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# CONTROL

SYSTEMS
Chapter 9 : Controllers & Compensators

##  GATE Objective & Numerical Type Solutions

Question 7 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 1994 IIT-Kharagpur : 1 Mark]
A cascade controller is used when the process
(A) Gain is too small (B) Gain is too large
(C) Has widely different time constants (D) Oscillation at the output is not permitted
Ans. (A)
Sol. A cascade controller is used when the process gain is too small.
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Question 12 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 1998 IIT-Delhi : 1 Mark]
The input error voltage to a PD-controller, e is shown in figure the output voltage of the controller e0 is
e(t)

t
1 2
(A) e0(t) (B) e0(t)

t t
0 1 2 0 1 2

## (C) e0(t) (D) e0(t)

t t
0 1 2 0 1 2
Ans. (B)
Sol. The input error voltage to a PD controller is given by,
e(t)

t
1 2
e(t )  Kr (t  1)  Kr (t  2)
e(t )  K  r (t  1)  r (t  2) 

1
Output of a PD controller is given by,
de(t )
e0 (t )  K P e(t )  K D
dt
d  K  r (t  1)  r (t  2) 
e0 (t )  K P K  r (t  1)  r (t  2)   K D
dt
e0 (t )  K P K  r (t  1)  r (t  2)   K D K u (t  1)  u (t  2) 
     
Fig. (a) Fig. (b)

e0 (t )

KP K KD K

t t t
0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2
Fig. (a) Fig. (b) Fig. (c)
The above figure (c) of e0 (t ) is similar to the figure of option (B) with some constant ‘c’.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Question 17 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 2001 IIT-Kanpur : 1 Mark]
A second order feedback system is found to be oscillating with a high frequency. The oscillations
(A) Can be reduced by increasing the proportional.
(B) Can be reduced by increasing the integral action.
(C) Can be reduced by increasing the derivative action.
(D) Cannot be reduced.
Ans. (C)
Sol. A second order feedback system is found to be oscillating with a high frequency. The oscillations can be
reduced by increasing the derivative action.
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Question 19 [Practice Book] [GATE EC 2003 IIT-Madras : 1 Mark]
A PD controller is used to compensate a system. Compared to the uncompensated system, the
compensated system has
(A) a higher type number. (B) reduced damping.
(C) higher noise amplification. (D) larger transient overshoot.
Ans. (C)
Sol. A PD controller does not increase the system type number. It increases damping factor which results in
smaller overshoot.
PD controller acts like a differentiator which amplifies noise.
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Question 22 [Practice Book] [GATE EC 2005 IIT- Bombay : 2 Marks]
A double integrator plant.
K
G ( s)  2 , H ( s)  1
s
is to be compensated to achieve the damping ratio   0.5, and an undamped natural frequency,
n  5 rad/s. Which one of the following compensator GC ( s ) will be
s3 s  9.9 s6 s6
(A) (B) (C) (D)
s  9.9 s3 s  8.33 s

2
Ans. (A)
K
Sol. Given G ( s)  , H ( s)  1
s2
R( s) +- G (s) C (s)

H (s)
Transfer function of system is given by,
C (s) G (s)

R(s) 1  G (s) H (s)
C (s) K / s2

R(s) 1  K / s 2
C (s) K
 2
R(s) s  K
Characteristic equation of uncompensated system,
s2  K  0
Standard characteristic equation of second order system,
s 2  2  n s   n2  0
Comparing above two equation,
 2n  K
n  K
and 2n  0
0
Since   0 , so undamped system.
For compensated system   0.5 which is underdamped system. The compensator should be selected such
that it changes the system from undamped to underdamped by increasing damping ratio from 0 to 0.5.
The damping ratio of a system can be increased by using a lead compensator. The transfer function of a
load compensator is given by,
s  ZC
GC ( s )  ; Z C  PC
s  PC
Among the given option the transfer function representing lead compensator with Z C  PC is,
s3
GC ( s ) 
s  9.9
Hence, the correct option is (A).
. Common data for Question 24, 25, 26 .
The following figure describes the block diagram of a closed loop process control system. The unit of
time is given in minute.
disturbance
D( s)
Controller
E (s) æ 1 ö M (s) 2e - s
R(s) 0.5 ç1 + ÷ C (s)
è 2s ø 1 + 2s

3
Question 24 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 2006 IIT-Kharagpur : 2 Marks]
The digital implementation of the controller with a sampling time of 0.1 minute using velocity algorithm
is
 k
  k 1

(A) m(k )  0.5 e(k )  0.5 e(k )  (B) m(k )  2.0 e(k )  2.0 e(k  1) 
 i 1   i 1 
(C) m(k )  m(k  1)  0.5[e(k )  0.85e(k  1)] (D) m(k )  m(k  1)  0.5[1.05 e(k )  e(k  1)]
Ans. (A)
Sol. Transfer function of controller can be written as,
M (s)  1 
 0.5  1  
E (s)  2s 
 1 
M ( s )  0.5  1   E ( s )
 2s 
Taking inverse Laplace transform, we get
disturbance
D( s)
Controller
E (s) æ 1 ö M (s) 2e - s
R(s) 0.5 ç1 + ÷ C (s)
è 2s ø 1 + 2s

 1
t

m(t )  0.5 e(t )   e(t )dt 
 2s 0 
In discrete time domain above function can be implemented as t  kTs ; where Ts is sampling period
m(t )  m(kTs )
e(t )  e(kTs )
t k

##  e(t )dt   e(k )

0 k 0

 k

m(k )  0.5 e(k )  0.5 e(k ) 
 i 1 
Hence, the correct option is (D).
Question 25 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 2006 IIT-Kharagpur : 2 Marks]
Suppose a disturbance signal d (t )  sin 0.2 t unit is applied. Then at steady state, the amplitude of the
output c(t) due to the effect of disturbance alone is :
(A) 0.129 unit (B) 0.40 unit (C) 0.528 unit (D) 2.102 unit
Ans. (B)
Sol. Reducing input signal R(s) to zero the block diagram of system becomes, as shown below.
disturbance
D( s)
Controller
E (s) æ 1 ö M (s) 2e - s
R(s) = 0 0.5 ç1 + ÷ C (s)
è 2s ø 1 + 2s

4
Transfer function of system with respect to disturbance signal d(s).
disturbance
D( s)
Controller
E (s) æ 1 ö M (s) 2e - s
-1 0.5 ç1 + ÷ C (s)
è 2s ø 1 + 2s

C (s) 1

D( s )  1   2e s 
1  0.5 1   
 2s   1  2s 
C (s) 1

D( s) e s
1
2s
1
Put s  j , C ( j)  D( j)
e  j
1
j 2
Given, d (t )  sin 0.2 t
  0.2
1
C ( j)  D( j)
e j 02
1
j 0.4
1
C ( j )  D ( j )
1  j 2.5e  j 02
e  j 0.2  cos 0.2  j sin 0.2  0.98  j 0.198
1
C ( j )  D ( j )
1  j 2.5(0.98  j 0.198)
1
C ( j)  D ( j )
0.5  j 2.45
Amplitude of output,
1
C ( j)  D( j)
0.5  j 2.45
1
C ( j)  1
(0.5 )  (2.45)2
2

C ( j)  0.4
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Question 26 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 2006 IIT-Kharagpur : 2 Marks]
The control action recommended for reducing the effect of disturbance at the output (provided that the
disturbance signal is measurable) is
(A) Cascade control (B) PD control
(C) Ratio control (D) Feedback feedforward control

5
Ans. (A)
Sol. There are two popular control strategies for improved disturbance rejection performance are cascade
control and feed forward feedback trim. The cascade architecture offers additional such as the ability to
address multiple disturbances to our process and to improver set point response performance. Cascade
control has two loops called inner and outer loops. Cascade loops are invariably installed to prevent
outside disturbances from entering the process, and to put the principle nonlinearities in a much faster
responding inner loop controller. In contrast, the feed forward with feedback trim architecture is designed
to address a single measured disturbance and does not impact set response performance in any fashion
therefore, the control action, recommended for reducing the effect of disturbance at the output (provided
that the disturbance signal is measurable) is cascade control.
Question 6 [Work Book] [GATE EC 2007 IIT-Kanpur : 2 Marks]
1
The open-loop transfer function of a plant is given as G ( s )  2 . If the plant is operated in a unity
( s  1)
feedback configuration, then the lead compensator that can stabilize this control system is

## 10( s  1) 10( s  4) 10( s  2) 2( s  2)

(A) (B) (C) (D)
( s  2) ( s  2) ( s  10) ( s  10)
Ans. (C)
1
Sol. Given : G( s) 
, H (s)  1
s 1 2

## Block diagram of plant will compensator,

R( s) GC ( s ) G (s) C (s)

H (s)
Characteristic equation of compensated system,
1  GC ( s )G ( s ) H ( s )  0
1
1  GC ( s) 0 …..(i)
s 1 2

A lead compensator has zero nearer to origin than the pole therefore transfer function of option (a) and (b)
cannot be lead compensators.
10(s  2)
For option (C), GC (s) 
s  10
Putting above GC ( s) in equation (i), we have,
10( s  2)
1 0
( s  10)( s 2  1)
s3  s  10s 2  10  10s  20  0
s3  10s 2  9s  10  0
s   9.13,  0.432  j 0.952
Since all poles compensated system line in left half of s-plane so given compensator with transfer function
10( s  2)
GC ( s)  can stabilize the system.
s  10
6
For option (D),
2( s  2)
GC ( s ) 
s  10
Putting above GC ( s) in equation (i), we have,
2( s  2)
1 0
( s  10)( s 2  1)
s 3  s  10s 2  10  2s  4  0
s 3  10s 2  s  6  0
s  0.7,  9.83,  0.867
2( s  2)
Since compensated system has one pole in right half so lead compensator with GC ( s )  cannot
s  10
be used to stabilize the system.
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Question 7 [Work Book] [GATE EE 2007 IIT-Kanpur : 2 Marks]
900
The system is to be compensated such that its gain-crossover frequency becomes same as
s ( s  1) ( s  9)
0
its uncompensated Phase-crossover frequency and provides a 45 phase margin. To achieve this, one may
use
0
(A) A lag compensator that provides an attenuation of 20 dB and a phase lag of 45 at the frequency of
0
(B) A lead compensator that provides an amplification of 20 dB and a phase lead of 45 at the frequency
0
(C) A lag-Lead compensator that provides an amplification of 20 dB and a phase lag of 45 at the
frequency of 3 rad/s.
0
(D) A lag-lead compensator that provides an attenuation of 20 dB and phase lead of 45 at the frequency
Ans. (D)
Sol. Let response of the un-compensated system is
900 900
HUC ( s )  R( s) C (s)
s ( s  1)( s  9) s ( s + 1) ( s + 9)
Response of compressed system
900
H C ( s)  Gc ( s) Fig. Block diagram without compensator
s( s  1)( s  9)
Where GC ( s )  Response of compensator
Given that gain-crossover frequency of compensated system is same as phase crossover frequency of un-
compensated system.
So,
(  g ) compensated  (  p ) uncompensated

180 0  H UC ( j p )

7
 
1800  900  tan 1 ( p )  tan 1  p 
 9 
 p 
 p  
900  tan 1  9  900
  2

R( s)
s ( s + 1) ( s + 9)
GC ( s ) C (s)
 1
p

 9 
2p
1 0 Fig. Block diagram with compensator
9
 p  3 rad/sec
So, (  p ) compensated  3 rad/sec
At this frequency phase margin of compensated system is
 PM  180 0  H c ( j g )

 g 
450  1800  900  tan 1 (g )  tan 1    GC ( jg )
 9 
1
450  180 0  900  tan 1    GC ( j  g )
3
1
3
450  900  tan 1 3  G ( j  )
1
C g
1 3 
3
450  90 0  90 0  GC ( j  g )
GC ( j g )  450
The gain cross over frequency of compensated system is lower than uncompensated system, so we may
At gain cross over frequency gain of compensated system is unity so.
H c ( j g )  1

900 GC ( jg )
1
g 2g  1 2g  81

3 9  1 9  81 3  30 1
GC ( j g )   
900 900 10
 1 
In dB, GC ( g )  20 log    20dB (attenuation)
 10 
Hence, the correct option is (D).
Question 10 [Work Book] [GATE EC 2008 IISc-Bangalore : 2 Marks]
Group I gives two possible choices for the impedance Z in the diagram. The circuit elements in Z satisfy
V
the condition R2C2  R1C1 . The transfer function 0 represents a kind of controller. Match the
Vi
impedances in Group I with the types of controllers in Group II.
8
Z
C1
Vi
R1 V0

Group I Group II
Q. 1. PID Controller
R2 C2

R. 2. Lead Compensator

3. Lag Compensator
(A) Q - 1, R - 2 (B) Q - 1, R - 3 (C) Q - 2, R - 3 (D) Q - 3, R – 2
Ans. (B)
Sol. The given circuit is inverting amplifier and transfer function is
V0 Z  Z ( sC1R1  1)
 
Vi R1 R1
sC1R1  1
( sC2 R2  1)
For Q, Z
sC2
V0 ( sC2 R2  1) ( sC1 R1  1)
 
Vi sC2 R1
The gain of PID controller is given by,
KI KDs  K ps  KI
2

GC ( s )  K p  K D s  
s s
Which is similar to the above transfer function
R2
For R, Z
( sC2 R2  1)
V0 R2 ( sC1 R1  1)
 
Vi ( sC2 R2  1) R1
Since R2C2  R1C1 ,
1 1

R1C1 R2C2
ZP
The gain of transfer function of lag compensator is given by,
sa
T ( s)  ( a  b)
sb

9
Which is similar to the transfer function for R (V0 / Vi ) .
So it is lag compensator.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
. Statement for linked Answer Questions 32 and 33 .
A disturbance input d(t) is injected into the unity feedback closed loop system shown in figure. Take the
reference input r(t) to be a unit step.
G ff ( s ) d (t )

1
r(t) 1 y(t)
s (s + 1)

## Question 32 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 2009 IIT-Roorkee : 2 Marks]

If the disturbance is measurable, its effect on the output can be minimized significantly using a
feedforward controller G ff ( s ) . To eliminate the component of the output due to d(t) = sin t. G ff (  ) = 1
should be
1 3 1 
(A)  (B) 
2 4 2 4

(C) 2  (D) 2  
4
Ans. (D)
Sol. Given closed loop system is shown in figure below.
G ff ( s ) d (t )

1
r(t) 1 y(t)
s (s + 1)

## Putting r (t )  0, the block diagram of system can be redrawn as,

D( s)

G ff ( s ) T1

1 T2
s1 CD ( s )
s (s + 1)
s2

where CD ( s) output due to disturbance D(s) . Drawing SFG of above block diagram,
D( s)
G ff ( s ) T1
1 1
s ( s + 1) 1 T2 1
s1 CD ( s )
s2

-1

10
Y ( s)
When r (t )  0 , for calculating ,
D( s )
1
M 1  1, M 2  G ff
s ( s  1)
1
Loop gain  
s ( s  1)
1  1,  2  1,
1 s2  s 1
  1  2
s ( s  1) s s
G ff ( s) s 2  s  G ff ( s)
M11  M 2  2  1  
s( s  1) s2  s
Y ( s ) M 11  M 2  2
G(s)  
D(s) 
s  s  G ff ( s )
2

G( s) 
s2  s  1
 2  j  G ff ( j)
G ( j) 
 2  j  1

 G ff ( j1)  1  j  2 
2
Hence, the correct option is (D).
Question 33 [Practice Book] [GATE EC 2009 IIT-Roorkee : 2 Marks]
Let G ff ( s ) be a PD controller. If d(t) = sin 2t the amplitude of the frequency component of y(t) due to
d(t) is
5 9 17 20
(A) (B) (C) (D)
13 13 13 13
Ans. (B)
Sol. If G ff ( j1)  1  j or G ff ( j )
G ff ( j1)  1  j 
 G ff ( s )  1  s
G ff ( s ) can be understood as a PD controller
G ff ( s )  1  s  K P  K D s
With K P  1, K D  1
s2  s  1  s
G (s) 
s2  s  1
1  2
G ( j) 
(1  2 )  j
If d (t )  1sin (2t ),   2
1 4
G ( j 2) 
(1  4)  j 2
3 3 9
G ( j 2)   
3  j 2 13 13
Hence, the correct option is (B).

11
Question 16 [Work Book] [GATE EC 2014 (Set-01) IIT-Kharagpur : 2 Marks]
1
For the following feedback system G ( s )  . The 2% settling time of the step response is
( s  1)( s  2)
required to be less than 2 seconds.
r C (s) G (s) y

## Which one of the following compensators C ( s ) achieves this?

 1   0.03   s 8
(A) 3   (B) 5   1 (C) 2( s  4) (D) 4  
 s5  s   s3
Ans. (C)
1
Sol. Given : G ( s) 
( s  1)( s  2)
Closed-loop transfer function for negative unity feedback is given by,
1
G ( s) ( s  1)( s  2)
T (s)  
1  G(s) 1  1
( s  1)( s  2)
1 1
T (s)   2 ….. (i)
( s  1)( s  2)  1 s  3s  3
Transfer function for second-order system is given by,
C (s) 2n
                …..(ii)
R( s ) s 2  2 n s  2n
where,   damping ratio, n  natural angular frequency
On comparing equation (i) and (ii), we get
2  n  3   n 1.5
For 2% tolerance band settling time is given by,
4 4
ts    2.67  2 sec
n 1.5
Thus, in order to make settling time t s less than 2 sec. Proportional derivative (PD) controller should be
used.
From option (C) where C(s) = 2(s + 4).
New transfer function T '(s) can be written as,
1
2( s  4)
C ( s)G ( s) ( s  1)( s  2)
T '( s)  
1  C ( s)G ( s ) 1  2( s  4) 1
( s  1)( s  2)
2( s  4) 2( s  4)
T '( s)   2             …..(iii)
s  3s  2  2s  8 s  5s  10
2

## On comparing equation (i) and (iii), we get

2  n  5   n  2.5

12
For 2% tolerance band settling time is given by,
4 4
ts    1.6 sec < 2
 n 2.5
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Question 36 [Practice Book] [GATE IN 2014 IIT-Kharagpur : 2 Marks]
s
Consider a transport lag process with a transfer function G p ( s )  e .
The process is controlled by a purely integral controller with transfer function
K
Gc ( s)  i
s
in a unity feedback configuration. The value of K i for which the closed loop plant has a pole at s  1,
is_________________.
Ans. 0.36 to 0.38
Ki
Sol. Given : G p ( s )  e  s and Gc ( s) 
s
R( s) Gc ( s ) G p (s) C (s)

## Open loop transfer function is given by,

Ki e s
G '( s)   G '( s)  Gc ( s)  G p ( s) 
s
The characteristics equation is given by,
1  G '( s)  0
Ki e s
1 0
s
Ki  s es
Ki s 1
 (1)e( 1)  0.368
Hence, the correct option is 0.368.

##  IES Objective Solutions

Question 41 [Practice Book] [IES EC 2003]
The maximum value of a controller output is 100 V and is obtained when the input error is 1 V. If the
controller is working at 20 % proportional band, the error and output will be respectively
(A) 0.2 V and 100 V (B) 1V and 20 V
(C) 1 V and 120 V (D) 0.2 V and 120 V
Ans. (B)
Sol. Proportional band is the percentage change in the input to the controller (error signal) required to cause
100% change in the output of the actuator.
Proportional band for input error e is given by,
P  KPe
100  K P  1

13
100
KP   100
1
100 100
Proportional band   1 V
K P 100
% Proportional band  1  100  100%
100% proportional band = 100
20
20% proportional band   100  20
100
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Question 62 [Practice Book] [IES EE 2006]
Assertion (A) : With lag-lead compensation, the bandwidth of the system is not affected much.
Reason (R) : The effect of lag and lead compensations at high frequencies cancel one another.
(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are true but R is NOT a correct explanation of A
(C) A is true but R is false
(D) A is false but R is true
Ans. (D)
Sol. Transfer function of lag-lead compensator is given by,
 1  1 
 s    s   
T (s)   1
 2

 s  1  s  1 
 1   2 

1 1 1 1
At high frequency the term s  j  , , &
1 2 1 2
Neglecting these terms, we get
 s  s 
T ( s)       1
 s  s 
So, at high frequency the lag and lead compensator cancel one another.
Hence, the correct option is (D).
Question 75 [Practice Book] [IES EC 2011]
The circuit diagram of a controller is given in figure. What type of controller is this?
C2 R2
i
i1 R1 2

Operational
Amplifier
Ei (input) E0 (output)

## (A) Proportional (B) Proportional + derivative

(C) Integral (D) Proportional + Integral
Ans. (D)
Sol. Given : The circuit diagram of a controller is shown below :

14
C2 R2

i1 R1 i2
+ +
op-amp

Ei E0

- -

R2C2 s  1

C2 s R C s 1
For inverting op-amp : Gain K   2 2 ….(i)
R1 R1C2 s
R C s  1 R1C2 s  R2C2 s  1
For non-inverting op-amp : Gain K  1  2 2  ….(ii)
R1C2 s R1C2 s
R2  1 
s 
From equation (i) : K  1 
R R2C2 
s
( R1  R2 )  1 
s 
R1  C2 ( R1  R2 ) 
From equation (ii) : K 
s
E0
 K  E0  KEi
Ei
Thus, the output contains proportional as well as integral terms.
Hence, the correct option is (D).
Question 90 [Practice Book] [IES EC 2013]
Statement (I) : A derivative controller produces a control action for constant error only.
Statement (II) : The PD controller increases the damping ratio and reduces the peak overshoot.
Codes :
(A) Both statement (I) and statement (II) are individually true and statement (II) is the correct
explanation of statement (I).
(B) Both statement (I) and statement (II) are individually true but statement (II) is NOT the correct
explanation of statement (I).
(C) Statement (I) is true but statement (II) is false.
(D) Statement (I) is false but statement (II) is true.
Ans. (D)
Sol. (i) The derivative controller is a device that produces a control signal u (t ) which is proportional to the
derivative of input error signal i.e. The derivative acts on the rate of change of adder and not on the
actual error signal. The derivative control action is effective only during transient period and so it does
not produce corrective measures for any constant error. Hence derivative control is never used alone
but it is employed in association with proportional and integral controller.
(ii) The damping ratio is increased by using PD controller.
 
12
%M p  e  If  increases, then M p decreases.
Hence, the correct option is (D).


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