Outline 3 Supersonic Wedge

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Outline 3 Supersonic Wedge

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 10

Outline Tutorial #2

Deryl O. Snyder

C. Greg Jensen

Brigham Young University

Provo, UT 84602

and to the following students who assisted in the creation of the Fluid Dynamics tutorials:

Leslie Tanner, Cole Yarrington, Curtis Rands, Curtis Memory, and Stephen McQuay.

Supersonic 2-D Wedge

2D Flow

In this tutorial, Fluent will be used to solve and analyze the flow problem. The geome-

try and mesh will be created in Gambit. Fluent will be used to analyze the flow to

compare with analytical solutions.

The methods expressed in these tutorials represent just one approach to modeling, defining and

solving 2D problems. Our goal is the education of students in the use of CAx tools for model-

ing, constraining and solving fluids application problems. Other techniques and methods will be

used and introduced in subsequent tutorials.

degrees travels through air at a Mach number of 2.0.

Calculate the shock wave angle and the corresponding

Mach number, pressure, and density change at the leading

edge. At the trailing edge calculate the initial angle of the

Prandtl-Meyer expansion as well as the Mach number, pres-

sure, and temperature change.

3

Supersonic 2-D Wedge

Creating Geometry

Begin by creating a face bounded by the

following points:

X Y

-3 0

-0.8 0

-0.5 0.109

0.5 0.109

0.8 0

8 0

8 7

-3 7

geometry, the full geometry can be loaded from

the file “2DWedge_Geometry.dbs”.

4

Supersonic 2-D Wedge

Meshing Geometry

The edge meshes on the three lines making

up the object have the following properties:

Sucessive Ratio = 1.0, and Interval Spacing

= 0.04.

the leading and trailing edges have the fol-

lowing values:

Left edge

First Length = 0.04

Interval Count = 12.

Right edge

First Length = 0.04

Interval Count = 35.

an Interval Size = 0.5.

right.

inviscid viscous model so no special treat-

ment is necessary for the edges extending

from the leading and trailing edges.

Therefore, all the edges forming the bottom

wall can be grouped together as one WALL

in the Boundary Types window.

domain are grouped as PRESSURE FAR

FIELD.

mesh, the complete Gambit and Fluent mesh

files are “2DWedge_Meshed.dbs” and

“2DWedge_Meshed.msh” respectively.

5

Supersonic 2-D Wedge

Defining the Problem

After reading in and checking the mesh,

specify the Solver settings.

other default values alone.

ed and change the operating pressure to

the following location: (-2,2).

need to be modified.

to ideal-gas and save the change.

problem.

the outer boundary as follows: Mach

Number = 2 and ensure the X-Component

of Flow Direction is 1.0.

Number and select Second Order Upwind

for the flow discretization.

6

Supersonic 2-D Wedge

Defining the Problem

Initialize the flow domain using the pres-

sure-far-field conditions. Verify that the X-

Velocity is roughly 694 m/s. Click Init.

automatic convergence checks.

the mesh around areas of large property

gradients in order to better visualize com-

pressibility effects.

sure that Hanging is selected under Type.

Return to the adaption window.

Gradient under Method. Select Gradients

Of Velocity.... Just below that select Mach

Number. Set Refine Threshold to 0.05 and

click on Mark. In the main Fluent window

an indication of the number of cells to be

modified should appear. It should be

around 639. Click Adapt and then Yes to

the query window that will appear. When

Fluent finishes, exit and re-display the grid.

7

Supersonic 2-D Wedge

Solving the Problem

Zoom in on the geometry. The modified

mesh should show a refined grid around

the shock wave and expansion fan.

adaption. Mach number was chosen in this

case to focus on the region near the shock

wave.

aiding Fluent in converging on a correct

solution and facilitating shock angle meas-

urement.

another 300 iterations.

ues as before, re-initialize the flow and per-

form 600 more iterations.

solving this problem in Fluent, the complete

case and data can be loaded from the file

“2DWedge_Solved.cas”.

8

Supersonic 2-D Wedge

Analyzing the Solution

Enable the mouse probe option.

allows the user to get specific X,Y locations

and corresponding flow conditions from

contour plots with MB3.

Pressure with 30 Levels of detail.

function will be used to find the angle of

the shock wave.

to the middle of the shock and a small dis-

tance from the leading edge and click with

MB3. The section of contour closest to the

mouse will highlight and the probe func-

tion will report X, Y, and Z (Z will be 0 for

this 2D case) coordinates and a value of the

absolute pressure at that control surface in

the main Fluent window. Repeat the pro-

cedure on the same contour at a point fur-

ther up the shock wave. Stay on the

straight-line portion of the wave.

in this tutorial because of variations in grid

adaption and mouse inputs.

⎛ dy ⎞ ⎛ − 0.771 + 0.636 ⎞

Taking the inverse tangent of the ratio of tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 53.2

o

should reveal an angle of roughly 53

degrees. This is exactly the value obtained

from a standard oblique shock properties

chart.

9

Supersonic 2-D Wedge

Analytical Solution

Finding the normal component of the flow

M n1 = M 1 sin( β ) Eq. 1

with respect to the shock wave (Eq. 1) and

using the normal shock equation (Eq. 2),

the post-shock wave Mach number, pres-

sure, and density can be found. The fol- Eq. 2

lowing values were obtained from the

equations on the right and by probing con- M n2

tour plots in Fluent (γ = 1.4, β = 53, θ = 20): M2 = Eq. 3

sin( β − θ )

Analytical: 1.23 p2 2γ

= 1+ ( M n21 − 1) Eq. 4

Fluent: 1.21 p1 γ +1

Pressure (Eq. 4)

Analytical: 281965 Pa ρ2 (γ + 1) M n21

= Eq. 5

Fluent: 285355 Pa ρ1 (γ − 1) M n21 + 2

Density (Eq. 5)

Analytical: 2.46 Kg/m^3

Fluent: 2.41 Kg/m^3

with the mouse pointer in the image to the

right, can be found in the same manner as

the shock wave. With this angle (shown

below) and the pre-expansion Mach num-

ber, the Prandtl-Meyer function can be

used to find the following flow conditions:

(M ) = tan −1 ( M 2 − 1) − tan −1 M 2 − 1 Eq. 6

Analytical: 31.3 γ −1 γ +1

Fluent: 29.8

θ 2 = ν 2 −ν 1 Eq. 7

Mach Number (Eq’s. 6,7)

Analytical: 2.73 γ /( γ −1)

Fluent: 2.66 p1 ⎡1 + (γ − 1) M 22 / 2 ⎤

=⎢ ⎥

p2 ⎣1 + (γ − 1) M 12 / 2 ⎦ Eq. 8

Pressure (Eq. 8)

Analytical: 29069 Pa T1 1 + (γ − 1) M 22 / 2

Fluent: 32903 Pa = Eq. 9

T2 1 + (γ − 1) M 12 / 2

γ = ratio of specific heats

Temperature (Eq. 9) β = shock wave angle

Analytical: 217 K θ = obstruction angle

Fluent: 223 K ν = mach line angle

10

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