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‫ﺔـــﻴﺒﻌﺸلا ﺔـــﻴﻃاﺮﻘﳝﺪلا ﺔـــﻳﺮﺋاﺰﳉا ﺔـــــﻳروﻬمﳉا‬

‫ﺔـــﻴنﻃولا ﺔـــﻴﺑﺮﺘلا ةرازو‬
General Editor
Editorial Adviser
‫ﺔﻴسرﺪﳌا تاعوﺒﻄملل ﻲنﻃولا ناوﻳﺪلا‬
The National Authority for School Publications
General introduction…………...............…………………..........……. 3
Presentation of the textbook………….............………………………. 4
Sample unit teaching…………...............…………………….......…. 39 Unit
2…………...............……………….......................……….72 Unit
3…………...............……………….......................……….93 Unit 4………….............
……………….......................……….114 Unit 5…………...............
Keys and suggestions………….…………….......................….…….101

General introduction
At the Crossroads substantiates the new English studies syllabus
for the First Year of Secondary Education as set down by the
.Ministry of Education in January 2005
This does not mean, however, that the textbookis the syllabus itself. This is the reason
why teachers and inspectors are well advised to refer to the syllabus proper and to all
the accompanying documents. This will help them understand the ways in which the
book ‘translates’ the syllabus. Such purposeful cross-referencing is precisely what we
had in mind when we devised the present
Teacher’s Book. Its aim is to make ‘teaching’ and learning from
At the Crossroads less daunting, more fruitful and certainly more
Since this Teacher’s Book addresses itself specifically to the
teachers, one thing should be made clear right at the outset: itdoes
not seek at all to get them to toe the pedagogical line; it should
rather be regarded as a facilitator, the purpose of which is to make
.At the Crossroadsuser-friendly to teachers and learners alike


This presentation of At the Crossroads will try to answer the following
? What is At the Crossroads .1
? How do the units work .2
? What kind of methodology does At the Crossroads use .3
? What is the Competency-Based Approach .4
? How is it realised in the textbook .5
What is project work, and how does it fit in the .6
? Competency-Based Approach
? What is the teacher’s role in Competency-Based Teaching .7
? What is At the Crossroads .1
At the Crossroadsis designed for learners aged 15 to 16, who have already
,four years’ tuition in English at Middle School level. It consists of five units
to be covered in some twenty hours’ teaching each. The overall aim ofAt the
Crossroadsis toconsolidate and extend the competencies acquired at the
Middle School level (Cf. Syllabus). These broad competencies are worded in
:the syllabus as follows
interacting orally in English -
interpreting oral and written texts -
producing oral and written texts -
It has to be observed that the notion of competency in the SE1 syllabus is viewed as
an on-going process extending from MS1 (Middle School: Year One) all through to
.(SE1 (Secondary Education: Year One
There are two reasons why the coursebook is called At the Crossroads. First, it is
intended for learners who have come at a ‘crossroads’ in their educational career.
Indeed, at the end of SE1 they will choose to specialise in different streams. Second,
the course places the learners at a ‘crossroads’ of disciplines (school subjects) and
.cultures in that it seeks to establish cross-curricular and cross-cultural linkages
.All five units follow a definite pattern to facilitate their use in the classroom
.Here is an outline of their contents
:Sequence 1: Listening and speaking. It is streamlined as follows
Sequence 2: Reading and writing. It unfolds in a more or less similar
Stop and consider
-Sequence 4: Consolidation and extension. It is subdivided into two sub
Project workshop
Check your progress
?How do the units work .2
Each unit of the textbook turns around a broad topic selected for its general interest
and for the functional language it generates: communication in Unit 1, arts (literature)
in Unit 2, journalism (reporting) in Unit 3, science and technology in Unit 4, and the
environment in Unit 5. These topics are made to be thought-provoking through the
treatment of related teenage issues like sports, food, health, the Internet and leisure.
The learners explore these issues in relation to skills, functions and related strategies
and language forms that fit in with the topic of each unit. Naturally, the emphasis in
all five units falls on skills since the statement of outcomes in the syllabus is
.formulated in terms of what the learners can do with the language
Listening and Speaking 2.1
:The following listening skills are systematically covered
Listening for specific information ♠
Understanding and sequencing main ideas ♠
Interpreting attitude, point of view ♠
… Identifying and interpreting context, topic, function, information ♠
In order to build these skills, a number of strategies are selected. These include
focusing attention on the topic, dealing with unfamiliar vocabulary, brainstorming,
warming-up and predicting, strategies coming in bold relief in theANTICIPATE
rubric; hypothesis testing, inferring, and checking understanding in the LISTEN AND
CHECK rubric; focusing attention on intonation, stress patterns and sound and
spelling relation in the SAY IT
The primary skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing are certainly not
intended to be developed in the strict order in which they come in the rubrics of At the
Crossroads. In fact, learners interact with their classmates and their teacher through
the spoken medium all through theLISTENING
AND SPEAKING sequence. Learners have already acquired a certain level
of competency in general interactional and social language. This enables
them to take part in oral class work in preparation for the listening tasks in the
,ANTICIPATE rubric, in doing the listening tasks in LISTEN AND CHECK
and in practising the intonation and stress patterns, and decipheringThe
.hidden messages in the SAY IT CLEARrubric
The tasks in the YOUR TURN rubric represent the culminating point in the building
of thespeaking skill. They are generally open-ended tasks offering freer speaking
practice than the other sub-rubrics of the Listening and
speaking sequence. They are tasks that the learners do in pairs, in groups, or
individually as suggested in SAY IT IN WRITING. Most importantly, these tasks
give the learners the opportunity tointegrate functions and language forms previously
introduced to their oral performance repertoire through the
.application of the speaking skill in carefully selected communication areas
:All in all, the learners speak to
;express their opinion -
;express agreement and disagreement-
;describe a place, a person-
;express likes, dislikes and preferences-
;ask for and give directions-
;locate a place -
,express condition and result -
. …give instructions, etc -
Reading and writing 2.2
Reading skills are not isolated from other communication skills in the
,READING AND WRITING sequences. Throughout these sequences
learners will share ideas by talking and writing about issues in such areas of
.communication as arts, journalism, science and pollution
:The following reading skills and strategies are focused on
;reading for global information -
;reading for specific information -
;reading for main ideas-
;analysing style and tone so as to identify the author’s implied attitude -
;analysing overall structure of texts -
determining the meaning of words through the context in which they -
;are used
;interpreting texts -
...making inferences, etc -
The learners are guided through numerous reading strategies. The latter range from
predicting the subject of articles (texts) from headlines and illustrations,
brainstorming the topic and brushing up vocabulary in theA N T I C I PAT E rubric to
hypothesis testing and reading comprehension tasks in READ AND
-CHECK, and to the analysis of sentence and paragraph structure, such as if
clauses, the use of connectors that contrast ideas, and other such sentence-and
.paragraph-level features in DISCOVER THE LANGUAGE
The READING AND WRITING sequence culminates with theWRITE
IT RIGHT rubric wherein the learners are generally requested to draw upon
what they havediscovered about the functioning of written language through reading
to produce a limited but meaningful piece of writing. The learners are always asked to
write with a purpose, e.g., a letter of reply to a pen-friend giving information about
their families and country (Unit One/ Sequence one). Writing tasks emphasise the
.product as much as the process

Developing skills 82.3

At the Crossroads is also concerned with the building / development of
social’ skills. This shows in the DEVELOPING SKILLS sequence wherein the‘
learners are encouraged to apply the basic skills of listening, speaking, reading and
writing together with the functions and language forms they have learned in the
previous sequences in various social situations, e.g., conducting a meeting, writing a
letter of inquiry, and telephoning. Contrary to the previous sequences, the
DEVELOPING SKILLS sequences do not stick to any particular format. Their most
distinctive feature is the inclusion ofTactics
Summaries needed for participating spontaneously in the give-and-take of
.spoken interaction involving either transaction or mere social interaction
Stop and consider 2.4
The STOP AND CONSIDER section constitutes a grammar review, i.e., a language
file/desk. Here the learners are required to stop momentarily the ‘hectic’ tempo of
skill building of the sequences in order to consider aspects of language, with which
they have come across earlier in the units. In the sequences, the learners are not given
rules and structures. They work them out for themselves. This inductive approach to
grammar /shifts in theSTO P
AND CONSIDER section to a deductive approach in that the learners are now
invited to look at rules supplied inReminders, and apply those rules in various
Consolidation and extension 2.5
This sequence takes over primary the skill work temporarily shelved in the
STOP AND CONSIDER section. It is subdivided into two rubrics WRITE
IT OUTand WORK IT OUT. The aim of the former is to expand on and
consolidate all four skills and particularly the writing skill. The latter places the
learners in problem situations related to learning English (e.g., problem consonants)
and everyday life (e.g., telephoning problems and pollution problems). Its aim is two-
fold : to expand on and consolidate social skills, and to make students aware of
problem areas in pronunciation and stress that might eventually impede
.communication in English

Project workshop 2.6
Even if the PROJECT WORKSHOP section is placed nearly at the end of the unit,
project work dovetails with the groundwork done in the sequences and the STOP
AND CONSIDER section. This section assigns the learners the project which they
have to carry out. It also supplies a layout of the project as well as a checklist of
instructions to observe for its realisation. More about project work will come in
.section 6 below
Check your progress 2.7
This section comes naturally at the end of the unit. It comprises a series of assessment
tasks built around a master text as well as a checklist to be completed by the learners
on the basis of their level of performance in the tasks. Its aim is to give learners and
teachers alike the opportunity to monitor progress and decide whether remedial work
.is needed before moving on to the next unit
? What kind of methodology does At the Crossroads use .3
At the Crossroads borrows from what we think to be most appropriate in
both of modern and traditional teaching/learning methodology. Key features
Raising interest: Learners want to learn and know about a topic provided 3.1
they are motivated. For example, the aim behind the inclusion of an illustration page
at the beginning of every unit is to do just that, i.e., raise the learners’ interest in the
topic that will be covered. The illustration pages of the units are not there simply for
decoration purposes but for the pedagogical exploitation. This motivation is kept
raised throughout the textbook through variety of tasks, variety of text types, and
.finally, variety of teenage topics
Statement of purpose: It states clearly in the Preview opening each of the 3.2
five units what the learners will be enabled to do in/with English in each and every
sequence and section of the unit. This means teachers should go through thePreview
with their learners in order to let them know what they are going to learn and do, and
why. This statement of purpose will certainly help your learners find their bearings in
.the whole unit, which will enable them to progress smoothly through the textbook

Elicitation: To keep the learners actively engaged in the process of 103.3

learning, the textbook resorts to thought-provoking questions. It does not just make a
blank statement of language forms and functions but raises interest about them. The
teacher will be well advised to follow this method instead of delivering the ‘goods’
.bluntly to her/his learners
Reflection: The textbook does not hurry off the learners through the units. It 3.4
gives enough time for the learners to reflect over and to understand instructions and to
think over the questions before answering them. Hence, the teacher could manage the
tempo of her/his classes in such a way as not to rush activities. S/he should take time
to explain and demonstrate what to do and how to do it. Above all, s/he should make
her/his learners think, and not content him/herself with telling them things they
already know or can work out on their own. The learners will certainly learn much
.more through a pedagogy of discovery than that of rote learning and cramming
Prediction: The reliance on hypothesis-making and hypothesis-testing 3.5
is one of the salient features of At the Crossroads. This is mostly evident in the
methodological option finds its justification in recent research. This research has
shown that proficiency in reading and listening depends so much on the learners’
capacity of constantly making accurate predictions concerning what is to come in
listening and reading passages. They make these predictions on the basis on what they
know (procedure knowledge and content knowledge) and what they have already
listened to and read earlier. The learners will certainly increase their capacities of
reading and listening if the instructor ‘teaches’ them how to activate their previous
.knowledge and to make accurate predictions every time they listen to and read texts
Problem solving: The textbook is based on the theory that learning is most 3.5
effective when it involves problem-solving situations. There is a wide range
of problem-solving tasks in At the Crossroads, e.g., the tasks in The hidden
message(s) of the LISTENING AND SPEAKING sequences and those in the

Step-by-step progress: The gradation of the units and within the units 3.6
follows the following pattern: from the known to the unknown in terms of language
and cultural schemata, from easy to difficult in terms of language structure and tasks
and from simple to elaborate in terms of cognition. The textbook starts with unit 1
(Getting through) which is essentially a revision unit. The purpose of this unit is to
smooth out the passage from Middle School to Secondary Education by a return to
basics. However, as the learners go on through the textbook, the level of difficulty of
the units increases. Likewise, the tasks in the four units are graded, so that the learners
always have enough of the language needed to do the tasks. One should keep in mind
that nothing is more frustrating to the learners than being assigned tasks that are
beyond their attainment level. Therefore, one should make sure that one’s learners do
have the necessary knowledge and skills to do the tasks (e.g., those involving project
.work) before assigning those to them
Self-assessment: At the Crossroads offers the learners the opportunity 3.7
to assess their progress on a unit-by-unit basis in a section calledCHECK
YOUR PROGRESS. At the basis of this section lies our belief that learners
want and need to measure their progress by themselves. The teacher will see to it
her/his learners feel responsible for their learning by doing the assessment tasks and
turning in the checklist at the end of the section; thus the teacher will see whether
there is any necessary remedial work to be undertaken before moving on to the next
?What is the Competency-Based Approach .4
At the Crossroads complies with the Competency-Based Approach as
:defined in the syllabus. This approach is characterised by the following
It is action-orientedin that it gears language learning to the acquisition 4.1
of know-how embedded in functions and skills. These will allow the learner to
become an effective/competent language user in real-life situations outside the
classroom. The scale of the descriptors of language proficiency included in the
.syllabus lists typical or likely behaviours expected of the learner at SE1 level
It is a problem-solving approach in that it places learners in situations that 124.2
test/check their capacity to overcome obstacles and problems. Languages are learned
most effectively and lastingly when they are used to solve problems through
hypothesis testing. Problems make the learners think and they learn by thinking. They
.word their thinking in English while solving the problems
It is social-constructivistin that it regards learning as occurring through 4.3
social interaction with other people. In other words, learning is not conceived of as the
transmission of predetermined knowledge and know-how to be reproducedin-vitro
(i.e., only within the pages of the copybook or the walls of the classroom), but as a
creative use of newly-constructed knowledge through the process of social interaction
.with other learners
Finally, and most importantly, the Competency-Based Approach is a 4.4
.cognitive approach. It is indeed indebted to Bloom’s taxonomy (Cf. Bloom, B
et al, Taxonomy of Educational Objectivesvol 1 ‘The Cognitive Domain’ and
vol 2, ‘The Affective Domain’, New York: Mckay, New York, 1964). Bloom has
claimed that all educational objectives can be classified as «cognitive» (to do with
information and ‘affective’ (to do with attitudes, values and emotions) or
‘psychomotor’ (to do with bodily movements, such as setting up some apparatus). He
has said that cognitive objectives form a hierarchy by which the learner must achieve
lower order objectives before s/he can achieve higher
.(ones. (see Table 1 below
(Table 1 Adpated version of Bloom’sTaxonomy)
Learner sets a value on the new information 6
5Learner builds new knowledge from diverse elements
4Learner analyses information by separating
information into parts for better understanding
Learner applies knowledge to new situations 3
.Comprehension 2 Learner understands information
.Learner recalls knowledge 1
Higher order
Lower order
Bloom’s hierarchical model of cognitive thinking is illustrated in the importance that
the Competency-Based Approach in the SE1 syllabus accords to themobilisation of
knowledge and skills, their gradual integration at higher levels (from level 1 to 6 in
the table above), theirapplication to new situations of learning or use, thegeneration of
new knowledge and skills and finally the
evaluation of the process and product of thinking. This is the ideal route to the
acquisition of competency called, asavoir-agir in the syllabus. For instance, a learner
will need to know a principle before s/he can understand it. S/he must understand it
before s/he can apply it. S/he should be able to cut it into smaller fragments and relate
it to other principles (analysis) before s/he can summarise it and draw conclusions,
.and thus evaluate it
.The affective domain is equally important in the achievement of competency
Bloom organises the learner’s affections in a hierarchical order illustrated in
(Table 2 below.(TABLE 2 Adapted version of Bloom’sTaxonomy
The importance attached to the Affective Domain in the syllabus shows in the
descriptors of the three competencies which emphasise, among other manifestations,
that of ‘listening attentively’ (corresponding to the category ofReceiving in
Bloom’sTaxonomy), and particularly in the adoption of the
pedagogy of the project. The realisation of the project develops, together
with the psychomotor domain, the affective domain of the competency in a ‘bottom-
up fashion’, leading ultimately to the internalisation of such values as autonomy,
. creativity, initiative, and responsibility
Internalising 5
.Learner makes his/her own consistent system of values
Organisation 4 Leaner
Learner attaches values to particular objects and
Responding 2
.Learner participates actively in classroom activities
Learner shows willingness to attend to classroom
Higher order
Lower order

?How is the Competency-Based Approach realised in At the Crossroads .145

At the Crossroads is action-oriented in the sense that the development of
skills holds a central position in it. We regard the concept ofskill as being
-synonymous withknow-how and a translation of the French conceptsavoir
faire used in the syllabus. We have distinguished between two types of skills in
the textbook: on the one hand, we have the primary skills (listening, speaking, reading
and writing), and on the other hand the ‘social’ skills which need the mobilisation of
the former for the learner to accomplish everyday life concrete actions such as
.telephoning, using a road map and writing business and personal letters
The Competency-Based Approach implies, among other things, a process of
apprenticeship involving a transfer of skills from a coach/teacher to the
trainee/learner. Of course, a transfer of skills cannot take place instantly and as a
whole block. These skills appear in the syllabus as ‘fragmented’ into verbalised
operations keyed to a certain number of language functions (formulated in terms of
.specific objectives in the syllabus) and language forms
This is the modus operandi that At the Crossroads follows and which is
.schematised in its Book Map
Let us see how the skills are made operational in Unit One. The first sequence starts
with a task, the aim of which is to label the parts of a PC on a picture and to learn to
pronounce words related to the computer. This is an easy task to fulfill since learners
must be familiar with the names of computer components and might eventually
venture to name other components if you encourage them to do so. You may ask in
what ways this anticipation task may be geared to skills building and what skill the
sequence sets to build. Far from being an exercise in irrelevance, this task does the
same function as the coach driver’s naming of some of the parts of a car for a trainee
driver when s/he starts learning to drive. This labelling may be self-evident but the
driving instructor will tell her/him that there are three pedals in a car, and what
.function each of them serves

This knowledge of the names of pedals and their respective functions is a prerequisite
for the trainee driver before he can perform the verbalised operations that the
instructor will assign to her/him in the driving school. Likewise the knowledge of
vocabulary (pronunciation and meaning) related to computers might be familiar to the
learners, but it is necessary for the teacher to confirm this before involving the
learners in listening comprehension tasks. This first task together with the second task
(involving the learners in exchanging e-mail addresses) in theA N T I C I PAT E
rubric stand for gear-shift exercises (exercices enclencheurs) for the listening
.comprehension tasks in the next rubric, LISTEN AND CHECK
The brushing up of computer-related vocabulary and functions makes the learners
attuned to the completion of the tasks in the LISTEN AND CHECK rubric. The first
task consists in re-ordering jumbled verbalised operations (worded of course in
English) needed to access e-mail. Accessing e-mail is of course a fundamental social
skill today, and learners might well be familiar with carrying out the operations
concretely on the computer without consciously thinking about the whole process.
This will be the ideal phase in the learning process because if the learners have
already the mastery of the skill, they will be much more at ease in predicting
accurately the process for accessing e-mail in English, and in so doing increase their
.understanding of spoken English
From confirming understanding of the process of e-mail access, there is a small step
for some learners to want todemonstrate to their peers how the whole process works
using the appropriate functions (e.g., describing a process) and language forms
(sequencers). This demonstration can take the form of concrete operations/actions if a
computer is available in class. In turn, the demonstration can trigger off a discussion
about the advantages and drawbacks of communication through e-mail and ordinary
letters, a discussion followed by another listening task involving an interview about
preferences in modern communications. In the SAY IT CLEAR rubric, learners
consolidate further the function of comparing and related language forms (e.g.,
phonology and comparatives of superiority) before moving on to theYOUR TURN

The speaking skill, as it has been stated earlier, is practised all through the
LISTENING AND SPEAKING sequence, but it receives attention on its own in
theYOUR TURN rubric. The social skill aimed at here is that of opening an e-mail
account. Just as in the case of the social skill of accessing e-mail in the listening sub-
rubric, the skill of creating an e-mail account is decomposed into scrambled
verbalised operations that learners are requested to re-order. The learners have come
across the function of expressing purpose and related conjunctions in the listening
rubric. Since most of them are already familiar about the opening of e- mail account,
the task at hand must be less daunting than may appear at first sight. Tasks 1 and 2 are
.gear-shift exercises for task 3
In task 3, learners speak from notes taking turns to play the roles of instructor and
client in order to ask for and give information about how to create an e-mail account.
In performing the verbalised operations constituting the skill, they make use of
functions (e.g.,expressing purpose and necessity) and related language forms as well
as meta-cognitive strategies, like checking understanding, reformulating and
We take it for granted that nothing is more enjoyable than talking about our
experiences and of course ourselves. So we have thought it advisable to personalise
the remaining tasks (task 4 and the task of SAY IT IN WRITING) in order to appeal
to the ego-factor. Task 4 is intended as a brainstorming activity prior to the SAY IT
IN WRITING task. You can advise your learners to make notes (or yourself jot down
ideas on board) while they are expressing the purpose for which they use the Internet.
They will use these notes later in the SAY IT IN
WRITING rubric to flesh out their opinions about the usefulness of the Internet
as an invention. To make the latter task more communicative (life-like), just tell your
.learners to imagine that they are chatting, conferencing or taking part in a newsgroup
The streamlining of the tasks in the LISTENING AND SPEAKING
sequence as outlined above is geared to the development of skills, both primary
and social, through a process of integration of functions and language forms and
in contexts simulating real life situations. Simulation is one of the techniques
used for the transfer of skills in what are considered as sensitive domains of
.(learning (e.g., learning to be a pilot or a surgeon
Pilots first learn to fly in a simulator and surgeons first learn to make operations on
guinea pigs. As foreign language teachers (coaches), we cannot avoid using
simulation as a classroom technique to transfer the suggested skills to our learners.
We should bear in mind that one of the most recommended techniques to prepare
learners to listen, speak, read and write English in order tointeract andtransact with
.other social agents in the real world is simulation
? What is project work, and how does it fit in the Competency-Based Approach .6
One of the most distinctive features of the Competency-Based Approach is its
integration of project work as part and parcel of learning strategy. Over all, if the
Competency-Based Approach expands on communicative approaches, it is in the
sense that it seeks to make the attainment of objectives visible, i.e., concrete, through
the realisation of projects in selected domains of instruction. It is all good to fix
specific learning objectives (cf. SE1 syllabus), but this statement of objectives related
to competencies will remain just a pious wish (as is the case in the traditional
.objective-based approaches) if the outcome is not visible and measurable
We define project work as a carefully planned long term undertaking. At the
Crossroadsassigns project work on a step-by-step procedure. Project work makes
learning more meaningful. It also makes co-operative learning a concrete reality and
opens up entirely new avenues for action , interaction and the construction of new
knowledge. In short, it is only through carrying out project work that we and our
learners can live up to the basic principles of the Competency-Based Approach as
.detailed earlier
Let us illustrate how project work sets into operation the principles of the
Competency-Based Approach. For example, unit 1 assigns the making of a job
application booklet as project work. The language demand for carrying out project
work is catered for in the sequences and sections of the unit. Even though the layout
of the project is positioned at the end of the unit, project work is assumed to run in
parallel with the unfolding of the courses. It is up to you to remind your learners about
the project when going through the Preview. You will also be well advised at this
stage to let the learners choose their groups, elect a (group) delegate, and take down
the names of the learners’ constituting each of the groups. Refer the learners to the
Workshop section every time you start a unit and keep reminding them of the project
tasks they have to do when you feel that they are well equipped in terms of skills to do
This is the rationale for the assignment of project work in At the Crossroads. In real
life, we simply do not read just for reading. We read with a purpose and we generally
follow a set of strategies, like looking at the title to see what the book, article, poem,
advertisement, or any other reading material is about. Interest plays an important role
in the choice of what we read and how we read it. For example, the readership of a
newspaper might be as different as the articles that the newspaper features. A reader
interested in sports events will go directly to the sports column and read the articles
therein very carefully. S/he might just browse other articles in the other columns
.before or after reading about sports
The case will be different for a person looking desperately for a job. There is no doubt
whatever that this person, if s/he is a newspaper reader, will look up the advertisement
column first. S/he might read articles in the news columns, but s/he will probably not
devote the same attention to them as s/he does to the recruitment adverts. Here the job
seeker will concentrate on the advertisements to see whether s/he can apply for any of
the jobs advertised there. If s/he considers that s/he can apply for any of them, s/he
will either clip the advertisements, make a note, or simply circle them. Circling
advertisements is one of the habits of Anglo-American newspaper readers. That’s why
.learners are required to circle their advertisements in project task 1 of unit 1
What conclusion can we draw from what has been said above with reference to the
principles of the Competency-Based Approach? You have probably noticed that
learners in the role of social agents (in this case as newspaper readers and job seekers)
have accomplished several actions using reading strategies and skills (e.g., skimming,
scanning and interpreting) and social skills (e.g., reading newspapers and circling). It
is up to the teacher to encourage the learners to simulate the actions outlined above by
.using local newspapers

This project work also holds to the principle of interaction on which the competency-
based approach rests. After reading the advertisements for job recruitment, the job
seeker will not stop at that. S/he will involve him/herself in several interactions like
holding telephone conversations to enquire about the vacancy of the jobs, writing
letters of application and letters of enquiry about the jobs, writing a curriculum vitae,
filling up job application forms, and receiving letters of replies indicating acceptance
or refusal and going for interviews. It follows that this process of interaction
integrates all four primary skills and social skills stemming from appropriate
.functions and language forms
At unit level, project work offers a target situation (cf. SE1 syllabus) wherein the
learners (once again in the simulated roles of job seekers, secretaries, etc…) mobilise
and integrate the primary and social skills as well as the corresponding functions,
strategies and language forms. These are developed in streamlined situations of
exploration (cf. “situations d’exploration” in the SE1 syllabus) in the sequences and
sections of the unit. It goes without saying that the process of integration and
mobilisation of previous knowledge and know-how in carrying out the project will
also lead the learners to operate at a more complex level of the cognitive process.
There is no surprise for this since the process of project materialising will certainly
boost up their egos and make them take more initiative and responsibility for their
In what follows, we will illustrate in the ways in which the project work of unit 1 also
abides by the socio-constructivist principle of the Competency- Based Approach.
Here it is important to point out that in real life job seekers, as well as their potential
employers, will interact with each other through the written and spoken medium. As
they interact, each of them will construct new knowledge (e.g., with reference to the
employers’ and job seekers’ expectations) resulting in the decision to accept or refuse
to take or give the job. In a learning context duplicating or simulating the real life
situations above, the socio-construction of knowledge is also triggered off in the
.process of learners’ interaction with each other

At the Crossroads offers the possibility for the teachers and learners to
undertake other projects than those suggested in the textbook as long as the projects
are well devised and keyed to the skills, functions and language forms covered in the
rest of the unit. This is even recommended because it allows the teacher to escape the
routine of assigning/doing the same project year after year. We further suggest that
you make project work an opportunity for your learners to work with other learners
from around Algeria or the world using the Internet. For example, you can assign the
Writing of an Internet Guide which will take the form of a poster (cf. Book Map/p.III)
as an alternative to the project of Making a job application booklet in unit 1. At the
end of this introduction to the textbook, you will find a checklist of web-sites which
can help your class meet other classes for undertaking this project or any other one
you may decide to undertake (e.g., a difference poster, i.e., a poster wherein learners
.(... will write about differences in clothes, diet… between different regions/countries
An afterthought:At the Crossroads contains mainly production projects, i.e., projects
the outcome of which is a written production of a job application booklet (unit 1), a
book review (unit 2), a survey (unit3), an invention profile (unit 4) and a consumer
guide (unit 5). It is all good if your learners present their projects in the way they are
set in the textbook. Otherwise, you can add the dimension of performance to project
work in the textbook by having learners present their works orally in the shape of
video-taped / taped or recorded performances in class sessions, like “It’s me talking /
speaking. The project workshop can also offer a good opportunity for a live stage
.debate, a talk show or a theatrical stage performance
Here are some suggestions that can help add a performance dimension to the
‘production projects’ in At the Crosswords. For example, in the project workshop of
unit 1 you can ask your learners to stage the telephone conversations and the
interview in the classroom. In the project workshop of unit 2, the learners can be
encouraged to hold a reading poetry session or a literary debate or stage snippets from
.plays and novels

In unit 3, the project workshop offers the opportunity to carry out the interview, the
data collection, interpretation of results and the writing of the report in the classroom.
In unit 4, the project workshop can accommodate a performance dimension in the
form of a “Do-you-know…?” quiz show. Finally, you can add a performance
dimension to the project workshop of unit 5 by urging students to endorse/advertise
orally the products they have analysed
.and to make complaints about these products by telephone
The advantage of performance projects such as the ones detailed above is that they
encourage learners to draw to the same degree on the three competencies specified in
the syllabus during their presentation of the projects. They will certainly break the
routine in the presentation of projects and therefore teachers ensure that learners
remain motivated for project work
.as a whole
All in all, however, the rationale for the inclusion of substantial project
work in At the Crossroads has much to do with the fact that it is through the
completion of projects that competence really makes itself visible and measurable.
Project work is learner-centred in that it allows enough elbow room both inside and
outside the classroom for the learners to exercise their cognitive skills. It boosts the
learners’ sense of achievement resulting in an increasing sense of responsibility, self-
esteem, self-confidence, and autonomy in learning. Above all, project work
encourages learners to make one step outside the textbook and the classroom into the
real world where they will be called later to use their competence to understand,
speak, read and write in
?What is the teacher’s role in the Competency-Based Approach .7
If teacher roles vary according to the approach adopted, it is obvious that the teacher
will want to know where s/he really stands in the Competency- Based Approach in
general and in its implementation through At the
Crossroadsin particular. Let’s start with a note of re-assurance. Though At
the Crossroads is competency-based and learner-centred, it does not seek the
teachers’ subservience. Neither does it seek to substitute itself to the teacher as
regards decision making in class, the organisation of the classroom and so on. All it
demands is to make the best use of it according to the principles of the Competency-
.Based Approach announced in the syllabus

As it stated above, the Competency-Based Approach is action-oriented. Such a
characteristic of the approach naturally requires ‘teachers in action’, in other words,
teachers who will draw on their professional skills, skills in subject matter, in
methodology, in decision-making and in social skills of various sorts to enable the
learners to be language achievers. However, to be ‘teachers in action’ does not mean a
return to that ancient role of ‘drill sergeant’ peculiar to the Audiolingual Method. The
Competency-Based Approach in its emphasis on cognition also demands a style of
teaching based on reflection. Reflection on what, why and how you should teach / or
you are teaching in the classroom (reflection in action) implies, among other things,
planning ahead your lessons, fixing objectives for each lesson, adjusting your
teaching strategies so as to cope with the unexpected, giving time for your learners to
reflect on what they are learning and checking that the objectives are reached
.at the end of each lesson, sequence and unit
The socio-cognitivist strain of the Competency-Based Approach adopted in the
textbook further demands that the teacher cease playing the simplistic role of
‘transmitter’ of knowledge and the learner that of ‘receiver’ of knowledge (about
language and its literature as is the case, for example, in the Grammar - Translation
Method). Instead, his/her role is to facilitate the process of language acquisition
through the development of appropriate learning strategies like hypothesis-making
and hypothesis-testing. S/he stands as a resource person whose help is sought
whenever learners meet with special difficulties as they develop/construct by
themselves their competencies through a process of classroom interaction. Thus, the
classroom becomes a stage for learners’ dress rehearsal of the targeted competencies
wherein the teacher plays the role of director setting stage directions, assessing, and
giving feedback to the players
.in order to bring the final touch to their performance
We will close these notes by providing you with a checklist of E-mail
:addresses that can be of help both to you and your learners This is the e-address of IECC (International E-mail -
-Classroom Connections) which can help you share ideas with English
.language teachers coming from more than 82 countries
23 gives access to a web site-
which can help you find partner classrooms for e-mail exchanges at Middle
.School level makes you access an -
international clearinghouse for promoting long-distance collaborative partnerships for
.the realisation of pedagogic projects will allow your learners to access the International-
E-mail Tandem Network, an EU organisation which helps Middle School
.learners from various countries of the world work together provides access to the Europa-
Pages Web site which has an ‘International Pen Friends’ section helping
.learners to find native speaker pen- pals in a foreign language will allow your learners to get-
.connected with pen friends
http://www.pacifcnet/sperling/guestbook.html provides teachers’ access to-
.the Dave’s ESL (English as Second language) E-mail connection is the learners’ section of the-
.Dave’s ESL E-mail connection will allow your learners to subscribe to a pen-pal -
Finally, keep us posted at the following E-mail address crossroads_
We will be really happy to help in case you encounter any difficulty in implementing
(the textbook . (_= 8
We will start assistance by providing you with lesson notes about the first
.unit of At the Crossroads in the second part of this book

Illustrative page and previewpp. 2-3
.Exploit them in the way recommended in the presentation of this book
Sequence 1: Listening and speakingpp. 4-7
The aim of this sequence is to develop the listening and speaking skills with reference
to the following functions: instructing and expressing purpose, and related language
(forms (e.g., sequencers and imperatives
The aim of this rubric is to tune in the learners to what will come next in the
.listening and speaking sequence
As a strategy of learning and teaching the listening skill, theAnticipate rubric in the
Listening and Speaking sequence obeys the following logic. When we listen in
everyday life, we usually have a general idea about the people who are speaking and
what they are talking about. Surely it is not the case in pedagogic contexts like the
ones in which you will implement this textbook. You are often required to read scripts
while your learners listen to check predictions or their listening comprehension. At
.best you can simulate the dialogues by having them recorded on tape
To make up for this absence of situational or/and linguistic contexts, you will be well
advised toidentify/interpret this context byinteracting with your learners. You can
encourage your learners tointerpret the context by directing their attentions to the
pictures and asking them questions related to the setting, the number of speakers, their
roles, their attitudes, etc. In so doing, you will help them build up an overall
impression about the context of the listening selection and so help them tune in to
.listening for meaning instead of trying to understand every word in the script
Here are some of the questions you can ask them. ‘What does the picture
represent/show? Who are the people in the picture? How many are there? What are
they like? What are they doing? How would you describe their attitudes towards each
’?other/ one another? Are they cheerful or angry

Make sure your learners have understood the question well. You can start the task by
asking your learners what the picture represents/shows (e.g., it represents a PC
(personal computer). ‘Have you got a PC at home? In which other places do you find
PCs? What do PCs consist of? Well, listen to me reading the words in the box, then
tell the class which part (component) of the computer each of the words in the box
.’refers to
As you read the words aloud, have your learners just listen to you. Once you have
done with the reading, startinteracting with the learners, and have themidentify the
parts of the computer just as they would do if they read any instruction manual
presenting the profile of a new product (e.g., ‘What does part one represent? Is it
aprinter? That’s right, it is aprinter What about part number two? Is it a keyboard? Do
( .you agree with him/her? What would you call it then?’ etc
As you check the answer to the task, just jot down the following key
gradually on board: 1-printer; 2-central unit (console); 3-monitor; 4-screen
speaker; 6-mouse; 7-keyboard; 8-floppy disks; 9-floppy disk drive-5
Move on to the second task and elicit as many words as you can from the learners. At
first sight, this task may seem to be superfluous. But bear in mind that one of the most
frustrating problems which learners can meet when learning a language is just that,
not knowing or being able to recall a particular word. Just think about it. How many
times have you found yourself in this situation even when using your own language?
How have you managed to get around this vocabulary difficulty? You have probably
coped with this problem by using a number of strategies without having thought about
;a) using a word similar in meaning
b) using paraphrase or explaining the meaning of the word you don’t
;know or recall with a complete sentence
.c) or simply asking another person for help
You can seize the opportunity provided by task two to show your learners how to
cope with the vocabulary problem mentioned above by using at least strategiesb andc
in yourinteraction with them. For example, you can make them believe that you don’t
.know the word for a component part of a computer
So you can use the following question types to elicit vocabulary from your
?… a)What’s the English for (word in Arabic/Berber/orFrench
?b) What is (word in Arabic/Berber or French)) in English
?c) How do you say (word in Arabic/Berber or French) in English
You can also show them how to paraphrase. Start your paraphrases with
:one of the following sentences
a) I don’t know what/how you call it. It’s used for connecting to the Internet. b) I
don’t know the word in English. We use it for connecting to the Internet. c )What do
?…you call it? Is it used for
Encourage your learners to use the strategies above in order to cope with vocabulary
problems when interacting in class. If necessary, have them write on their exercise
books samples of the strategies in question as part and parcel of checking answers to
task two. Show them the fact these strategies will allow them to keep the conversation
.going when they are faced with a vocabulary problem
Tasks three and four: Tasks three and four aim to check that learners know
.how to ask for and give personal information in relation with e-mail addresses
.This is a very important social skill in the contemporary world
Start task three by instructing your learners to listen to you reading aloud the e-mail
address. You can read it in two ways: Yacine two thousand –and- five at Yahoo dot
com (US) or Yacine two-thousand-and five at Yahoo dot com (UK). Show them that
@/arobas is prounounced ‘at’ in spoken interaction. Have some of your learners say
the e-mail address aloud before getting the whole class to write the written and spoken
versions of the e-mail address on their exercise books. The two versions can be
:presented as follows
.You see/write
You say/read Write the two spoken versions above
.Yacine2005’: This first bit is the user name given to the client by his/her ISP‘
.stands for the «at» symbol. It divides the user name from the domain name@
:28Yahoo: This is the name of the company that provides his/her e-mail address
.usually his/her ISP, or as in this case a free Web-based e-mail service
fr: This last bit refers to the country or type of organisation s/he has her/his
.e-mail with
Task four is a follow-up to task three. Simulate a dialogue with one of the
learners. (e.g., ‘Excuse me, what’s your e-mail address? Excuse me, can you
(…’remind me of your e-mail address? It’s
This task leads naturally to task one in the Listen and check rubric as learners may
well not have an e-mail address . So they will be curious to know how we proceed to
.get one
Listen and checkp.5
Task one
The aim behind this task is to ‘teach’ learners to recognise andsequence
the main ideas in spoken interaction and to follow the thread of what is
being said by concentrating and recognising the key words. Task one trains on the
learners in this listening strategy with reference to the function of instructing and
.(related language forms and notions (e.g., the imperative and the sequencers
Follow the procedure already detailed in theAnticipation rubric by directing the
learners’ attention to the picture andinteracting with them about it in order to make
themidentify/interpret the context (e.g., ‘What does the picture represent/ show? How
many children are there? Where/who are they? What are they doing? How would you
(.describe their attitudes towards each other/one another?’ etc
Make yourinteraction with your learners drift gradually and smoothly towards the
question asked in task one. Once you are sure that your learners have understood what
to do, allow them just enough time to read through the jumbled instructions on how to
access e-mail so as to sequence them correctly. Provide help in case your learners
.meet with vocabulary problems in the instructions
Remember that the strategy for making your learners really listen to the sequencing of
ideas instead of merely trying to understand every word requires that you equip them
with a first overall impression of what the listening script will be about through the
analysis of the picture andprediction of the order of the instructions just as is indicated
.in task one
Task two
In task two, learners check their answers to the question in task one. Simulate the
spoken interaction (the listening script) on page (i) at the end of the textbook.
Remember that learners will listen to key words in order to pick out the sequencing
order of the instructions. Key words are the words that interlocutors in spoken
interactions consider to be important for
.understanding/interpreting messages. They are usually stressed in English
So when you simulate the spoken interaction of the textbook, take care to
.(stress only the key words (e.g., sequencers
:The key to the task is as follows
Task three
This task aims to train the learners to speak from notes or memory with
.reference to the function of instructing and related language forms
Please keep in mind that note taking is an important listening strategy. So before
simulating the spoken interaction again, make the learners aware that it is not always
a good idea to rely on their memory alone when they are listening. Advise them to
take notes by writing down important details which they are likely to forget later. The
key to task one might well stand for some of the notes they could have taken, but tell
.them to make other notes as you simulate again the spoken interaction
Learners will use the notes to prepare their spoken interaction before they play them
out. Mind, the task does not consist in reproducingverbatim the spoken interaction. So
give enough elbow room for your learners to personalise the spoken interaction they
have listened to. Just check that they sequence their ideas correctly as theyinteract
.with each other
30Task four
In task four, learners listen for specific details of information coming in a spoken
interaction involving an interview about the advantages and drawbacks of sending
messages by electronic and ordinary mail. The learners will revise the functions ( e.g.,
.comparing, expressing opinion/point of view) and related language forms
It is clear by now that you will have to make the learners build an overall impression
of what the listening script will be about before having them listen to it. In this task
there is no picture provided forinterpretation, but you can personalise your questions
by asking them about their own opinions in regard to the advantages and drawbacks
of sending e-mail and ordinary messages. You can monitor theinteraction among the
learners by eliciting and confronting their opinions (e.g., ‘How often do you send
messages? Which way of sending messages do you think is better, electronic or
(’?… ordinary mail? Do you agree with
Encourage learners to use one of the following phrases when they give their opinions:
I think/believe/It seems to me (that)… To my mind/In my opinion/ As far as I’m
concerned… Please make sure the learners don’t say «according to me» when they
!give their opinions
Once the learners have said what they think about electronic and ordinary mail, let
.them copy down the table and indicate their opinion by ticking in appropriate boxes
Task five
Task five is a follow-up to task four. Simulate the spoken interaction on pages (i) and
(ii) at the end of the textbook. Learners will listen for specific information about
opinions/points of view given by two informants in an interview about electronic and
.ordinary mail
First, check the listening comprehension task i.e., find out whether learners have
picked out the opinions expressed in the spoken interaction. Theninteract with your
learners to know whether or not the two informants have the same or differing
opinions. Ask them to comment further in order to justify their answers. After that,
personalise the interaction by asking them whether or not they have the same oipinion
as the informants. (e.g., ‘Are you of the same mind? Why? How do you feel about it?
.’(… I think that email is…, but s/he thinks that
:Here is the key to task five
Task six
In task six, the learners will use information in the table of task two to
produce a short paragraph about their preferences with regard to electronic
and ordinary mail starting with a language structure which they have already heard in
listening script two. The learners will turn this paragraph into a short statement to be
.delivered to the whole class
It is important to make it clear to your learners that when they have to speak for a long
time (e.g;, giving a class presentation, making a report, or giving a detailed
explanation/justification as is the case in task six), they are often compelled to use a
number of techniques to organise their ideas and make it easier for their listeners to
follow what they are saying. Most often they are obliged to use words or phrases to
indicate what the next stage of the speech or explanation/justification will be. In task
six, learners will probably need to list points, to give examples to illustrate and justify
their preferences, to give another side of their own preferences, to present result and
.to summarise
We understand that the learners cannot use all of these techniques at the same time at
this early stage of the course. However, we think that the learners should be
encouraged to use discourse markers for listing points. (e.g., first, first of all, to
start/begin with, secondly, thirdly…/finally, also, then…) Your learners have already
used some of these discourse markers in describing the process e-mail accessing. So it
.will be a good idea to recycle them here
Snail mail
More interesting
Less personal
Less convenient

To implement the suggestion made above, you will have to help your learners
.by sketching out the type of paragraph you would like them toproduce
:Here is a sketch paragraph that you can quickly jot down on board
I prefer sending my messages by e-mail rather sending them by snail mail. First of all,
………………………………………………........... Secondly,
...........................,…………………………………. Finally
Say it clearp.6
In task one, learners will revise the intonation pattern in requests and get
.familiar with the comparative of superiority of adverbs
With books closed,interact with your learners by simulating class situations where
you will use all the requests in task 1. (e.g., Ask learners to tell you why they were
absent/What they did yesterday/What class they will have next? Who is their teacher
of Mathematics? etc.) Each time they answer your prompts, simulate
misunderstanding or mishearing and ask them to repeat what they have said using the
requests in task 1. (Remember, when you speak, you communicate information both
verbally i.e., by using words and non- verbally, i.e., by using gestures, facial
expressions, etc... So hold your hand close to your ear to indicate mishearing). Once
.this is done, tell them to open their books and do the task as indicated
The rule is that intonation goes up at the end of requests. Requests will become orders
in case you make them with a falling tone. It will be a good idea to illustrate to your
learners that a great deal of information is conveyed through the way you speak:
speed of speech, silences, pauses, hesitations, repetitions or, as in the case of task 1,
by the tone of voice (rising or falling tone). For example, as we have said above, tone
of voice in questions in task one may indicate either a peremptory or a polite attitude.
It is for you to ‘teach’ the learners tointerpret speakers’ attitudes in spoken interaction
.and to check the way they speak so as not to cause misunderstanding

Task two
Task two gives a transformation activity wherein learners are required to make
requests out of information provided in the form of statements containing
.comparatives of superiority
Refer the learners to samples of requests in task one. If necessary, illustrate
what the learners are required to do by transforming one of the statements into
.a request. Read aloud the request and mark the intonation pattern
:Here is a suggested answer key to the task
?a- Could you type more quickly, please
?b- Can you press the key more smoothly, please
?c- Could you drive less quickly, please
?d- Could you use the computer more frequently, please
?e- Can you arrive earlier, please
?f- Can you jump higher, please
?g- Could you work harder, please
Task three
The aim behind this task is to recognise stress patterns in two syllable words
.related to computers
Direct your learners’ attention to the table and show your learners how to split words
into syllables. Foreground the sound-spelling links represented by the words and their
phonetic transcriptions as well as the stressed
.syllables. You can use the following table for highlighting this information
Once the learners know what is required of them, let them do the task alone
.on a rough copybook
You see/write
You say/read aloud
34Task four
In this task, learners will check their answers to task three as you read aloud the words
in the box. You will be well advised to have the table copied on board and to have the
learners correct their answers on their own . If possible take the opportunity to
transcribe (some of ) the words so as to initiate the learners to phonetic transcription.
Give some time for the learners toanalyse the stress pattern in the two columns to
draw the rule for accentuation/word stress in two syllable words. (e.g., Look at the
words in column A. Are they verbs, nouns, prepositions or adverbs? Where is the
stress, on the first or on the second syllable? What about the words in column B? …
?What conclusion can you draw
The rule is as follows: In two-syllable words, stressusually falls on the second syllable
.when the word is a verb, but it is placed on the first syllable when the word is a noun
The hidden messagep.6
The task in this subrubric is to initiate the learners to phonetic transcription. This task
can be done either individually or in pairs. In either case, refer the learners to the
phonetic symbols on pages XII and XIII of the textbook. Re- write the first word
yourself for illustration, then get the learners to compete as to who will be the first to
decipher the whole message. Here is the key to the task: Your floppy contains a virus;
.remove it from my computer
Your turnp.7
Task one
In this task, the learners will practise and consolidate the speaking skill with reference
.to functions (e.g., instructing and expressing purpose) and related language forms
browser - cursor - pointer - window
floppy - icon - keyboard - modem
connect - protect - remove
erase - escape - display

Refer the learners to the sentences in columns A and B. Then ask them to read them
very quickly andidentify the main idea. This will allow them to have an overall
impression of what the sentences are about. Once this is done, make sure everyone
understands the sentences before telling them to work in pairs to do task 1. Interact
.with your learners to check their answers
The key to the task is as follows: 1-b, 2-a, 3-d, 4-c.As you check the
.learners’ answers, have them write full sentences on the board
Task two
The aim of this task is to encourage the learners to pay attention to the organisation of
ideas in a paragraph. They will organise the jumbled sentences written on the board
during the previous task into a coherent paragraph using sequencers and modals. You
can help the learners by giving them the first two introductory sentences in the key
:Here is a suggested key to task two
Ok, you want to create an e-mail account? It is very easy. First, you have to‘
switch on the central unit and the monitor in order to start the computer.Next, you
need to go to the address section to choose a site’. ‘Well, if you want to create an e-
mail account, click on the e-mail option in the menu. After that, click on the ‘sign up’
icon in order to open the page for personal details…’ (The learners can complete the
An afterthought: Today’s learners are very knowledgeable with things
related to computers and the Internet. We are sure that they are not as scared as we are
about new technology; some of them can even outdo their teachers in the field. Don’t
hesitate to capitalise on your learners’ knowledge about the Internet to run your class.
You should keep in mind that a good teacher is not necessarily a ‘guru’, but someone
who knows how to manage her/his class in such a way as to create a congenial
environment forpeer-teaching and
.cooperative learning
Therefore, we strongly believe that most of the tasks in this rubric can be done in the
form of short class presentation (e.g., How to open an e-mail account?/ What is the
.(...Internet used for? etc

:36Task three
The aim behind this task is to consoldiate further the speaking skill with reference to
functions (e.g., instructing and expressing purpose) and strategies (checking and
.confirming understanding) and related language forms
Sometimes, it is difficult to understand what someone says especially when s/he gives
long or difficult answers. So, it is important to make your learners acquire some
:strategies to cope with these difficult situations. Here are some of them
a. When an interlocutor gives long or difficult answers, check you really
:understand by repeating orreformulating what s/he has said
… You usually start as follows: So/Ok
:b.When the interlocutor understands you, tell them
…That’s right
c. When the interlocutor does not understand you, correct him/her and give
:the right information
…No, that’s not quite right, I said
When you completely mishear or misunderstand an interlocutor, it is necessary to ask
for clarification. Here are some formulae that you can urge your learners to have
:ready at hand
Sorry, I don’t understand/ (I beg your) pardon?/What did you say, please? /‘
(Sorry)could you say/explain that again, please? Could you repeat that more slowly
please? (Sorry, + wh-questions, e.g., Sorry, what did you say?)/ Sorry, what do you
… ’?(mean (by X
The learners are supposed to have acquired the clarification asking strategies in
Middle School. So encourage them to re-invest them in your class so as to further
.develop their speaking skill
In task three, refer to scripts 1 and 2 on pages (i) and (ii). You can simulate them
again so as to make the learners understand what is expected of them in doing the
task. Use the above information about speaking strategies and show how the strategies
are used in spoken interaction. The learners prepare their spoken interaction in writing
.before playing them out in pairs

Task four
The aim is to encourage learners to speak about the various purposes for
.which the Internet is used
Direct the learners’ attention to the picture and ask them to tell you what the man is
doing. Next ask them to tell you what people generally use the Internet for. Refer
them to the cues on the picture of the monitor screen . Move very smoothly to the
question in task four and prompt them as follows: What about you? What do you use
the Internet for? I use it for verb+ing or I use it to+verb. I also use it… The task can
be carried out in the form of spoken interaction. ( e.g., What do you use the Internet
… ?for? Well, I use it … What about you, Karim? What do you use if for
Say it in writingp.7
The learners will re-invest what they have learned in the previous tasks in terms of
functions and related language forms in order toproduce an argumentative paragraph
.defending a point of view about the usefulness of the Internet
Before setting the learners to task, brainstorm the topic with them and jot notes on
board as you do so. Jotting notes is an important writing strategy that your learners
should acquire. Here are some prompts you can use to elicit what your learners think
about the Internet (in open class) : What do you think about/of the Internet? Is it
…useful or not? Why? Can you give other reasons? Explain/Justify
You can encourage the learners to list the reasons why they think that the
:Internet is useful or not by giving the following transitional sentence
I think that the Internet is a useful invention. Let me explain/There are several‘
’... reasons for this. Here are some. First
Here are some other ways of giving an opinion/point of view: ‘I think/ believe that/ in
my opinion/to my mind/as far as I am concerned/If you ask me.. Set a time for the
.’task, and have learners make mini-presentations about the usefulness of the Internet

38Sequence two: Reading and writingpp. 8-11

Anticipatep. 8
The aim of this rubric is to help your learners read icons in a computer screenshot.
This is a very useful social skill in our modern technological world. This social skill
will be developed in relation to functions covered earlier. It also aims to create a lead-
.in to the reading tasks proper on page 9
/Direct learners’ attention to the first screenshot and have themidentify
interpet the different icons and information on the screenshot. Illustrate the
difficult vocabulary items, then set the learners to task. Here is the key to the
task: a - 3
b -1
c –6
d -4
e -5
f– 2
Task two
The aim of this task is to enable learners to ask for and give information about
eletronic addresses. Proceed exactly as in task three in theAnticipate rubric of
.(sequence one (page , 4
Task three
In this task, learners will learn to make predictions about what will come next in an e-
.mail message on the basis of information contained in an e-mail box screenshot
Direct the learners’ attention to the second screenshot andinteract with them in order
to elicit aninterpretation of the information contained on the screenshot. Follow the
.approach that we have already outlined in the previous sequence
Read and checkp.9
Task one
In this task, the learners will check the predictions they have made in task three of
theAnticipate rubric. We have already mentioned the importance of this strategy for
the development of the reading capacities of your learners in the presentation of this
Make sure the learners understand what is expected of them in this task. They don’t
need to read the whole message. Indeed, they can check their predictions by reading
only two or three sentences of the e-mail message. But note that the process of
making predictions keeps going all along the reading of any text. So you can ask your
learners to try it again by making other predictions just after they have checked those
they have made earlier. (e.g., ‘What will Kirsi write about just after the two
(’?introductory sentences
Task two
This task reverts to traditional reading comprehension. The learners are
.required to answer a set of comprehension questions
Ask the learners to read the questions and make sure they understand what they have
to do. As you check the learners’ answers,interact with them to elicit further
information about Finland. For example, you can ask questions about the languages
spoken in Finland, Finland’s neighbouring countries, its currency, etc... We think that
it will be pertinent to change the comprehension questions about the text year after
year as it has become common practice these days to borrow copybooks from
.previous SE1 learners and to copy the answers as they stand on it
Task three
/This task aims to encourage the learners to guess the meaning of new
.difficult words from context
Explain to your learners that it is not always necessary to check new/ difficult words
in a dictionary/or to pass by them as if they were not there. Guessing the meaning of
difficult/new words constitutes an important reading strategy. There is no agreed-on
procedure as to how to make learners infer the meaning of words from context
through the use of structural and semantic clues provided by the context. However,
you can help your learners acquire this strategy by guiding them through a set of
questions. (e.g., ‘What part of speech is the word? Is it a verb, a noun or an adverb? If
a noun is it singular or plural? How do you know? Is there any synonym or antonym
of the word in the text? Is there a superordinate of the word in the text? Look if the
word is
,’not explained in the sentence coming just after the sentence in which it occurs
With a view to developing fluency in reading, the direct use of a dictionary should
always be kept as a last resort. This does not mean that the use of a dictionary is not
recommended. You can perhaps show them the importance of using a dictionary by
.showing in what ways it can contribute to learning English
Ask your learners to bring their dictionaries to school and ask them to do the
following exercise. Look at your dictionary and find out if it includes the following
contents. My dictionary contains: a. different meanings of words; b. information about
pronunciation; c. information about grammar; d.sample sentences; pages, etc...
The point is to make the learners aware that dictionaries can help them learn the
language if used in a reasonable way. You will also be well advised to make your
.learners go back to the good old habit of keeping a vocabulary notebook
Discover the languagepp.10-11
Skill building in this rubric is treated at different levels: the word level, the
.sentence level, and the paragraph level
Task one
The aim of this activity is to familiarise the students with frequency adverbs and their
pronunciation. Make the learners aware of the difference in degree among the
.frequency adverbs included in the chart
Task two
Refer the learners to paragraph three. It is this paragraph which talks about Kirsi’s
regular activities. Ask the learners to pick out the sentences which contain the
frequency adverbs and to place these on the chart they will have drawn on their rough
.copybook beforehand
Task three
In this task the learners willobserve/study the sentences in order toidentify
the position of the adverbs of frequency in the sentences. They will draw the
rule as to the sentence position in which frequency adverbs usually occur. You
.can interact with your learners as follows
?What is the function of the word which comes before the adverb of frequency‘
Is it an object or a subject? What about the word which comes after it?’ …The
rule is that frequency adverbs usuall
y occur between the subject and the verb
.in full affirmative/negative sentences

Task four
In this task, the learners will use questions included in a questionnaire to
.conduct an interview about regular activities
Direct the learners’ attention to the questionnaire and ask them to identify what it is
about. Once they have identified it,interact with them (in open class) simulating a
sample interview. Show the learners how to make notes by jotting down the responses
of your informants/learners on board. The learners will make notes on rough pieces of
paper when it is their turn to do the task in pairs.You can refer to the script on p.(i) at
.the end of the textbook for further reference as to how interviews are conducted
Task five
This is a follow-up to task four. The learners will use the notes they have
.made about their partners’ regular activities towrite/produce a short report
Hamid generally gets up around 7 in the morning. He always goes to school
… .by bus and he studies from 8.30 to 12 in the morning
Task six
Proceed as in task one and make learners pronounce andinterpret the
.adverbs of degree on the chart
Task seven
Proceed as in task two. Make learners read the text very quickly and pick
.out the sentences containg degree adverbs
Task eight
The learners analyse the sentences and draw the conclusion. Proceed in the same way
as in task three. Interact with your learners to enable them to draw the following rule:
.Degree adverbs occur before the adverbs or adjectives that they modify
Task nine
The aim behind this task is to consolidate the function of locating a place
.e.g., a country or a town) and related language forms)
.The learners willproduce short dialogues using the cues in the box

:(Sample Dialogue)42
?A: Tell me, which continent is your country located in
.B: It is located in Africa
?A: Which country borders it to the west
(.B: Morocco. (or Morocco borders it to the west
?A: What’s its average temperature in summer
.B: It’s more than 30° C
?A: What is it famous for
,B: It’s famous for its beautiful beaches, marvellous southern regions
.and historical sights
Write it rightp. 11
This task aims to make the learners re-invest what they have learned in the
Disover the language rubric to write a reply to the e-mail message that they
.have read in the Read and check rubric
This writing task, like the other tasks in this sub-rubric, focuses on purpose as well as
on text type. It focuses on the text in the sense that it stresses the importance of the
paragraph as the basic unit of written expression. The learners are ‘taught’ how to
build and organise paragraphs. In this text- focused approach to writing, we usually
use the following techniques: writing parallel or model paragraphs, forming
paragraphs from jumbled sentences, or building paragraphs from topic sentences with
or without cues. Therefore, we strongly recommend that you refer your learners to
Kirsi’s e-mail on page 9 of the textbook, and have them take it as a parallel or model
of building and organising the paragraphs of their replies. Provide them with a topic
sentence for the first paragraph. (Cf. Letter of reply, p.21 of the texbook) The learners
can check whether they have organised their paragraphs correctly by referring to the
.(same letter
The writing task on page 11 of the textbook also focuses on purpose. In other words,
there is a reason behind the writing task assigned to the learners. They won’t write
just for writing but with a purpose. The task simulates a situation more or less
authentic wherein the learners have to write a reply to an e-mail from a pen-friend of
Apart from the focus on text and purpose, it is helpful to bear in mind that writing
demands that learners follow some strategies like making a first draft and having the
draft revised by the leaners themselves or by their peers before writing the final
version. These strategies are part and parcel of two other approaches to writing: the
fluency and accuracy approaches. Learners write as much as possible during the
preparation of the first draft without caring too much about mistakes. The aim at this
stage is fluency. The feedback that learners get from their peers will allow them to
focus on accuracy (correction of mistakes) when writing the revised version of their
.(papers. (More will be said about writing later

44Sequence three: Developing skillspp.12 –17

Developing skillspp.12 –13
This sequence as its title indicates aims to develop social skills (e.g., telephoning,
writing a letter of inquiry and good-will letters) stemming from functions and
.language forms learnt in the previous sequences
Task one p. 12
This task aims to make the learners aware that language is not simply a question of
(grammar) accuracy but also that of appropriate use / usage according to context.(cf.
pragmatic competence). We have highlighted
.pragmatic competence with reference to the social skill of telephoning
Have the learners read the question very quickly. Theninteract with them about each
of the multiple choice questions in order to make them understand that the exercise is
not meant to check whether they are able to identify the grammatically correct
response but the most appropriate one in the context of telephoning. The learners have
.already come across the language forms used in telelephing in Middle School / Year3
Once the learners have understood the purpose of the task, let them guess
.the appropriate responses
Task two
The learners check their answers as you simulate the telephone conversations in the
script on pages (ii) and (iii). Simulate the telephone conversations again. The learners
.make notes and play out the conversations in pairs
Here is the key to tasks one and two: A-b, B-b, C-c, D-b
Task three
The aim of this task is to consolidate the learners’ knowledge of comparatives
.of superiority and the pronunciation of phone numbers
Remind your learners that one of the conventions in telephone convesation is that
.phone numbers are not prounounced as we usually pronounce ordinary numbers

.(a)We say each figure separately (e.g., 875754 , eight-seven-five-seven-five-four
b) We say 0 as Oh (Br. English) or Zero(Am. English).(e.g., 405 four-oh-five
c) When two numbers are the same and are together, we can say double or we
(say the figures separately.( e.g., 6554 , six-double five/five five-four
d) When we say phone numbers the intonation goes up in the end of the first
.stretches of numbers and goes down at the end of the phone number
Simulate the spoken interaction and make sure learners pronounce their
.phone numbers correctly. Then let them play out the conversation in pairs
Task four
The aim of this task is to enable learners to use tactics/strategies and languages forms
related to the social skill of telephoning. These strategies and language forms are
presented in a separate rubric called Tactics summary
p.13). An appropriate manipulation of these tactics will certainly increase the)
.fluency of the learners in this social skill
Before setting them to task, direct your learners’ attention to the tactics summary on
page 13, and get them acquainted with these tactics. Encourage them to compare the
tactics mentioned in the Tactics summary with those they themselves use when they
hold telephone conversations in their own language. Are they the same? It is clear that
?there are some differences due mainly to socio-cultural convention
The learners prepare in pairs a telephone conversation with reference to one of the
situations suggested in the task and using the tactics summary. Once they are ready,
let them play out the conversations from memory or from notes. Make sure the
.learners write a sample conversation on their exercise books
:Suggested answers
:Situation 1
You: Hello, 54712200
?A friend of yours: Hello, I’m Farid. Can I speak to ……., please
.You: Speaking
A friend of yours: Brahim and I are going out for a football match. Would
?you like to join us
.You: I’m sorry I can’t. I have to go to the dentist

:46Situation 2
?Company secretary: Hello, SEK company. Can I help you
?Caller: Hello, my name’s Bob Karl. Could I speak to the manager, please
Company secretary: I’m afraid he’s out at the moment. Can I take a
.Caller: Please tell him to call me. My number is 7213599
Company secretary: So your phone number is 7213599 and your name is
Bob Karl
Caller: That’s right. Thank you. Goodbye
.Company secretary:Goodbye
:Situation 3
?B: Hello, this is Ali. Is Karim there
.A: I’m sorry, Karim’s out at the moment
.B: Please tell him I expect his call this evening at 6:30
?A: Can you remind me of your name, please
.B: Of course, it’s Ali, Ali Bachiche
.A: I see
.B: Thank you;Goodbye
Developing skillspp.14-15
Task one
The aim behind this task is tointerpret and to differentiatebetween
.texts (goodwill letters/notes) according to register and type of message
Make sure the learners understand what they are required to do. If necessary exploit
the following tips to explain to them the difference between formal and informal
.English before they start doing the task
Formal English is the kind of English we use for serious public purposes
,whereas informal or colloquial English is the kind of English we use everywhere
everyday. The former is used especially in print: official reports, business letters,
serious books, public notices, important speeches, new programmes while the latter is
...used mainly in speech, private letters, converstation between friends, etc

There are several degrees of formality and there is also a neutral style, i.e., a style
with not too many formal or informal features. Make it clear to your learners that it is
important to use the right register for the right situation. This is partly the aim of all
.the tasks on page 14
Here are some features that can allow your learners differentiate between styles. The
formal style distinguishes itself from the informal style by its long and complex
sentences, its use of abstract nouns, of long phrases and of words derived from Latin,
the frequent use of the passive , circumlocutions and past forms of modals. Some
hallmarks of the informal register are the use of contractions, simple words, phrasal
.verbs, and shorter clauses
You can illustrate the difference between formal and informal styles by referring them
to the following requests: Would you be kind enough to speak more slowly,
please?/Can you speak more slowly? Speak more slowly please. All of these are
requests, their difference is in degree of formality dictated by the situation and status
.of the interlocutors. If this seems not to be illustrative enough, choose other examples
Once you have illustrated the difference between registers, have them read the
question and do the task as indicated. Ask the learners to justify their answers by
giving evidence from the texts. The key to the task is as follows: 2-informal invitation
(use of proper/forename, surname, contractions, short sentences, informal closing…);
.3. An informal (neutral?) acceptance of invitation; informal refusal of invitation
Task two
This task aims to enable learners to deduce meanings of words from context and to
read for specific information. The key to question (d) is Reponse s’il Vous Plait. Try
to elicit from the learners why the English use this expression. Take the opportunity to
talk about English history.(e.g., the Norman Conquest of Britain in 1066, the
influence of French on English. Remind them that English is French spoken with an
English accent. This will encourage them to draw parallels between the two
48Task three
Use the tips in task one above to conduct your class. They are different in register, the
first invitation is more formal than the second invitation; the second invitation starts
with a salutation and the second is anonymous; the first invitation uses a formulaic
language (e.g., would like) whereas the second one uses a colloquial language (e.g.,
contractions, imperative). The first invitation is public whereas the second one is
private… It is for you to monitor the discussion to elicit as much information as
Task four
Refer again the students to texts 1, 2, 3, and 4 and ask them to choose one
of them as a model for writing a parallel text. GiveTi p s
.Here is the format that personal letters usually take in English
The writer’s, i.e., the sender’s address, does not usually include the name, which is .1
shown by the signature (see number 5 in the letter layout above). It is usually written
.on the top right-hand corner
The date should appear just below the address. There is also an American way of .2
writing the date (e.g., March 14, 2005). Here are some of the ways of reading/saying
Sender’s address 85 Oxford Street, Kenton, Sussex
(March, 2005 (2 14
(Dear George, (3
.I am pleased/happy/glad to learn that you have moved to a new flat
……… ………………………………………………………………………
(With best wishes (4
(signature) (5)
Karim Boudri
In Br. English, you say March the fourteenth or the fourteenth of March. In
.American English, you say March fourteenth
Letters need salutations (Dear George, Hello…) Here are some other .3
.salutations that you can use in both personal and business letters
Letters also need complimentary closes (e. g, Love, Best wishes). Here are .4
.some other complementary closes
Remember that in informal letters,love is a complimentary close used both
,by men and women when writing to close friends or relatives. Best wishes
Yours, All the best, Kind regards, Best regards are used when addressing
people whom they are not close to. With all my love is used by both men and women
.(when writing to someone they are very close to (e.g., husband to wife or vice versa
Dear George/ My Dear George/ Dear Mr/Miss/ Mrs
Formal or routine
(Business letters)
Dear Sir /Dear Sirs/ Dear Madam/ Dear Sir or
Informal (Business) Dear Mr/Miss/Mrs Kane
Formal to)
/Yours sincerely/ Sincerely/ Yours/ With best wishes/ All the best
With all my love/Love
Sincerely yours/With kind
/regards/With best regards
/Sincerely/Yours/Best wishes
/All the best/ With all my love
business)Yours sincerely/ Yours trulySincerely yours)
Cordially yours
or routine
,Yours faithfully
/Very truly yours
Sincerely yours/ Yours very

In business letters (formal or less formal), the complimentary close depends
on the form of salutation. For instance, if you start your letter with salutation
.Dear Mr/Miss/Mrs/Ms Kane you will close your letter with Yours sincerely
But if you start with Dear Madam, Sir/or Madam/Sir, you will close it with
.Yours faithfully
Task five p.14
.The aim of this task is tointerpret andcategorise messages according to style
Make sure the learners have understood what to do.Interact with them and have
theminterpret the context of each of the goodwill letters. (e.g.,Who is the sender of the
letter? Who is the recipient of the letter? What is the context?) Check whether the
learners have vocabulary problems in reading the letters. Get them to guess the
difficult words from context. Once this is done, give them enough time to read the
goodwill letters and identify each of them according to register. As you check the
answers with your learners, encourage them to justify their answers by giving
.evidence from the messages
Task six
The aim is to get learners to distinguish between degrees or levels of
Intearact with your learners about the register using the tips supplied in task
one of this book. You can attract your learners’ attention to the way the senders
address their conrespondents in the salutations, the length of the sentences, the
vocabulary items, etc. You can also ask them to make the sixth letter more
informal/less formal than the fifth one by asking them to usesorry instead of
Task seven
.The learners willwrite letters of apology following a model
Interact with your learners to let them understand the context of their writing. You can
get them to write these letters of apology in different contexts from than the one
mentioned in task one. It will be a good idea to have them re-invest the functions and
language forms introduced in the previous sequences (e.g., expressing purpose and
obligation). Check that the learners follow the rules for making apologies. In English,
it won’t do just to say that you are sorry for a mistake you have done. You have also
to explain the circusmstances in which you have done the mistake. If you have time,
have them exchange notes of apology among themselves in class. This can be
considered as a game and will help illustrate the difference between formal and
.informal apologies

Developing skillspp.16-17
Task one
,The aim of this task is to focus on the formal layout of a ‘business’ letter
.i.e., a letter of enquiry
Interactwith your learners and have them interpret the context in which
the jumbled letter is written (e.g., What do the sentences represent? What is the letter
about? What doesRe: stand for? etc... Reference = subject). Once this is done, have
them read the jumbled sentences and phrases and match them with their
.corresponding information (rubrics) in the letter lay-out
Tasks two and three
The aim behind these tasks is to focus on the organisation of ideas with
.reference to a reply to the letter of enquiry in task one above
Go over the jumbled information with your learners and have them explain the
difficult vocabulary using structural and semantic clues. Then they will re-order the
information using numbers. As you check the answers with the learners, encourage
them to justify their choices. (e.g., they can note that when we reply to letters, we
.( .…sometimes thank the sender for having contacted us first
.The key to the task is as follows: b-1, a-2, c-3 , d-4
Task four
The aim is toproduce a reply to a letter of enquiry by ordering jumbled
.sentences and re-investing what is learned in tasks one, two and three
Refer the learners to the layout of the letter of enquiry in task one. This will help them
visualise how to present their replies. Refer to the correction of task two for the
.organisation of ideas in the body of their reply letter
-Please note again that writing in the textbook does not follow thesink
or swim-logic characteristic of the traditional approach wherein the learners
are simply asked to write a composition without any guidance or purpose whatsoever.
Apart from the features already mentioned above (cf. focus on purpose, accuracy,
fluency), the development of the writing skill in the textbook focuses on process. This
process approach shows in the following: the learners have gone through skill
building tasks (tasks one, two and three); teachers are asked to interact with their
learners to prepare them orally for the task; layouts and other types of information are
provided… It goes without saying that you are expected cooperation among the
learners as you set them to do the tasks. This involves brainstorming, pair work and
peer correction . You will be well advised to provide the learners with a set of error
.(…symbols right at the beginning of the course (e.g., punct., gr
Here is a suggested body for the letter of reply that learners are supposed to
:produce. Make sure your learners place theirs in appropriate formats
Thank you for your enquiry about our summer courses. Please find enclosed here our
.latest information prospectus, which we hope will be of interest to you
We’re permanent, we’re professional and we offer you a warm
.welcome here at a our school
.We look forward to hearing from you soon

We congratulate in order to express pleasure when something good happens to
relatives and people with whom we are acquainted and those to whom congratulations
are due. (e.g., wedding, engagement, the passing of exams, etc...). Congratualtions can
be expressed in written or oral forms (e.g., spoken form: Congratulations, John! I hear
you’ve passed your exams with top marks! Everybody is proud of you! Well done!
Written form: When we send our congratulations, we usually proceed as follows:I
/…have just learned that
I have just heard the news…/ I’m writing to congratulate you for... In
,.less formal situations, we can start directly by sayingCongratulations (e.g
(… Congratulations on your success/your engagement
Messages of sympathy including condolences can be expressed by saying that you
were sorry to hear about a bad thing which has happened to your correspondent. I was
(really/very/extremely) sorry/sad to hear/I’m deeply distressed… (In spoken
!interaction, reaction to bad news can start with the idiomatic expression What a pity
:Here is a sample message of condolences
I was deeply distressed to hear of the sudden death of Mr John Smith, who served as
vice chancellor in your university for so long. His loss must mean a great loss to your
educational institution. We, who know him, have good cause to be grateful to him for
the sound education and instruction that he gave us
.My colleagues join me in conveying our sincere sympathy to his family
Stop and considerpp.18-19
This is a section wherein learners consolidate grammar notions they have met in the
sequences. We have designed it in such a way as to make them consider these notions
.in context both deductively and inductively
Task one
Interact with the learners about the sentences and make them interpret
the contexts in which the different sentences can occur. Then let them study, discuss
about the sentences, and draw the rules for using the different language forms related
.to the expression of purpose. Have the learners check their answers with thereminder
Task two
In this task the approach shifts from induction to deduction in the sense that learners
apply rules provided to them in a reminder. When you check their answers, make sure
.the learners justify their answers with evidence from the reminder
Task three
Refer the learners to the text on page 9 of the textbook and have them pick out the
sentence which contains a reflexive pronoun. You can also refer the learners to the
picture to interpret the meaning of reflexive pronouns. (e.g., ‘What does the picture
show? How many parrots/birds are there? One or two? There is one parrot only. The
parrot in the mirror is just a reflexion of the parrot perched on a stick’….) The
sentence ‘The parrot is talking to itself’ can serve as an example for completing the
blanks in task three with appropriate reflexive prounouns. Remember that reflexive
pronouns usually refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence. However, the–
self particle can be used to give emphasis to the nounphrase or pronoun subject (e.g., I
cooked it
Tasks four
The aim of this task is to consolidate the language forms related to the
.expression of obligation
The approach to this task is at once inductive and deductive. It is inductive in the
sense that learners are required tostudy/observe a set of sentences containing language
forms linked with the expression of obligation and through oral interaction with each
other and with the teachers to draw conclusions as to the use of these language forms.
The approach shifts to deduction in question E. The learners will apply the rules about
the use of these language forms to express obligation in the past. Then they will check
.their answers with the reminder

56Task five
.This task aims to consolidate the use of definite and indefinite articles
Refer the learners to the reading text on page 9 of the textbook to establish links
between the two texts (text p.9 and text p.21) . It will help them in accomplishing the
task i.e filling blanks with appropriate articles if they identify the context in which the
text on page 21 is written. Encourage the learners to refer to the reminder when they
:check their answers. The key to the task is as follows
1à the 2à Ø 3à Ø 4à Ø 5à a 6à the 7à Ø 8à Ø 9à Ø 10à Ø 11à the 12à Ø 13à Ø 14à Ø
15à Ø 16à an 17à a 18à a 19à an
20à Ø
Task six
.The aim of this task is to consolidate the use of prepositional and phrasal verbs
The learners are already familiar with the prepositions that go with the verbs in the
sentences. So it will be very easy for them to complete the blanks. This task is just a
shifter task (exercise enclencheur in French); it is up to you to encourage your
learners to find other prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs. It will be a good idea if
you advise the learners to create a column for prepositional and phrasal verbs in the
vocabulary notebooks that we have already recommended as a strategy for vocabulary
development. Don’t worry, learners are already familiar with keeping notebooks in
!Middle School
:Here is the key to the task
aà on
bà on cà up dà in eà down
Task seven
:The learners will consolidate their knowledge of time prepositons
.’from …to…’ and ‘until/till‘
The learners can do the task in pairs by exchanging notes. Get the learners
to use strips of paper to write their notes. One student asks for information

about the closing and opening times/hours and the other will answer using
information from the advertisement. The learners will check their answers with the
reminder and then act out a short dialogue speaking from notes. Make sure the
.’learners use weak forms for the prespositions ‘from’ and ‘to
Task eight
…The learners will consolidate the use of the double conjunction ‘neither
.nor...’ and ‘neither’ as a linking adverb
Direct the learners’ attention to the picture and interact with them. They will
interpret the context of the spoken interaction among the hikers. Simulate the
spoken interaction for the learners to note the stressed words. The key to the
,task is as follows: as a double conjunction ‘neither… nor...’ is unstressed
.John, Pamand like are stressed. The main stress falls on hiking
As a linking adverb (e.g.,Neither do I.),neither is stressed. Please note that intonation
falls at the end of statements, goes up at the end of yes-no / auxiliary questions and
falls at the end of wh-questions. The learners are already familiar with these
.intonation patterns. So it will be a good idea if you consolidate them in SE 1
…The learners will practise orally the use of the double conjunction ‘neither
nor…’ by employing it in dialogues. Then they use the same conjunction in
.joining simple sentences. They check their answers with the reminder
Task nine
The aim behind this task is to consolidate the use of the double conjunction
’… either… or‘
The learners willidentify the context of the spoken interaction. Simulate the dialogue
and have them note down the words which carry stresss in the underlined sentence.
Particles ‘either’ and ‘or’ in the double conjunction are not stressed. You stress only
the content words of the sentence, i.e., ‘have’ (expressing possession), ‘computer’ and
.‘video’. The main stress falls on video. Intonation falls at the end of the sentence
The learners will interact using the double conjunction ‘either... or...’ in playing out
the dialogue in the textbook. They will use cues to act out dialogues of their own
.before drawing rules for the use of the double conjunction

Here are some tips to help you conduct your class about the use of the double
conjunctions either… or…, neither… nor... and both… and… The latter conjunction
does not figure in the SE1 syllabus, but it will perhaps help if all these double
.conjunctions are dealt with by analogy
The conjunctions and, or andnor sometimes follow another word which
emphasizestheir meaning. (e.g., BothSaid and Rachid are students. - You can
haveeither a cameraor a computer. –Neither Johnnor James are/is sick.) We call these
pairs of conjunctions double conjunctions .Both…and… adds one item to another,
either… or… expresses a choice between alternatives; and neither… nor… adds two
.negative actions together
Eitherand neither have other functions than those of conjuction, but
we have not included these because they are not in the SE1 syllabus. These
: functions are as follows
a. Eitherand neither can occur as pronouns which describe a choice
.between two. In this case they are often followed by of + noun phrase
E.g., Which film do you prefer , Jack The Ripperor Dracula? I don’t
.(like either (of them). Or I like neither (of them
Note :We use either chiefly in questions and after negatives. Neither is of
.negative value, so the verb following/preceding it is always positive
.b. Eitherand neither can be linking adverbs (e.g., I don’t agree with John
.( No I don’t,either, orNeither do I
Note: Either in this case is the opposite of the adverbs tooand also. It carries
.the main stress
c. Eitherand neithercan occur in the position of determiner. (e .g., There
are people oneither banks of the river. The match was even.Neither
.( team scored
Sequence four: Consolidation and extension pp. 24- 27
Write it out p. 24
.This section aims to consolidate and extend the range of writing skills
The approach to the writing skills in this section is functional in the sense that all the
writing tasks are‘realistic’. The learners are required to write a letter of application
and to fill in a résumé. Furthermore, we have taken care to provide adequate context
for these writing tasks. Before writing letters of application, learners first read
.advertisements, a model application, and a résumé

Task one
Direct the learners’ attention to the advertisement andinteract with them to help
theminterpret the text in order to have an overall idea about its context (e.g., What is
the text about ? What is it ? Where is it taken from ? Who can be interested in
(reading) it ?) Move smoothly to the question of the task . The key is as follows : In
case the applicant gets a job, h/she has/will have todeal with children,organise and
participate in daily activities such as swimming, singing, dancing, cooking, drama,
.telling stories, and sports
Task two
Task two is a follow-up to task one. The learners will read a letter of application to
pick out an information that a job applicant has included in her letter of application so
as to demonstrate her suitability for the job. The aim of this task is to make the
learners aware that we don’t write to ourselves but to particular readers. In this case, a
good letter of application should containfacts the prospective employer (Mr Michael
Armstrong) would like to know, what experience the applicant has, how useful s/he
.will be to the camp
The letter then can draw attention to the candidate’s suitability for the vacancy. Refer
the learners to the advertisement in task one so as to make them aware of what the
employer would like to know about potential candidates for the advertised vacancy.
Check the answer with your learners. Here is the key to the task: The important pieces
of information that the applicant has included in her letter to show that she is suitable
for the job are: a) I often volunteer to work in infant hospital wards; b) I often look
.after my brothers and sisters when my mother and father are at work
60Task three
This is a transfer task. The learners complete a résumé (Am. English) or curriculum
vitae (Br. English ) with information from the letter of application on page 24 of the
textbook. Encourage your learners to guess what type of correspondence the job
applicant will receive as a result of her application for the job. Here is a suggested key
:to the task
Task four
Task four is at once a completion and a matching task. The aim is to make the
learnersinterpret three short (gapped) texts, i.e., possible replies for the letter of
application on page 24 and toidentify the appropriate topic sentence which goes with
.each text
If you have involved your learners in the process of prediction at the end of task three,
then you can ask them to check their answers with texts one, two and three. Yet, make
sure your learners have understood the question before they start performing in task 4.
Encourage them to put the texts in the form of letters of reply by adding addresses,
.saluations, etc., to each of them. Here is the key to the task: 1à b; 2à c; 3à a
.Address: 46 Regent Street, Madison 15026, Wisconsin
Place of birth: Columbus
Education: Junior at Thomas Jefferson High School
Previous work experirence: Working in infant hospital wards
.Interests: Meeting people, photography, music
References: Letters of reference from two teachers, Mr John Clarke and
.Miss Emma Smithson

Task five
The learners will read the texts of task 4 again to identify what type of reply each of
them is. Encourage the learners to justify their answers. All the messages indicate
acceptance. So encourage your learners to imagine how the letters of reply will start if
they were refusals. Familiarise them with the following opening sentences. Refusals
usually start as follows: I regret to inform you that … ( e.g., I cannot accept the
.(…position of… / I cannot offer you the position of
Key to task 6
,The learners will re-invest what they have learned in tasks one, two, three
.four and five toproduce both a curriculum vitae and a letter of application
The learners will fill in the résumé/curriculum vitae form included in task three with
personal information. Then they will use the information in their own résumés for
writing letters of application. Refer the learners to the model letter of application on
page 24 of the textbook as to the layout and organisation of ideas. Once again don’t
just tell your learners to write a letter of application without brainstorming the topic
with them beforehand. Apply the writing strategies already recommended above to
.conducting your class
Work it outp. 26
The aim behind this task is to enable learners to solve problems related to
Go through the sentences with which the learners will complete the blanks in the
dialogues. Make sure they understand their meanings. Then move on to the task at
hand. The learners willread/interpret the dialogues and complete each of them as
appropriate. Check the answers in open class. Encourage them to justify their
.answers. The learners will act out the dialogues in pairs
Task two
The learners willproduce written dialogues taking as models those in task one before
acting them out in pairs. Make sure they use the tactics for solving problems of
62Work it out p. 27
Task one
The aim is to focus on the problem consonant ‘r’, i.e., to recognise when
.the sound ‘r’ is silent and when it is not, and to prounounce it as appropriate
Make sure the learners understand what is expected of them. Have them copy down
the dialogues on their rough copybooks.They will idendify the ‘rs’ in the words and
cross out those which they believe should not be pronounced. Illustrate what the
.learners should do by writing an example on the board
Task two
Simulate each of the dialogues for the learners to check their predictions. Then make
themobserve the corrected exercise on board and draw the rules for the pronunciation
of ‘r’. The rules for the pronunciation of silent ‘r’ apply only for British English. In
American English all ‘rs’ are pronounced. The learners will play out the dialogues to
.’practise the pronunciation of ‘r
It is pronounced /r/ only before a vowel or as a linking sound finally in a word
(when the next word begins with a vowel. (e.g., more elegant
Task three
The aim behind this task is to make learners recognise and pronounce the
.’modals of obligation ‘have / has / had to
:The learners copy the following table on their exercise books
Illustrate with examples of your own to show your learners what to do in the
.task. The learners will complete the table as appropriate
You see/write
You say/hear

Task eleven
The learners will classify the mistakes they have identified in task ten into categories:
spelling, abbreviations… Once this is done, they will check whether there are other
types of mistakes that less professional e-mailers generally make (e.g., All the e-mail
messages in task ten are relatively short. So the learners should be made aware that
(.lengthiness or rather wordiness is not recommended in correspondence by e-mail
Task twelve
.The learners will deduce the meaning of grammar words from context
In order to, so as not to express purpose and have to expresses necessity
.obligation /
Task thirteen
.The learners willinterpret a picture on the basis of previous information
.They will check their interpretations in task fourteen
Direct learners’ attention to the text on page 29 of the textbook. The text as
.well as its illustration can help them guess the meaning of the stop sign
Task fourteen
In this task, the learners will re-use the time prepositions : from … to , from
The learners will do the task. Then they will check their answer to task
Task fifteen
The learners will re-process information contained in the text of task 11 to
.draw a portrait of professional e-mailers using frequency adverbs
Questionnairep. 33
.Follow the procedure outlined at the end of the first part of this book

Illustrative page and previewpp. 34-35
Follow the procedure recommended in the presentation of this book. (What’s the title
of the book in the top left-hand corner? Who is its author? Have you seen the adapted
… ?film? What about the title of the book cover in the right-hand corner
.Then preview the contents of the unit
Listening and speakingpp. 36-39
Anticipatingp. 36
Skills: - guessing
responding to a tale (- Identifying characters in a picture story/a -
(place on a map
:Key to task 1
.The pictures illustrateThe Voyages of Sindbad the Sailor
.Key to task 2: The hero is Sindbad; he appears in pictures A, B, E and F
Key to task 3: c- The Middle East (Justification: The Trigris and Euphrates
(appear clear in picture B. You can also see the Chatt-El-Arab /Persian Gulf
Listen and checkp.37
Skill: expressing literary preferences
Function: narrating
:Language forms
Grammar: past simple, adjectives -
…Vocabulary: keen on…fond of -
:74Key to task 2
Skill: responding to an extract from a tale by putting the narrated events in a
.logical order
:Task 1
Listening script : part one
My name is Sindbad the Sailor. You have probably heard about me if you have read
Arabian Nights. I’ve made seven voyages. Today, I’ll tell you about my first voyage
.because it was the most fantastic
I was born to a wealthy family in the surroundings of Baghdad. When my father died,
he left me a lot of money. I liked the easy life, so I spent it all very quickly. As a
result, I was obliged to become a merchant sailor. I travelled from Baghdad to Basra,
and there the captain of a merchant ship accepted to take me to the Far East in order to
.buy and sell goods. I took with me many boxes full of carpets
I remember that the captain sailed his ship safely from Basra, down Shatt Al-Arab,
through the Persian Gulf in a hot summer day. After that, we sailed night and day
across the vast Indian Ocean, stopping at many places to buy and sell merchandise for
One day, we caught sight of a beautiful island which surprisingly did not show on the
captain’s map. But the captain decided to stop there to fetch fresh water because there
wasn’t any left in the ship. We got off the ship onto the island and started to explore it
for water sources. I was happy to be on firm ground again. So I walked to the highest
.point of the island in order to have a full view of it
Task 3: Check
Listening script: part two
:Key to task 4
Unfortunately, when I reached the summit, the island began to move. At first, I
thought it was an earthquake, but then I realised that the ‘island’ was not an island at
all. It was a whale! I started to run back to the ship, but before I reached it, the whale
threw me down in the water. When I came back to the surface, I realised that the ship
was sailing away from me. Soon I saw nothing around me, except water and a floating
box. I climbed on the box and let myself float on the sea for many days and nights
.until I landed on an island, a real island this time
A king’s horseman came to me, and I told him who I was and what happened to me.
He took me to the shelter of a cave and gave me food and water. A few days later, I
travelled with him to the capital city of the country. Once there, the horseman took me
to the king and told him my fantastic story. The king gave me permission to live in the
.city. I discovered that the city was full of merchantmen from other countries
One day, I was visiting the harbour when I suddenly saw a ship with boxes which had
my name written on them. At first, the captain of the ship didn’t believe that I was
Sindbad. He thought that I was drowned, but when I told him the story about the
whale and how I came to be there, he knew I was telling the truth. He gave the boxes
back to me and the profit he made by selling my goods. It was in this way that I
...became rich again
:76Key to task 5
:Skill : narrating a tale
I’m Sindbad the Sailor. You probably know about me if you’ve read
Arabian Nights. I’ve made seven voyages. Today, I’ll tell you about my
adventures during my first voyage. Well, … (The learners will re-use the ordered
sentences in task four to narrate the tale. Give them some time to rehearse before
Say it clearp.38
’Phonology: - pronunciation of final ‘-ed
stress in three-syllable words -
:Key to tasks 1/2
(.Key to task 3: (The learners will transcribe the adjectives as required
.dramatic) in phonemic symb)

Key to task 4: Suggested dialogues
.A: I sawStewart Little Two, last night
?B: What was it like
.A: It was very funny. You really missed something
.A: I read a novel yesterday
?B: What was it like
.A: It was very interesting. You should read it
The hidden message p. 38
.I like the book because it has good characters
Your turn p.39
Skill: - expressing literary preferences
. Language forms: - Adjectives ending in: -ful , able, -ing, and -ly
…Use of expressions: fond of / keen on -
:Suggested dialogues
?Student A: Tell me B, what’s your favourite book
.Student B:My favourite book is Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure Island
?Student A:Why do you like it so much
Student B:I like it because it tells a fascinating story and the setting is
.Student A:Personally, I don’t like it
?Student A: Tell me B, what’s your favourite book
.Student B: My favourite book is Mark Twain’s Tom Sawyer
?Student A: Why do you like it so much
Student B: I like it because it tells an enjoyable story and the characters are
.…Student A: I like it very much too
Say it in writingp. 39
Ask the learners to make use of the vocabulary suggested in the table and
.the model paragraph given in the same page to write their own reviews
78Sequence two: Reading and writingpp. 40-43
Anticipatep. 40
.Skill: interpreting and responding to the jacket blurb of a book cover
:Key to task 1
.a- The picture shows the back page of the book cover
.b- The author of the book is Chinua Achebe
.c- He is from Nigeria
d- The blurb gives an appreciation and a summary of the novel. It is included
(.for commercial reasons. (The learners can formulate the answer in other ways
:Key to task 2
(The novel will start with the portrayal of the hero. (b
Read and checkp. 41
Skills: reading and responding to an extract from a novel
Function: describing people’s physical appearance and personality features
Language forms: - prepositions: with, in
?What did s/he like? / What did s/he look like -
past simple tense -
:Key to task 1
.The novel will start with a portrait of the hero
:Key to task 2
a- Physical appearance
(?What did he look like)
Tall and huge, with
a dark complexion, a
wide nose and bushy
. eyebrows
A thin, handsome
man . He had a genle
b-Personality features
(?What was he like)
;He had a fierce look
He was a very hard
;He was courageous
.He was a hero
He was lazy -
and improvident
incapable of bringing)
food to his wife and
.He was a coward -
c- Likes and dislikes
(?What did he like/dislike)
He was a man who
.liked action
Playing on his flute
and talking about

:Key to task 3
The tense used in this text is the past simple tense because the action took
.place in the past, at a definite time and is over
Discover the languagep.42
Key to task 1: Suggested dialogue
?A: Tell me, James Who’s the man with a thin moustache and a wide nose
?B: It’s Fellag, the comedian and playwright. He’s Algerian, isn’t he
?A: Yes, he is. How do you know
.B: Because he speaks Arabic, Berber and french
.A: Oh yes! That’s right
Note: Ghandi in picture 2 wears a Hindu/an Indian shawl and not a white)
(.piece of cloth. Indian women wear saris
:Key to task 2
1àe 2àf 3àa 4àb 5àc
6à d
(Key to task 3: Who’s who? (pair-work
The learners ask and answer questions about physical appearance and personality
traits so as whom / who / her / his / partner had in mind. The types of questions and
.answers to be asked and answered are given in task two
Write it rightp. 43
The learners are given an outline and the procedure to be followed in order
.to reminisce about a deceased member of their families
The reminiscences can be as various as the learners themselves. Follow the
.procedure we have outlined in the second part of this teacher’s book
80Sequence three: Developing skillspp. 44-49
Skills: reading: - a street map
(an excerpt from a literary work (setting and plot -
writing a personalnarrative
Functions: - asking for and giving directions
describing a place -
comparing and contrasting -
narrating -
(…Language forms: - prepositions of place (in, on, beside, next to
…look like / similar to -
past simple / continuous -
:Key to task 1
Make sure you don’t read all the dialogues at the same time.The learners will
.retrace with a pencil the intinerary to each of the locations not indicated on the map
Listening scripts
6Railway station
Dialogue 1
Passer-by: Excuse me. Can you show me the way to the railway station
Policeman: Yes, let me see. Go straight ahead and turn left into Spring Avenue at the
roundabout. Go along Spring Avenue and turn right at the stadium. It’s opposite the
?Passer-by: How far is it from here
.Policeman: It’s about a mile. You can go on foot
Dialogue 2
Passer-by 1: Excuse me, Madam. Could you show me the way to
?the bank, please
.Passer-by 2: Go along this road and turn right into Wilson Road
Then go straight again and take the second turning on the
.left. It’s between a cinema and a bookshop
?Passer-by 1: How long will it take me to get there on foot
.Passer-by 2: It’s about twenty minutes’ walk from here
Dialogue 3
?Passer-by: Excuse me, how do I get to the Hilton Hotel please
Policeman: Go straight ahead and turn right at the roundabout. Walk
along Spring Avenue. It’s on the left-hand corner of
.Spring Avenue and Long Road
Passer-by: So it’s straight ahead. Right at the roundabout. Left-hand
corner of Spring Avenue and Long Road. Thank you
Dialogue 4
Passer-by: Excuse me, sir. Can you show me the way to the
Policeman: Let me see. Turn right and go along Wilson Road. Then take the second
.turning on the left. Walk straight ahead, it’s at the bottom of Duke Street
?Passer-by: How far is it from here
Policeman: I’m afraid that it’s quite a long way to walk from

82Key to task 2: Suggested dialogue

?A: Excuse me. Is there a hospital near here
.B: Yes. There’s one on the corner of Spring Avenue and Duke Street
?A: Can you show me how to get there
B: Let me see. Go staight ahead and turn right at the roundabout. Walk
along Spring Avenue until the second roundabout. The hospital is at the corner
.of Spring Avenue and Duke Street
Key to task 3: Suggested answer
Meet me at the School. It’sin Pembroke Street. Turn right as you walk out of the bus
station. Then cross Madison Street. Keep to the right. It’s opposit the railway station
.((n° 6
Developing skillspp. 46-47
:Key to tasks 1/2
.A- The author of the book is Charles Dickens
.B- The title of the novel is Hard Times. I expect the book to be depressing
C- The picture illustrates an industrial town. (b) The learners can show the
.smoke coming out of the factory chimneys and the polluted canal
:Key to task 3
.a- The author compares Coketown to the painted face of a savage
b- The canal was black because it was polluted by water from the
.c- Most people in Coketow work in the textile factories near their homes
d- Coketown was a noisy owing to because of the piston engines of the
e- No, Coketown was not a good place to live in because there was nothing
in it except for some rare facilities such as a bank, an infirmary, a school, a
.townhall, an old church and a prison
:Key to task 4
.a- The smoke from the factories resembled serpents trailing themselves
.b- The piston engines worked like procedures a melancholy elephant
.c- The people who lived in Coketown looked like one another
:Key to task 5
,a- Dirtiness: The author uses words related to colour and smell (black town
.(smoke, black canal, a river with purple water because of ill- smelling dye
(Visual and olfactory images)
b- Streets were like one another; people were like one another. (repetition
(of the same structure
c-There were no recreational facilities. You saw nothing in Coketown; all
public inscriptions were written in black and white; all buildings looked like
.one another
:Key to task 6
The learners can start setting the first scene of their narratives as
Elephant Hill was a small traditional village in Dream Land. It was situated
… . in the mountains, far from busy towns
Developing skillspp. 48-49
:Key to tasks 1/2
to be
to find
to have
to see
to get
to feel to think
to understand
to take
to go
:84Key to task 3
:Key to task 4
:Key to task 5
Conclusion: All the verbs are either in the past continuous (for lasting actions) or in
the past simple (for actions that do not last, e.g. a white rabbit passed near her or for
.(actions describing a state of things, e.g. it was spring
:Key to task 6
The narrator is a third person. Alice and her sister are the characters of the story
;and the narrator refers to each of them in the third person singular: Alice = she
…her sister was
Who are the
What were
the characters
Where and when
did the action
?take place
What was
the weather
Alice -
her sister -
her cat Dinah -
a white rabbit -
Alice was sitting-
. in the garden
Her sister was-
. reading
Her cat was-
. mewing
The action took-
place in the
.,garden in Spring
The weather-
.was very hot
Verbs in the first two
(paragraphs of the text(p.48
Past simple
Past continuous
did not find
was sitting
was reading
was mewing
was considering
:Key to task 7
:The first two paragraphs narrated from Alice’s point of view
It was spring and I was sitting in the garden. I had nothing to do. My sister was
reading while her cat Dinah was mewing. But I did not find the book interesting.
‘How stupid!’ I thought, ‘a book with no pictures in it’. The weather was very hot,
and I felt I was going to sleep. I was just considering what to do when a white rabbit
.passed near me
:Key to task 8
.Her sister was readingwhile her cat was mewing -1
.She was considering what to dowhen a rabbit suddenly passed -2
.She was looking at the objectswhen she saw a little bottle -3
Key to task 9: Suggested story
It happened on January 10, 2003. It was early afternoon. The weather was very cold
and rainy. I was watching a handball game on TV in the living room while my sister
and my brother were playing games on the computer. I was having a cup of tea when
suddenly the Algerian team scored the first goal. I jumped with joy, dropped the cup
…and spilt the tea on the carpet
Stop and considerpp. 50-53
Language forms: - past simple / continuous + while / when / as
relative pronouns : who / whom / which -
beside / besides -
Key to task 1: Suggested exchanges
?A: What were Rashid and Karim doing at 7:45 a.m. yesterday
.B: They were having breakfast
?A: What were Ahmed and Slimane doing at 3:00 a.m. yesterday
.B: They were playing chess
?A: What were Amel and Lydia doing at 11:30 a.m. yesterday
.B: They were revising their lessons

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