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Intermolecular Forces of

Attraction

Krisan M. Luis
Instructor
Intermolecular Forces of
Attraction (IMFA)
 Forces of attraction that exist between
molecules
 Three Strong Bonds:
 Network (Covalent) Bonds
 Ionic Bonds
 Metallic Bonds
 Three Weak Bonds
 Hydrogen Bonding
 Dipole-Dipole Forces
 London Dispersion Forces
Three Strong Bonds
-Network Bonds
 Network solids are very hard and their strong bonds
result in very high melting and boiling point
temperatures.
 Network solids have localized electrons which are
in fixed positions in the covalent bonds. This makes
network solids poor conductors of electricity.
 Examples:
 Graphite
Three Strong Bonds
Metallic Bonds

 Metallic solids are often described as "a group of nuclei


surrounded by a sea of mobile electrons." In other words,
the electrons in metallic solids are delocalized and are free
to move about, making metals good conductors of
electricity.
 Metallic bonds are still relatively strong forces of attraction
and most metals have high melting and boiling point
temperatures.
 Mercury is the only metal that is not solid at room
temperature.
 Though most metals are very hard, the unrigid structure of
the electrons makes them malleable and ductile.
Three Strong Bonds
 Ionic Bonds- In an ionic solid, adjacent ions have
electrostatic attractions and are arranged in a
lattice structure.
 Ionic solids have strong bonds resulting in high
melting and boiling point temperatures.
 Examples
 NaCl
 CaCl2
 NaF
Relevant Ionic Interactions

Source: Advanced Biochemistry Lectures of Dr. Sabido. Inst. Of Chem UP-Diliman


Relevant Ionic Interactions

Source: Advanced Biochemistry Lectures of Dr. Sabido. Inst. Of Chem UP-Diliman


Relevant Ionic Interactions

Source: Advanced Biochemistry Lectures of Dr. Sabido. Inst. Of Chem UP-Diliman


Three Weak Bonds

Source: Advanced Biochemistry Lectures of Dr. Sabido. Inst. Of Chem UP-Diliman


Hydrogen Bonding

Source: Advanced Biochemistry Lectures of Dr. Sabido. Inst. Of Chem UP-Diliman


Source: Advanced Biochemistry Lectures of Dr. Sabido. Inst. Of Chem UP-Diliman
H-Bonds are Directional

Source: Advanced Biochemistry Lectures of Dr. Sabido. Inst. Of Chem UP-Diliman


Source: Advanced Biochemistry Lectures of Dr. Sabido. Inst. Of Chem UP-Diliman
Source: Advanced Biochemistry Lectures of Dr. Sabido. Inst. Of Chem UP-Diliman
Dipole-Dipole interaction
 Dipole-dipole forces exist between neutral, polar
molecules where the positive end of one molecule is
attracted to the negative end of another molecule.
 The greater the polarity, the stronger the dipole-
dipole attraction.
 Dipole-dipole attractions are very weak and
substances held together by these forces have low
melting and boiling point temperatures. Generally,
substances held together by dipole-dipole attractions
are gases at room temperature.
Dipole -Dipoleinteractions
London Dispersion Forces
 London dispersion forces (LDF) occur between neutral, nonpolar
molecules. LDF occur due to the "random motion of
electrons." At any moment, one atom may be surrounded by an
extra electron from a neighboring atom, resulting in an
instantaneous polarity on the atom. During that instant, the
"polarized" atom will act as a very weak dipole.
 Since LDF are dependent upon the random motion of electrons,
the more electrons an atom or molecule has, the greater the
LDF between them.
 LDF as a whole are extremely weak, so substances held
together by these forces have extremely low melting and boiling
point temperatures. These substances tend to be gases at
room temperature.
Source: Advanced Biochemistry Lectures of Dr. Sabido. Inst. Of Chem UP-Diliman
Source: Advanced Biochemistry Lectures of Dr. Sabido. Inst. Of Chem UP-Diliman
Consequence of IMFA:
The Hydrophobic Effect
 The tendency of nonpolar molecules to
self-associate in water rather than to
dissolve individually is called the
hydrophobic effect.
Source: Advanced Biochemistry Lectures of Dr. Sabido. Inst. Of Chem UP-Diliman
Examples of hydrophobic
effect:
 Micelle formation
Examples of hydrophobic
effect:
 Cell Membrane
Cell Membrane (closer look)
Cell Membrane (closer look)