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Computer-aided technologies (CAx) is the use of computer technology

to aid in the design, analysis, and manufacture of products.

Advanced CAx tools merge many different aspects of the product
lifecycle management (PLM), including design, finite element analysis
(FEA), manufacturing, production planning, product lifecycle.

1. Computer-aided design (CAD)

2. Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD)
3. Computer-aided engineering (CAE)
4. Computer-aided fixture design (CAFD)
5. Computer-aided industrial design (CAID)
6. Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
7. Computer-aided process planning (CAPP)
8. Computer-aided requirements capture (CAR)
9. Computer-aided rule definition (CARD)
10. Computer-aided rule execution (CARE)
11. Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
12. Computer-assisted surgery (CAS)
13. Computer-aided surgical simulation (CASS)
14. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
15. Component information system (CIS)
16. Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
17. Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC)
18. Electronic design automation (EDA)
19. Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
20. Finite element analysis (FEA)
21. Knowledge-based engineering (KBE)
22. Manufacturing process management (MPM)
23. Manufacturing process planning (MPP)
24. Material requirements planning (MRP)
25. Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II)
26. Product data management (PDM)
27. Product lifecycle management (PLM)
28. Virtual prototyping


DEFINATION: Computer-aided design (CAD) is a computer
technology that designs a product and documents of the design's process.
CAD may facilitate the manufacturing process by transferring detailed
diagrams of a product’s materials, processes, tolerances and dimensions
with specific conventions for the product in question. It can be used to
produce either two-dimensional or three-dimensional diagrams, which
can then when rotated to be viewed from any angle, even from the inside
looking out. A special printer or plotter is usually required for printing
professional design renderings.
Basically CAD is point defining tool.
Use of CAD

1. To produce detailed engineering designs through 3-D and 2-D

drawings of the physical components of manufactured products.
2. To create conceptual design, product layout, strength and dynamic
analysis of assembly and the manufacturing processes themselves.
3. To prepare environmental impact reports, in which computer-aided
designs are used in photographs to produce a rendering of the
appearance when the new structures are built.

Objectives of the technique: Originally the technique was aiming

at automating a number of tasks a designer is performing and in
particular the modelling of the product. Today CAD systems are
covering most of the activities in the design cycle, they are
recording all product data, and they are used as a platform for
collaboration between remotely placed design teams.


Distribution of actual operating costs incurred by various

Components of CAD:

1. Display: it’s the main screen or board on that we draw our concept
and also visualizations takes place
2. Geometric modeling: it’s basically the model or concept what a one
is going to virtualize on screen basic dimensions need, curves, radius,
polygon, trim, extension etc. already describe roughly in this
3. Design tool: it’s the tools that helps while making a geometric model

Cad system need all these three components to finalize the

design of a component

Capability of CAD

1. You can create fine drawings with presentation symbols and text
2. CAD provides the flexibility to make quick alterations to drawings
3. CAD program allows you to work with great accuracy. You can also
work with different units of measure, such as architectural units,
engineering units, scientific units and surveyor units.
4. Easy Storage and access of drawings
5. Sharing CAD drawings within project team.
6. There is a separate category of programs called CAE that can use
CAD drawings for engineering analysis
7. Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) systems import CAD
drawings into CAM programs to automate the manufacturing process

Application: The mechanical sector is the largest user of CAD

systems. Applications are usually coupled with manufacturing,
forming a CAD/CAM system. The applications cover all types of
manufacturing operations, such as milling, turning, wire EDM,
punching, etc. The user can test the part program on screen prior to
the transfer to the machine tool and accomplish collision detection,
undercuts, etc. Most of the systems have a post processor
integrated to communicate with the machine tools. e.g., as.

1. Turning
2. EDM
3. Milling a part and his fixture
4. Multi axis and multi spindle
5. Library of machine tools
6. Graphical simulation including the machine tool


Defination: Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is the broad usage of
computer software to aid in engineering analysis tasks.

CAE is a technology concerned with the use of computer systems to

analyze CAD geometry, allowing designers to simulate and study how
the product will behave so that the design can be validated, refined and,
Components( Different softwares) of CAE:

1. Kinematics Analysis: to determine motion paths and linkage

velocities in mechanism. e.g software’s like Pro/E, Working Model
2. Finite Element Analysis (FEA): Finite element analysis (FEA) is
a computerized method for predicting how a product reacts to real-
world forces, vibration, heat, fluid flow and other physical effects.
Finite element analysis shows whether a product will break, wear
out or work the way it was designed. It is used to predict what's
going to happen when the product is used. Some analysis based
upon like Solid/ Mechanics analysis (stress/strain), Heat, Transfer,
Flow, and other continuous fields. e.g software’s like Pro/

3. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the use of applied

mathematics, physics and computational software to visualize how
a gas or liquid flows -- as well as how the gas or liquid affects
objects as it flows past. Computational fluid dynamics is based on
the Navier-Stokes equations. These equations describe how the
velocity, pressure, temperature, and density of a moving fluid are
related. (CFD): Fluid Simulation.
E.g. software’s like Fluent, Phoenix, CFX

4. Multi body dynamics (MBD): A multibody dynamic (MBD)

system is one that consists of solid bodies, or links, that are
connected to each other by joints that restrict their relative motion.
The study of MBD is the analysis of how mechanism systems
move under the influence of forces, also known as forward
CAE area of scope:

1. Aerospace & Defense: Aircraft engines, space vehicles, landing

gears etc.
2. Automotive: Suspension systems, Drivetrains, brake systems,
steering systems, engines, etc.
3. Manufacturing: robotic manipulators, conveyor belts, pumps,
machine tools, etc.
4. Heavy Equipment: excavators, agricultural equipment, hydraulic
control systems, etc.
5. Medical: Orthopaedics (the branch of medical dealing with the
correction of deformities of bones or muscles.), human
6. Consumer Products: Sporting goods, bicycles, tools, printers.
7. Energy: Wind turbines, solar panels, offshore structures, drilling
rigs, centralizer mechanisms.


Fixture: All fixtures are designed to hold a work-piece in position
firmly and accurately during a manufacturing process, Different
workshops may use different types of fixtures. Generally speaking,
dedicated fixtures are specially designed for highly efficient operations,
and are used in mass production lines.
CAFD: Involvement of computer capabilities to design, check, analyze,
a fixture for specific conditions are called technique of computer aided
fixture design, we not only can design but also check its stability,
movements, vibration, clamping stability, dynamic stability, loading and
unloading analysis, work-piece deformation under clamping force and
machining force.
Functions of CAFD:
1. Fixturing constraint analysis: When the fixturing contact points
are determined or extracted from a design, the locating characteristics
can be checked by simply calculations based on matrix. Therefore the
full constraint, and under or over-locating can be identified.
Furthermore, if the fixture is under or over-locating, the problematic
direction can be also identified.
2. Fixturing accuracy analysis: When the locating point variation
(tolerance) is given for each locator in a fixture design, the tolerance
have effect on the machined features can be evaluated in terms of
tolerance definitions.
3. Clamping stability analysis: This is to determine whether improper
clamping design may destroy the locating contacts when the clamping
force is applied. The calculation may not be as easy and straightforward
as usually expected when friction force is considered, and the friction
force cannot be ignored in most cases of fixturing.
4. Dynamic stability analysis: Some static models have been developed
to check fixturing stability during machining. When tool-path and
cutting-force information are given as a function of time, the locating
reaction forces are evaluated for solutions (iff problem occurs).
5. Loading and unloading accessibility analysis. How easily can the
work-piece be loaded into and unloaded from the fixture? A CAD-based
simulation method was used to evaluate the time required to load the
work-piece into the fixture if the fixture design is varied.
6. Work-piece deformation under clamping and machining force:
The fixture design provided boundary conditions that were used to
estimate the deformation of the work-piece subjected to the machining
force. The results can be used for locating/clamping position
Computer-Aided Manufacturing
Defination: The production method that requires a computer to control
the machines is called a computer aided manufacturing, simply called
CAM. CAM is closely related to the computer-aided design (CAD)
because the output information about the products from the CAD can
assist the composing of production program. Tests and productions can
start immediately. This simplifies the procedures from the designing to
manufacturing of the product (Fig. 3 a&b).

Most machines need control systems to operate. There are many kinds of
control systems, for example, manual control, automatic control,
computer control or remote control. For the convenience of mass
production, machines need to repeat precise, speedy and automatic
actions continuously. These machines may use mechanical, pneumatic
and electrical systems to control. However, some fixed procedures,
changing procedures or tools may need a lot of time to restore the whole
Fig.1 Industrial mass production facility
Fig. 2 CNC machine

As technology advances, electronic and computer technologies have

been applied to a lot of production machines to reduce the production
time and increase both the quality and efficiency. So, modern factories
usually use numerical control machines, simply called NC machines.
And an NC machine that comes along with a computer is called a
computer control numerical machine, simply CNC machine (Fig. 2). A
CNC machine uses digital information to control the movements of tools
and parts, for example, the spinning speed, the cutting speed, the moving
direction of tools etc. So, we can change quickly the production
procedures simply by modifying the information or program in the
The merits of computer numerical controlled (CNC) machine
Advantages of a CNC/CIM machine:
(i) The computer can design the best tool path, spinning and cutting
speeds of tools according to the information of the product. This
can help decrease the cost and time.
(ii) CNC machines usually have automatic changing tools function.
(iii) CNC machines can control precisely the tools movement in any
axis, so it can cut some complicated work-piece efficiently.
(iv) With the use of various input devices and the memories of
computer, a CNC machine can download and modify program
efficiently, so the production procedures can be made quickly.
(v) In operating the CNC machine, manual adjustment is not
needed. Therefore, the CNC machine can run at a high speed,
and it requires less skillful workers to reduce the labor cost.
(vi) CNC machine uses various designs to produce feedback, and so
it can keep its high reliability and quality, this can help decrease
the number of disqualified product and the cost of inspection
The restrictions of CNC machine
There are some restrictions of CNC machine:
(i) The cost of the machine is so high that some small factories
may not be able to afford.
(ii) Operators need to be trained to compose computer control
(iii) The control system is complicated and sophisticated, therefore
the maintenance cost is high
Types of CNC machines
(i) CNC drilling machine
(ii) CNC lathe
(iii) CNC milling machine
(iv) CNC turret press
(v) CNC press brake
(vi) CNC machining center
(vii) CNC spot welder
(viii) CNC electro-discharge machine
(ix) CNC electron beam machine
(x) CNC laser cutting machine
(xi) CNC coordinate measuring machine

The operation of CNC machines



Computer-aided process planning (CAPP) is the use

of computer technology to aid in the process planning of a part or
product, in manufacturing .CAPP is the link between CAD and CAM in
that it provides for the planning of the process to be used in producing a
designed part.

Basic Process in developing a process plan
1. Analysis of part requirement
2. Selection of raw material
3. Determining manufacturing operations and sequences
4. Selection of machine tool
5. Selection of work/tool holding devices and inspection equipment’s
6. Determining optimum machine parameters like cutting speed, feed,
depth of cut, setup times, process time, lead times

Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)

Definition: is the domain of software tools used to design and
implement applications. CASE tools are similar to and were partly
inspired by computer-aided design (CAD) tools used for designing
hardware products
CASE is the use of software tools to assist in the development and
maintenance of software

Tools or components:
These tools are common while initial developments of software.
And still under use but at background level.
1. Compiler: A compiler is computer software that transforms
computer code written in one programming language (the source
language) into another computer language (the target language)
2. Translators: Compilers are a type of translator that support digital
devices, primarily computers.
3. Assemblers: An assembler is a program that takes basic
computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that
the computer's processor can use to perform its basic operations.
Some people call these instructions assembler language and others
use the term assembly language
4. Macro: A macro (short for "macroinstruction" it have predefined
software codes that can be used at any time and any sequential
way. Its like subroutine and ususally predefined for a definite
instruction like cursor, file, copy, paste etc.
5. Processors: they process the bits which are equivalent to the source
code instructions
6. Linkers: a linker or link editor is a computer program that takes
one or more object files generated by a compiler and combines
them into a single
7. Loaders: a loader is a component that locates a given program in to
main memory for execution.

8. Now new set or applications software are available which works as

same manner and all these components in the back ground.

Computer aided surgery (CAS)

Definition: a kind of technology to use of computer and robotic system

as an assistant for surgery purpose, software technology used to control
the movement of surgical instruments on the observable body part as per
the need. It’s easy to guide via software and navigation is easy.
Important tool:
1. Registration
2. Tracking
Registration is set of image tool which capture the 3d images
Tracking is tool which follows the path extracted from registered
image instrument mechanism guided via tracking tool.

Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)

Definition: approach of using computers to control the

entire production process. This integration allows individual
processes to exchange information with each other and action
can be taken appropriately.

Schematic diagram of the CIM:

1. Improved customer service
2. Improved quality
3. Shorter time to market with new products
4. Shorter process flow time
5. Shorter vendor lead time
6. Greater flexibility and responsiveness
7. Improved competitiveness
8. Lower total cost (overall cost of production)
9. Shorter customer lead time
10. Increase in manufacturing productivity
Electronic Design Automation (Computer aided
electronic design)
Definition: The use of software to automate electronic (digital and
analog) design, simulation, manufacturing electronics products.
Tools and softwares:
1. Orcad: electrical and electronic circuit designer,
pcb designer, simulation
2. Multi-sim: electronic circuit designer
3. LabVIEW: electronic circuit designer
4. Automation studio: pneumatic and hydraulic
component based circuit and simulation
5. Flow code: flow chart based micro-process and
micro-controller programming
6. Step7 PLC programming
7. Win-CC HMI programming
8. GX developer PLC Mitsubishi
9. GT designer HMI Mitsubishi
10. GX works PLC Mitsubishi