GATE Objective & Numerical Type Solutions

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GATE Objective & Numerical Type Solutions

© All Rights Reserved

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SYSTEMS

Chapter 9 : Controllers & Compensators

Question 7 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 1994 IIT-Kharagpur : 1 Mark]

A cascade controller is used when the process

(A) Gain is too small (B) Gain is too large

(C) Has widely different time constants (D) Oscillation at the output is not permitted

Ans. (A)

Sol. A cascade controller is used when the process gain is too small.

Hence, the correct option is (A).

Question 12 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 1998 IIT-Delhi : 1 Mark]

The input error voltage to a PD-controller, e is shown in figure the output voltage of the controller e0 is

e(t)

t

1 2

(A) e0(t) (B) e0(t)

t t

0 1 2 0 1 2

t t

0 1 2 0 1 2

Ans. (B)

Sol. The input error voltage to a PD controller is given by,

e(t)

t

1 2

e(t ) Kr (t 1) Kr (t 2)

e(t ) K r (t 1) r (t 2)

1

Output of a PD controller is given by,

de(t )

e0 (t ) K P e(t ) K D

dt

d K r (t 1) r (t 2)

e0 (t ) K P K r (t 1) r (t 2) K D

dt

e0 (t ) K P K r (t 1) r (t 2) K D K u (t 1) u (t 2)

Fig. (a) Fig. (b)

e0 (t )

KP K KD K

t t t

0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2

Fig. (a) Fig. (b) Fig. (c)

The above figure (c) of e0 (t ) is similar to the figure of option (B) with some constant ‘c’.

Hence, the correct option is (B).

Question 17 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 2001 IIT-Kanpur : 1 Mark]

A second order feedback system is found to be oscillating with a high frequency. The oscillations

(A) Can be reduced by increasing the proportional.

(B) Can be reduced by increasing the integral action.

(C) Can be reduced by increasing the derivative action.

(D) Cannot be reduced.

Ans. (C)

Sol. A second order feedback system is found to be oscillating with a high frequency. The oscillations can be

reduced by increasing the derivative action.

Hence, the correct option is (C).

Question 19 [Practice Book] [GATE EC 2003 IIT-Madras : 1 Mark]

A PD controller is used to compensate a system. Compared to the uncompensated system, the

compensated system has

(A) a higher type number. (B) reduced damping.

(C) higher noise amplification. (D) larger transient overshoot.

Ans. (C)

Sol. A PD controller does not increase the system type number. It increases damping factor which results in

smaller overshoot.

PD controller acts like a differentiator which amplifies noise.

Hence, the correct option is (C).

Question 22 [Practice Book] [GATE EC 2005 IIT- Bombay : 2 Marks]

A double integrator plant.

K

G ( s) 2 , H ( s) 1

s

is to be compensated to achieve the damping ratio 0.5, and an undamped natural frequency,

n 5 rad/s. Which one of the following compensator GC ( s ) will be

s3 s 9.9 s6 s6

(A) (B) (C) (D)

s 9.9 s3 s 8.33 s

2

Ans. (A)

K

Sol. Given G ( s) , H ( s) 1

s2

R( s) +- G (s) C (s)

H (s)

Transfer function of system is given by,

C (s) G (s)

R(s) 1 G (s) H (s)

C (s) K / s2

R(s) 1 K / s 2

C (s) K

2

R(s) s K

Characteristic equation of uncompensated system,

s2 K 0

Standard characteristic equation of second order system,

s 2 2 n s n2 0

Comparing above two equation,

2n K

n K

and 2n 0

0

Since 0 , so undamped system.

For compensated system 0.5 which is underdamped system. The compensator should be selected such

that it changes the system from undamped to underdamped by increasing damping ratio from 0 to 0.5.

The damping ratio of a system can be increased by using a lead compensator. The transfer function of a

load compensator is given by,

s ZC

GC ( s ) ; Z C PC

s PC

Among the given option the transfer function representing lead compensator with Z C PC is,

s3

GC ( s )

s 9.9

Hence, the correct option is (A).

. Common data for Question 24, 25, 26 .

The following figure describes the block diagram of a closed loop process control system. The unit of

time is given in minute.

disturbance

D( s)

Controller

E (s) æ 1 ö M (s) 2e - s

R(s) 0.5 ç1 + ÷ C (s)

è 2s ø 1 + 2s

3

Question 24 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 2006 IIT-Kharagpur : 2 Marks]

The digital implementation of the controller with a sampling time of 0.1 minute using velocity algorithm

is

k

k 1

(A) m(k ) 0.5 e(k ) 0.5 e(k ) (B) m(k ) 2.0 e(k ) 2.0 e(k 1)

i 1 i 1

(C) m(k ) m(k 1) 0.5[e(k ) 0.85e(k 1)] (D) m(k ) m(k 1) 0.5[1.05 e(k ) e(k 1)]

Ans. (A)

Sol. Transfer function of controller can be written as,

M (s) 1

0.5 1

E (s) 2s

1

M ( s ) 0.5 1 E ( s )

2s

Taking inverse Laplace transform, we get

disturbance

D( s)

Controller

E (s) æ 1 ö M (s) 2e - s

R(s) 0.5 ç1 + ÷ C (s)

è 2s ø 1 + 2s

1

t

m(t ) 0.5 e(t ) e(t )dt

2s 0

In discrete time domain above function can be implemented as t kTs ; where Ts is sampling period

m(t ) m(kTs )

e(t ) e(kTs )

t k

0 k 0

k

m(k ) 0.5 e(k ) 0.5 e(k )

i 1

Hence, the correct option is (D).

Question 25 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 2006 IIT-Kharagpur : 2 Marks]

Suppose a disturbance signal d (t ) sin 0.2 t unit is applied. Then at steady state, the amplitude of the

output c(t) due to the effect of disturbance alone is :

(A) 0.129 unit (B) 0.40 unit (C) 0.528 unit (D) 2.102 unit

Ans. (B)

Sol. Reducing input signal R(s) to zero the block diagram of system becomes, as shown below.

disturbance

D( s)

Controller

E (s) æ 1 ö M (s) 2e - s

R(s) = 0 0.5 ç1 + ÷ C (s)

è 2s ø 1 + 2s

4

Transfer function of system with respect to disturbance signal d(s).

disturbance

D( s)

Controller

E (s) æ 1 ö M (s) 2e - s

-1 0.5 ç1 + ÷ C (s)

è 2s ø 1 + 2s

C (s) 1

D( s ) 1 2e s

1 0.5 1

2s 1 2s

C (s) 1

D( s) e s

1

2s

1

Put s j , C ( j) D( j)

e j

1

j 2

Given, d (t ) sin 0.2 t

0.2

1

C ( j) D( j)

e j 02

1

j 0.4

1

C ( j ) D ( j )

1 j 2.5e j 02

e j 0.2 cos 0.2 j sin 0.2 0.98 j 0.198

1

C ( j ) D ( j )

1 j 2.5(0.98 j 0.198)

1

C ( j) D ( j )

0.5 j 2.45

Amplitude of output,

1

C ( j) D( j)

0.5 j 2.45

1

C ( j) 1

(0.5 ) (2.45)2

2

C ( j) 0.4

Hence, the correct option is (B).

Question 26 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 2006 IIT-Kharagpur : 2 Marks]

The control action recommended for reducing the effect of disturbance at the output (provided that the

disturbance signal is measurable) is

(A) Cascade control (B) PD control

(C) Ratio control (D) Feedback feedforward control

5

Ans. (A)

Sol. There are two popular control strategies for improved disturbance rejection performance are cascade

control and feed forward feedback trim. The cascade architecture offers additional such as the ability to

address multiple disturbances to our process and to improver set point response performance. Cascade

control has two loops called inner and outer loops. Cascade loops are invariably installed to prevent

outside disturbances from entering the process, and to put the principle nonlinearities in a much faster

responding inner loop controller. In contrast, the feed forward with feedback trim architecture is designed

to address a single measured disturbance and does not impact set response performance in any fashion

therefore, the control action, recommended for reducing the effect of disturbance at the output (provided

that the disturbance signal is measurable) is cascade control.

Question 6 [Work Book] [GATE EC 2007 IIT-Kanpur : 2 Marks]

1

The open-loop transfer function of a plant is given as G ( s ) 2 . If the plant is operated in a unity

( s 1)

feedback configuration, then the lead compensator that can stabilize this control system is

(A) (B) (C) (D)

( s 2) ( s 2) ( s 10) ( s 10)

Ans. (C)

1

Sol. Given : G( s)

, H (s) 1

s 1 2

R( s) GC ( s ) G (s) C (s)

H (s)

Characteristic equation of compensated system,

1 GC ( s )G ( s ) H ( s ) 0

1

1 GC ( s) 0 …..(i)

s 1 2

A lead compensator has zero nearer to origin than the pole therefore transfer function of option (a) and (b)

cannot be lead compensators.

10(s 2)

For option (C), GC (s)

s 10

Putting above GC ( s) in equation (i), we have,

10( s 2)

1 0

( s 10)( s 2 1)

s3 s 10s 2 10 10s 20 0

s3 10s 2 9s 10 0

s 9.13, 0.432 j 0.952

Since all poles compensated system line in left half of s-plane so given compensator with transfer function

10( s 2)

GC ( s) can stabilize the system.

s 10

6

For option (D),

2( s 2)

GC ( s )

s 10

Putting above GC ( s) in equation (i), we have,

2( s 2)

1 0

( s 10)( s 2 1)

s 3 s 10s 2 10 2s 4 0

s 3 10s 2 s 6 0

s 0.7, 9.83, 0.867

2( s 2)

Since compensated system has one pole in right half so lead compensator with GC ( s ) cannot

s 10

be used to stabilize the system.

Hence, the correct option is (C).

Question 7 [Work Book] [GATE EE 2007 IIT-Kanpur : 2 Marks]

900

The system is to be compensated such that its gain-crossover frequency becomes same as

s ( s 1) ( s 9)

0

its uncompensated Phase-crossover frequency and provides a 45 phase margin. To achieve this, one may

use

0

(A) A lag compensator that provides an attenuation of 20 dB and a phase lag of 45 at the frequency of

3 3 rad/s.

0

(B) A lead compensator that provides an amplification of 20 dB and a phase lead of 45 at the frequency

of 3 rad/s.

0

(C) A lag-Lead compensator that provides an amplification of 20 dB and a phase lag of 45 at the

frequency of 3 rad/s.

0

(D) A lag-lead compensator that provides an attenuation of 20 dB and phase lead of 45 at the frequency

of 3 rad/s.

Ans. (D)

Sol. Let response of the un-compensated system is

900 900

HUC ( s ) R( s) C (s)

s ( s 1)( s 9) s ( s + 1) ( s + 9)

Response of compressed system

900

H C ( s) Gc ( s) Fig. Block diagram without compensator

s( s 1)( s 9)

Where GC ( s ) Response of compensator

Given that gain-crossover frequency of compensated system is same as phase crossover frequency of un-

compensated system.

So,

( g ) compensated ( p ) uncompensated

180 0 H UC ( j p )

7

1800 900 tan 1 ( p ) tan 1 p

9

p

p

900 tan 1 9 900

2

R( s)

s ( s + 1) ( s + 9)

GC ( s ) C (s)

1

p

9

2p

1 0 Fig. Block diagram with compensator

9

p 3 rad/sec

So, ( p ) compensated 3 rad/sec

At this frequency phase margin of compensated system is

PM 180 0 H c ( j g )

g

450 1800 900 tan 1 (g ) tan 1 GC ( jg )

9

1

450 180 0 900 tan 1 GC ( j g )

3

1

3

450 900 tan 1 3 G ( j )

1

C g

1 3

3

450 90 0 90 0 GC ( j g )

GC ( j g ) 450

The gain cross over frequency of compensated system is lower than uncompensated system, so we may

use lag-lead compensator.

At gain cross over frequency gain of compensated system is unity so.

H c ( j g ) 1

900 GC ( jg )

1

g 2g 1 2g 81

3 9 1 9 81 3 30 1

GC ( j g )

900 900 10

1

In dB, GC ( g ) 20 log 20dB (attenuation)

10

Hence, the correct option is (D).

Question 10 [Work Book] [GATE EC 2008 IISc-Bangalore : 2 Marks]

Group I gives two possible choices for the impedance Z in the diagram. The circuit elements in Z satisfy

V

the condition R2C2 R1C1 . The transfer function 0 represents a kind of controller. Match the

Vi

impedances in Group I with the types of controllers in Group II.

8

Z

C1

Vi

R1 V0

Group I Group II

Q. 1. PID Controller

R2 C2

R. 2. Lead Compensator

3. Lag Compensator

(A) Q - 1, R - 2 (B) Q - 1, R - 3 (C) Q - 2, R - 3 (D) Q - 3, R – 2

Ans. (B)

Sol. The given circuit is inverting amplifier and transfer function is

V0 Z Z ( sC1R1 1)

Vi R1 R1

sC1R1 1

( sC2 R2 1)

For Q, Z

sC2

V0 ( sC2 R2 1) ( sC1 R1 1)

Vi sC2 R1

The gain of PID controller is given by,

KI KDs K ps KI

2

GC ( s ) K p K D s

s s

Which is similar to the above transfer function

R2

For R, Z

( sC2 R2 1)

V0 R2 ( sC1 R1 1)

Vi ( sC2 R2 1) R1

Since R2C2 R1C1 ,

1 1

R1C1 R2C2

ZP

The gain of transfer function of lag compensator is given by,

sa

T ( s) ( a b)

sb

9

Which is similar to the transfer function for R (V0 / Vi ) .

So it is lag compensator.

Hence, the correct option is (B).

. Statement for linked Answer Questions 32 and 33 .

A disturbance input d(t) is injected into the unity feedback closed loop system shown in figure. Take the

reference input r(t) to be a unit step.

G ff ( s ) d (t )

1

r(t) 1 y(t)

s (s + 1)

If the disturbance is measurable, its effect on the output can be minimized significantly using a

feedforward controller G ff ( s ) . To eliminate the component of the output due to d(t) = sin t. G ff ( ) = 1

should be

1 3 1

(A) (B)

2 4 2 4

(C) 2 (D) 2

4

Ans. (D)

Sol. Given closed loop system is shown in figure below.

G ff ( s ) d (t )

1

r(t) 1 y(t)

s (s + 1)

D( s)

G ff ( s ) T1

1 T2

s1 CD ( s )

s (s + 1)

s2

where CD ( s) output due to disturbance D(s) . Drawing SFG of above block diagram,

D( s)

G ff ( s ) T1

1 1

s ( s + 1) 1 T2 1

s1 CD ( s )

s2

-1

10

Y ( s)

When r (t ) 0 , for calculating ,

D( s )

1

M 1 1, M 2 G ff

s ( s 1)

1

Loop gain

s ( s 1)

1 1, 2 1,

1 s2 s 1

1 2

s ( s 1) s s

G ff ( s) s 2 s G ff ( s)

M11 M 2 2 1

s( s 1) s2 s

Y ( s ) M 11 M 2 2

G(s)

D(s)

s s G ff ( s )

2

G( s)

s2 s 1

2 j G ff ( j)

G ( j)

2 j 1

G ff ( j1) 1 j 2

2

Hence, the correct option is (D).

Question 33 [Practice Book] [GATE EC 2009 IIT-Roorkee : 2 Marks]

Let G ff ( s ) be a PD controller. If d(t) = sin 2t the amplitude of the frequency component of y(t) due to

d(t) is

5 9 17 20

(A) (B) (C) (D)

13 13 13 13

Ans. (B)

Sol. If G ff ( j1) 1 j or G ff ( j )

G ff ( j1) 1 j

G ff ( s ) 1 s

G ff ( s ) can be understood as a PD controller

G ff ( s ) 1 s K P K D s

With K P 1, K D 1

s2 s 1 s

G (s)

s2 s 1

1 2

G ( j)

(1 2 ) j

If d (t ) 1sin (2t ), 2

1 4

G ( j 2)

(1 4) j 2

3 3 9

G ( j 2)

3 j 2 13 13

Hence, the correct option is (B).

11

Question 16 [Work Book] [GATE EC 2014 (Set-01) IIT-Kharagpur : 2 Marks]

1

For the following feedback system G ( s ) . The 2% settling time of the step response is

( s 1)( s 2)

required to be less than 2 seconds.

r C (s) G (s) y

–

1 0.03 s 8

(A) 3 (B) 5 1 (C) 2( s 4) (D) 4

s5 s s3

Ans. (C)

1

Sol. Given : G ( s)

( s 1)( s 2)

Closed-loop transfer function for negative unity feedback is given by,

1

G ( s) ( s 1)( s 2)

T (s)

1 G(s) 1 1

( s 1)( s 2)

1 1

T (s) 2 ….. (i)

( s 1)( s 2) 1 s 3s 3

Transfer function for second-order system is given by,

C (s) 2n

…..(ii)

R( s ) s 2 2 n s 2n

where, damping ratio, n natural angular frequency

On comparing equation (i) and (ii), we get

2 n 3 n 1.5

For 2% tolerance band settling time is given by,

4 4

ts 2.67 2 sec

n 1.5

Thus, in order to make settling time t s less than 2 sec. Proportional derivative (PD) controller should be

used.

From option (C) where C(s) = 2(s + 4).

New transfer function T '(s) can be written as,

1

2( s 4)

C ( s)G ( s) ( s 1)( s 2)

T '( s)

1 C ( s)G ( s ) 1 2( s 4) 1

( s 1)( s 2)

2( s 4) 2( s 4)

T '( s) 2 …..(iii)

s 3s 2 2s 8 s 5s 10

2

2 n 5 n 2.5

12

For 2% tolerance band settling time is given by,

4 4

ts 1.6 sec < 2

n 2.5

Hence, the correct option is (C).

Question 36 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 2014 IIT-Kharagpur : 2 Marks]

s

Consider a transport lag process with a transfer function G p ( s ) e .

The process is controlled by a purely integral controller with transfer function

K

Gc ( s) i

s

in a unity feedback configuration. The value of K i for which the closed loop plant has a pole at s 1,

is_________________.

Ans. 0.36 to 0.38

Ki

Sol. Given : G p ( s ) e s and Gc ( s)

s

R( s) Gc ( s ) G p (s) C (s)

Ki e s

G '( s) G '( s) Gc ( s) G p ( s)

s

The characteristics equation is given by,

1 G '( s) 0

Ki e s

1 0

s

Ki s es

Ki s 1

(1)e( 1) 0.368

Hence, the correct option is 0.368.

Question 41 [Practice Book] [IES EC 2003]

The maximum value of a controller output is 100 V and is obtained when the input error is 1 V. If the

controller is working at 20 % proportional band, the error and output will be respectively

(A) 0.2 V and 100 V (B) 1V and 20 V

(C) 1 V and 120 V (D) 0.2 V and 120 V

Ans. (B)

Sol. Proportional band is the percentage change in the input to the controller (error signal) required to cause

100% change in the output of the actuator.

Proportional band for input error e is given by,

P KPe

100 K P 1

13

100

KP 100

1

100 100

Proportional band 1 V

K P 100

% Proportional band 1 100 100%

100% proportional band = 100

20

20% proportional band 100 20

100

Hence, the correct option is (B).

Question 62 [Practice Book] [IES EE 2006]

Assertion (A) : With lag-lead compensation, the bandwidth of the system is not affected much.

Reason (R) : The effect of lag and lead compensations at high frequencies cancel one another.

(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

(B) Both A and R are true but R is NOT a correct explanation of A

(C) A is true but R is false

(D) A is false but R is true

Ans. (D)

Sol. Transfer function of lag-lead compensator is given by,

1 1

s s

T (s) 1

2

s 1 s 1

1 2

1 1 1 1

At high frequency the term s j , , &

1 2 1 2

Neglecting these terms, we get

s s

T ( s) 1

s s

So, at high frequency the lag and lead compensator cancel one another.

Hence, the correct option is (D).

Question 75 [Practice Book] [IES EC 2011]

The circuit diagram of a controller is given in figure. What type of controller is this?

C2 R2

i

i1 R1 2

Operational

Amplifier

Ei (input) E0 (output)

(C) Integral (D) Proportional + Integral

Ans. (D)

Sol. Given : The circuit diagram of a controller is shown below :

14

C2 R2

i1 R1 i2

+ +

op-amp

Ei E0

- -

R2C2 s 1

C2 s R C s 1

For inverting op-amp : Gain K 2 2 ….(i)

R1 R1C2 s

R C s 1 R1C2 s R2C2 s 1

For non-inverting op-amp : Gain K 1 2 2 ….(ii)

R1C2 s R1C2 s

R2 1

s

From equation (i) : K 1

R R2C2

s

( R1 R2 ) 1

s

R1 C2 ( R1 R2 )

From equation (ii) : K

s

E0

K E0 KEi

Ei

Thus, the output contains proportional as well as integral terms.

Hence, the correct option is (D).

Question 90 [Practice Book] [IES EC 2013]

Statement (I) : A derivative controller produces a control action for constant error only.

Statement (II) : The PD controller increases the damping ratio and reduces the peak overshoot.

Codes :

(A) Both statement (I) and statement (II) are individually true and statement (II) is the correct

explanation of statement (I).

(B) Both statement (I) and statement (II) are individually true but statement (II) is NOT the correct

explanation of statement (I).

(C) Statement (I) is true but statement (II) is false.

(D) Statement (I) is false but statement (II) is true.

Ans. (D)

Sol. (i) The derivative controller is a device that produces a control signal u (t ) which is proportional to the

derivative of input error signal i.e. The derivative acts on the rate of change of adder and not on the

actual error signal. The derivative control action is effective only during transient period and so it does

not produce corrective measures for any constant error. Hence derivative control is never used alone

but it is employed in association with proportional and integral controller.

(ii) The damping ratio is increased by using PD controller.

12

%M p e If increases, then M p decreases.

Hence, the correct option is (D).

15

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