative pressure operating through the
roof (Figure 35, page 65).

Even with these gas appliances is a multiple use of the chimney


with up to five devices possible (considering the DVGW
worksheet G 637-1).

Gas appliances of type C 9

room air inde dependent gas appliances Type C 9 lead the exhaust
gases from an exhaust pipe that is part of the gas appliance,
over the roof. The combustion air is flowing around the exhaust
pipe as a counter-flow in a supply or discharge shaft, which is
not part of the manufacturer delivery, the gas appliance fed
(Figure 36, page 66).

The manufacturer's installation instructions for attention!


110 B gas installation

4.7 Commissioning of gas appliances

4.7.1 adjustment and functional testing of gas


appliances

When ordering a gas appliance, the contract installation


company (VIU) must ensure that the Wobbe Index range and the
corresponding gas appliances connector for printing accord with
the terms of gas supply in the area concerned. When setting and
functional testing of gas appliances the installation and
adjustment instructions of the manufacturer are of particular
importance.

If the manufacturer has gas appliances factory preset, then


perform only one function test after inspection related to the
present type of gas.

4.7.2 Functional test of the exhaust system for gas

appliance type B 1 and B 4

The trouble-free discharge of the exhaust gases is a


necessary proof that sufficient combustion air supply (s.
Chapter 4.5, protection target 2).

Therefore comes with room air from pending gas appliances of


species B 1 and B 4 with flow assurance of the functional test of the
exhaust system of great importance.

Only five minutes after start-up of gas appliances must be


started to examine in order to achieve a steady state in the
exhaust system after the start.
111

Functional test of the exhaust system:


1. Remove the gas appliance (s) in operation

2. Close the windows and doors


3. Let the machine (s) running at maximum power for five
minutes
4. Check the flue gas discharge (for open and closed interior
doors)
5. If a longer period exhaust outlet: find causes of congestion or
back flow and eliminate

Are in a flat multiple furnaces (z. B. also for solid or liquid fuel) is
present and ready for use, then the function test during the
simultaneous operation of all fire sites with the greatest power is
carried out (for the test gas appliance even the smallest power).

The response of the exhaust gas monitoring device is usually an


indication of a deficiency in the flue gas discharge or the
combustion air supply. In this case, the cause must immediately
detected and the lack be corrected immediately.

Occurs after the starting phase (five minutes) yet exhaust gas at
the flow fuse, the cause of the malfunction in the exhaust
system or in the defective combustion air supply may be.

Defects must be rectified immediately.

Can not be corrected the errors, the gas unit must not remain
in operation.

When gas appliances with monitoring device "BS" the function of


this device according to the manufacturer's instructions must be
checked.
112 B gas installation

4.7.3 Instruction of Users

The contract installation company must inform (including, for.


Example, the shut-off devices), and the relevant operating and
maintenance instructions passed (see DVGW-TRGI 2008,
Annex 5 c) the operator of the gas installation on the
management and maintenance of the entire system. attention is
drawn to the need for regular servicing of gas appliances.
Furthermore, it should be noted that measures to combustion air
supply and flue gas discharge then must not be adversely
affected.

Informing the plant operator and the transfer of the relevant


documents are to be documented appropriately.
113

5 Operation and Maintenance

A gas installation created in accordance with statutory


regulations and the DVGW TRGI provides the prerequisite for
proper operation of the gas system in the long run. the operator
of the gas system is responsible for the condition of the gas
system after the main shut. During operation of the gas
installation, operating conditions or other conditions can affect
safety.

The following operation and maintenance procedures provide


the operator with the gas installation the necessary advice on
how to be able to fulfill its duty to maintain safety. This includes

the following measures:


• an annual visual inspection of the gas installation
• the regular maintenance of gas appliances by a specialist
company
• let the usability and the tightness of the gas line system
check every 12 years by a specialist company (internal lines
and freely moved outside lines)

• Take emergency measures in case of need,


z. B. If you smell gas
• Immediate cause of elimination of defects found by a
specialist company
114 C 1. BImSchV

1. Amendment of the Federal Emission Control


Ordinance (1. BImSchV)

The amendment of the first BlmSchV the aim is primarily to limit


the emissions from small and medium-sized combustion plants
and to adapt to the improved state of the art.

In addition, primarily single furnaces of households are collected


for solid fuels
- such as fireplace u. Pellet stoves and fireplaces, most of which
are set up as supplementary heaters and represent a significant
source of harmful substances such as particulate matter and
hydrocarbons. The monitoring arrangements have been
expanded, but at the same time adapted to the measurement
periods for gas and oil furnaces or ver extended. Particularly for
air inde pending operated GasHeiz boiler with self-calibration, the
extension of the measurement periods is a positive effect. Thus
technical progress in gas boilers is taken into account, which are
extremely low in pollutants and reliable.
115

The emission limits determined shall not exceed the


following percentages:

rated capacity
in kilowatts Limitin percent
values ​for exhaust gas losses

≥ 4 ≤ 25 11

> 25 ≤ 50 10

> 50 9

Flue gas losses in%

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11 <4 - 25 kW

10 9 <25 - 50 kW

50 kW

reaches up 12/82 from 1/83 from 10/88 * from 1/98

* new federal states from 10/90

Figure 53: Maximum flue gas losses from gas and


oil installations in percent

The content determined in the exhaust gas to nitrogen oxides,


expressed as nitrogen, depending on the rated power, must
not exceed the following values:

rated capacity No x- Emissions from the use of in mg / kWh


in kW heating oil
Gases of public gas
supply

≤ 120 110 60

> 120 ≤ 400 120 80

> 400 185 120


116 D Laws and Regulations

EnWG Second Law Amending the Energy Industry Act (EnWG


Energy Act)

GPSG Law on Technical Equipment and Consumer Products


(Equipment and Product Safety Act - GPSG)

1. BImSchV First regulation for the implementation of the Federal


the Pollution Control Act (Ordinance on small
combustion plants - 1. BImSchV)

EnEV Regulation on energy-saving thermal insulation and


energy-saving systems engineering for buildings (energy
saving regulation - EnEV)

MBO model Building Code

MFeuV Musterfeuerungsverordnung

NDAV Regulation on general conditions for connection and its


use for the gas supply in low-pressure (low pressure
port regulation - NDAV)

MLAR Directives on fire protection requirements for ventilation


plants (sample line system guidelines - MLAR)

BGR 500 Occupational Safety Regulations for safety and health at


work; BGR 500 / Part 2, Chapter 31.2 Work on gas lines

90/396 / EEC Directive 90/396 / EEC on the approximation


the laws of the Member States relating to gas
appliances (EC Gas Equipment Directive)

89/106 / EEC Directive 89/106 / EEC on the approximation


of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member
States relating to construction
e Index 117

keyword page Image / table

A bgasanlagen 16, 98, 108

Exhaust gas monitoring device 85, 111

Flue gas loss 72ff

shut-off 17, 47, 112 4-6, 8

branch line 17 4-6

Power consumption 71

boiler room 80f, 107 40, 43

outside line 17, 20f, 113 4-6, 7

Fresh air flow rate 81 5

Connection, fixed 79 5

Connection releasably 79 5

B IMPACT 71

load test 33 13 / 5

standby loss 72ff

Inventory LAS 107

Calorific value 10, 71

operating pressure 23, 33f, 36, 38

Net calorific value 10, 71

operating condition 10, 71

fire safety 78

Fuel cell heating 67

condensing 10f

Federal pollution control 114


regulation (BImschV)

C E-mark 75

D eights 9

You tightness test 33, 37f, 47 4, 5, 13,


14, 15

DVGW quality mark 76

DVGW-TRGI 2008 16, 26, 48

e G Gas Appliance Directive 75f, 81, 116

setting 71f

H natural gas (E) 15, 77 3

Natural gas L (LL) 15, 77 3

explosion limits 12 2
118 e

F erngase 13

Fire resistance 25, 103, 107

Flame monitoring device 81

LPG 14, 76

functional test 46, 87, 110f

G asbrenner 67, 69

Gas-fired condensing boiler 67 4-6

Gas Pressure Regulator 17 12 / 3

Gas instantaneous water heater 67, 98

gas families 13, 15 37

Gas supply type A, B, C 52ff

Gas Equipment marker 76

Gas household cooking appliances 81f

Gas Heizherd 68

Gas boilers 68, 114

Gas heater 68

gas cooker 68 /6

gas installation 16

Gas fired combi boiler 68, 98

Gas low temperature boiler 68

Gas space heaters 68

Gas water heaters 69

Gas heat pump 69

Gas Heaters 69

Gas-heated household 67
tumble
gas Meter 19, 72 4-6, 12-16

usability 34f, 113

Usability testing 34 15

Device connection cable 19f, 38, 78f 13-15

device categories 15 37

total rated power 72, 82ff 39

Excess flow valve 17, 29ff 4-6, 8, 11, 12


/3

H auptabsperreinrichtung 19 4-6, 8, 12-15

House connection 22, 32, 45 8th

calorific value 10, 70ff / abbreviations

I nnenleitung 20, 23

insulating 20 4-6, 8

J ahresnutzungsgrad 72
e 119

L AS (air-exhaust system) 107

power 72f

line system 17, 20 4-6, 13-15 / 5

M eating utensil 33, 37

Musterfeuerungsverordnung 80

N ennbelastung 73 1

rated capacity 72, 73 26

Nominal capacity range 73

New-LAS 108

newly laid gas pipeline 41

Standard efficiency 73

STP 9, 10

utilization 73

P rüfdauer 33f, 37 13, 14, 15 / 4

Test pressure 33, 37 13, 14, 15 / 4

test result 33, 37

R aumluft from dependent gas appliances 50 18-24

room air inde dependent gas appliances 50, 86, 105ff 25-36

S choir stone feger 103

riser 20 4-6

disused gas line 43 14

radiation loss 73f

diverter 83, 93, 95 19, 20, 39

T AE 20, 26, 78 4-6

temperature compensation 33, 37 13-15

nameplate 76 37

Ü jumper cables 47 17

V erbrennungsluftverbund 90, 99 40, 42-45

Combustion air supply 87, 111 40

consumption line 20 4-6

distribution line 20 4-6

W ärmebedarf 74

heat loss 74

efficiency 74

Wobbe index 10f

Z ündsicherung 81

Ignition 11 1
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