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People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag

National Emblem

Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark
green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a]
39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest city Shanghai[1]

Official languages Standard Chinese[2][b]


Recognised  Mongolian
regional languages Uyghur
 Tibetan
 Zhuang
 various others[3]

Official script Simplified Chinese[c]

Ethnic groups  91.51% Han[4]

 55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China

Demonym(s) Chinese

Government Unitary Marxist-Leninist one-


partysocialist republic[5]

• Party General Xi Jinping[e]


Secretary
and President
• Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Chairman Li Zhanshu
• Conference Wang Yang
Chairman
• First Secretary of Wang Huning
the Party
Secretariat
• Secretary of the Zhao Leji
Discipline
Inspection
Commission
• First Vice Premier Han Zheng
• Vice President Wang Qishan[f]

Legislature National People's Congress

Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE


unification
• Republic 1 January 1912
established
• People's Republic 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
declared
• Proclamation of the 1 October 1949
People's Republic
• Current constitution 4 December 1982
• Last polity admitted 20 December 1999

Area
• Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 sq mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population
• 2016 estimate 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate


• Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time)

Date format  yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)

Driving side right[j]

Calling code +86

ISO 3166 code CN

Internet TLD  .cn


 .中國
 .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and
the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-
largest country by total area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state
exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative
regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of
the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was
based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia
dynasty in 21st century BCE.[20] Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206
BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time,
including papermaking and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and medical
improvements. The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty (618–
907) and Northern Song (960–1127) completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture
spread widely in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai
Revolution, when a republic repl
People's Republic of China People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)  中华人民共和国 (Chinese)


Zhōnghuá Rénmín Zhōnghuá Rénmín
Gònghéguó (Pinyin) Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag Flag

National Emblem National Emblem

Anthem: Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"  "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲 义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of Area controlled by the People's Republic of
China shown in dark green; claimed but China shown in dark green; claimed but
uncontrolled regions shown in light green. uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a] Capital Beijing[a]


39°55′N 116°23′E 39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest Shanghai[1] Largest Shanghai[1]


city city

Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b] Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b]


guages guages
Recognised Mongolian Recognised Mongolian
regional lan Uyghur regional lan Uyghur
guages  Tibetan guages  Tibetan
 Zhuang  Zhuang
 various others [3]  various others[3]

Official Simplified Chinese[c] Official Simplified Chinese[c]


script script

Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4] Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4]


ps ps
 55 minorities[d]  55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China Religion See Religion in China

Demonym( Chinese Demonym( Chinese


s) s)
Governmen Unitary Marxist- Governmen Unitary Marxist-
t Leninist one- t Leninist one-
partysocialist republic [5] partysocialist republic[5]

• Party Xi Jinping[e] • Party Xi Jinping[e]


General General
Secretary Secretary
and Preside and Preside
nt nt
• Premier Li Keqiang • Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Li Zhanshu • Congress Li Zhanshu
Chairman Chairman
• Conference Wang Yang • Conference Wang Yang
Chairman Chairman
• First Wang Huning • First Wang Huning
Secretary of Secretary of
the Party the Party
Secretariat Secretariat
• Secretary of Zhao Leji • Secretary of Zhao Leji
the the
Discipline Discipline
Inspection Inspection
Commission Commission
• First Vice Han Zheng • First Vice Han Zheng
Premier Premier
• Vice Wang Qishan [f]
• Vice Wang Qishan[f]
President President

Legislature National People's Legislature National People's


Congress Congress

Formation Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE • First imperial 221 BCE


unification unification
• Republic 1 January 1912 • Republic 1 January 1912
established established
• People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9] • People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
Republic Republic
declared declared
• Proclamation 1 October 1949 • Proclamation 1 October 1949
of the of the
People's People's
Republic Republic
• Current 4 December 1982 • Current 4 December 1982
constitution constitution
• Last 20 December 1999 • Last 20 December 1999
polity admitt polity admitt
ed ed

Area Area
• Total 9,596,961 km (3,705,407 s
2 • Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s
q mi)[g](3rd/4th) q mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h] • Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population Population
• 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st) • 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
estimate estimate
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852 (1st) [14] • 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) • Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi)
(83rd) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st) • Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th) • Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nomin 2019 estimate GDP (nomin 2019 estimate


al) al)
• Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd) • Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st) • Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17] Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18] HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY) Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard
Time) Time)

Date format yyyy-mm-dd Date format yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日  or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)  (CE; CE-1949)

Driving right[j] Driving right[j]


side side

Calling +86 Calling +86


code code

ISO 3166 CN ISO 3166 CN


code code

Internet  .cn Internet  .cn


TLD  .中國 TLD  .中國
 .中国  .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China, officially the People's Republic of
China (PRC), is a country in East China (PRC), is a country in East
Asia and the world's most populous Asia and the world's most populous
country, with a population of country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square approximately 9,600,000 square
kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-
or fourth-largest country by total or fourth-largest country by total
area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist
Party of China, the state exercises Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, jurisdiction over 22 provinces,
five autonomous regions, four direct- five autonomous regions, four direct-
controlled controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Chongqing), and the special and Chongqing), and the special
administrative regions of Hong administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau. Kong and Macau.
China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the
world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)  中华人民共和国 (Chinese)


Zhōnghuá Rénmín Zhōnghuá Rénmín
Gònghéguó (Pinyin) Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag Flag

National Emblem National Emblem

Anthem: Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"  "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲 义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of Area controlled by the People's Republic of
China shown in dark green; claimed but China shown in dark green; claimed but
uncontrolled regions shown in light green. uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a] Capital Beijing[a]


39°55′N 116°23′E 39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest Shanghai[1] Largest Shanghai[1]


city city

Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b] Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b]


guages guages
Recognised Mongolian Recognised Mongolian
regional lan Uyghur regional lan Uyghur
guages  Tibetan guages  Tibetan
 Zhuang  Zhuang
 various others[3]  various others[3]

Official Simplified Chinese[c] Official Simplified Chinese[c]


script script

Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4] Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4]


ps ps
 55 minorities[d]  55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China Religion See Religion in China

Demonym( Chinese Demonym( Chinese


s) s)

Governmen Unitary Marxist- Governmen Unitary Marxist-


t Leninist one- t Leninist one-
partysocialist republic [5] partysocialist republic[5]

• Party Xi Jinping[e] • Party Xi Jinping[e]


General General
Secretary Secretary
and Preside and Preside
nt nt
• Premier Li Keqiang • Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Li Zhanshu • Congress Li Zhanshu
Chairman Chairman
• Conference Wang Yang • Conference Wang Yang
Chairman Chairman
• First Wang Huning • First Wang Huning
Secretary of Secretary of
the Party the Party
Secretariat Secretariat
• Secretary of Zhao Leji • Secretary of Zhao Leji
the the
Discipline Discipline
Inspection Inspection
Commission Commission
• First Vice Han Zheng • First Vice Han Zheng
Premier Premier
• Vice Wang Qishan [f] • Vice Wang Qishan[f]
President President

Legislature National People's Legislature National People's


Congress Congress

Formation Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE • First imperial 221 BCE


unification unification
• Republic 1 January 1912 • Republic 1 January 1912
established established
• People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9] • People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
Republic Republic
declared declared
• Proclamation 1 October 1949 • Proclamation 1 October 1949
of the of the
People's People's
Republic Republic
• Current 4 December 1982 • Current 4 December 1982
constitution constitution
• Last 20 December 1999 • Last 20 December 1999
polity admitt polity admitt
ed ed

Area Area
• Total 9,596,961 km (3,705,407 s
2 • Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s
q mi)[g](3rd/4th) q mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h] • Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population Population
• 2016 1,403,500,365 [13] (1st) • 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
estimate estimate
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852 (1st) [14]
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) • Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi)
(83rd) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion (1st)
[16] • Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th) • Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nomin 2019 estimate GDP (nomin 2019 estimate


al) al)
• Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd) • Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st) • Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17] Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18] HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY) Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard
Time) Time)

Date format yyyy-mm-dd Date format yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日  or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)  (CE; CE-1949)

Driving right[j] Driving right[j]


side side
Calling +86 Calling +86
code code

ISO 3166 CN ISO 3166 CN


code code

Internet  .cn Internet  .cn


TLD  .中國 TLD  .中國
 .中国  .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China, officially the People's Republic of
China (PRC), is a country in East China (PRC), is a country in East
Asia and the world's most populous Asia and the world's most populous
country, with a population of country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square approximately 9,600,000 square
kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-
or fourth-largest country by total or fourth-largest country by total
area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist
Party of China, the state exercises Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, jurisdiction over 22 provinces,
five autonomous regions, four direct- five autonomous regions, four direct-
controlled controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Chongqing), and the special and Chongqing), and the special
administrative regions of Hong administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau. Kong and Macau.
China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the
world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)  中华人民共和国 (Chinese)


Zhōnghuá Rénmín Zhōnghuá Rénmín
Gònghéguó (Pinyin) Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag Flag

National Emblem National Emblem

Anthem: Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"  "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲 义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of Area controlled by the People's Republic of
China shown in dark green; claimed but China shown in dark green; claimed but
uncontrolled regions shown in light green. uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a] Capital Beijing[a]


39°55′N 116°23′E 39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest Shanghai[1] Largest Shanghai[1]


city city

Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b] Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b]


guages guages
Recognised Mongolian Recognised Mongolian
regional lan Uyghur regional lan Uyghur
guages  Tibetan guages  Tibetan
 Zhuang  Zhuang
 various others [3]  various others[3]

Official Simplified Chinese[c] Official Simplified Chinese[c]


script script

Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4] Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4]


ps ps
 55 minorities[d]  55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China Religion See Religion in China

Demonym( Chinese Demonym( Chinese


s) s)
Governmen Unitary Marxist- Governmen Unitary Marxist-
t Leninist one- t Leninist one-
partysocialist republic [5] partysocialist republic[5]

• Party Xi Jinping[e] • Party Xi Jinping[e]


General General
Secretary Secretary
and Preside and Preside
nt nt
• Premier Li Keqiang • Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Li Zhanshu • Congress Li Zhanshu
Chairman Chairman
• Conference Wang Yang • Conference Wang Yang
Chairman Chairman
• First Wang Huning • First Wang Huning
Secretary of Secretary of
the Party the Party
Secretariat Secretariat
• Secretary of Zhao Leji • Secretary of Zhao Leji
the the
Discipline Discipline
Inspection Inspection
Commission Commission
• First Vice Han Zheng • First Vice Han Zheng
Premier Premier
• Vice Wang Qishan [f]
• Vice Wang Qishan[f]
President President

Legislature National People's Legislature National People's


Congress Congress

Formation Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE • First imperial 221 BCE


unification unification
• Republic 1 January 1912 • Republic 1 January 1912
established established
• People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9] • People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
Republic Republic
declared declared
• Proclamation 1 October 1949 • Proclamation 1 October 1949
of the of the
People's People's
Republic Republic
• Current 4 December 1982 • Current 4 December 1982
constitution constitution
• Last 20 December 1999 • Last 20 December 1999
polity admitt polity admitt
ed ed

Area Area
• Total 9,596,961 km (3,705,407 s
2 • Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s
q mi)[g](3rd/4th) q mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h] • Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population Population
• 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st) • 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
estimate estimate
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852 (1st) [14] • 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) • Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi)
(83rd) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st) • Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th) • Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nomin 2019 estimate GDP (nomin 2019 estimate


al) al)
• Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd) • Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st) • Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17] Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18] HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY) Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard
Time) Time)

Date format yyyy-mm-dd Date format yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日  or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)  (CE; CE-1949)

Driving right[j] Driving right[j]


side side

Calling +86 Calling +86


code code

ISO 3166 CN ISO 3166 CN


code code

Internet  .cn Internet  .cn


TLD  .中國 TLD  .中國
 .中国  .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China, officially the People's Republic of
China (PRC), is a country in East China (PRC), is a country in East
Asia and the world's most populous Asia and the world's most populous
country, with a population of country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square approximately 9,600,000 square
kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-
or fourth-largest country by total or fourth-largest country by total
area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist
Party of China, the state exercises Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, jurisdiction over 22 provinces,
five autonomous regions, four direct- five autonomous regions, four direct-
controlled controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Chongqing), and the special and Chongqing), and the special
administrative regions of Hong administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau. Kong and Macau.

China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the


world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag

National Emblem

Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark
green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a]
39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest city Shanghai[1]

Official languages Standard Chinese[2][b]


Recognised  Mongolian
regional languages Uyghur
 Tibetan
 Zhuang
 various others[3]

Official script Simplified Chinese[c]

Ethnic groups  91.51% Han[4]

 55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China

Demonym(s) Chinese

Government Unitary Marxist-Leninist one-


partysocialist republic[5]

• Party General Xi Jinping[e]


Secretary
and President
• Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Chairman Li Zhanshu
• Conference Wang Yang
Chairman
• First Secretary of Wang Huning
the Party
Secretariat
• Secretary of the Zhao Leji
Discipline
Inspection
Commission
• First Vice Premier Han Zheng
• Vice President Wang Qishan[f]

Legislature National People's Congress

Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE


unification
• Republic 1 January 1912
established
• People's Republic 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
declared
• Proclamation of the 1 October 1949
People's Republic
• Current constitution 4 December 1982
• Last polity admitted 20 December 1999

Area
• Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 sq mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population
• 2016 estimate 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate


• Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time)

Date format  yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)

Driving side right[j]

Calling code +86

ISO 3166 code CN

Internet TLD  .cn


 .中國
 .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and
the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-
largest country by total area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state
exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative
regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the
world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)  中华人民共和国 (Chinese)


Zhōnghuá Rénmín Zhōnghuá Rénmín
Gònghéguó (Pinyin) Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag Flag

National Emblem National Emblem

Anthem: Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"  "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲 义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of Area controlled by the People's Republic of
China shown in dark green; claimed but China shown in dark green; claimed but
uncontrolled regions shown in light green. uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a] Capital Beijing[a]


39°55′N 116°23′E 39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest Shanghai[1] Largest Shanghai[1]


city city

Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b] Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b]


guages guages
Recognised Mongolian Recognised Mongolian
regional lan Uyghur regional lan Uyghur
guages  Tibetan guages  Tibetan
 Zhuang  Zhuang
 various others[3]  various others[3]

Official Simplified Chinese[c] Official Simplified Chinese[c]


script script

Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4] Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4]


ps ps
 55 minorities[d]  55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China Religion See Religion in China

Demonym( Chinese Demonym( Chinese


s) s)

Governmen Unitary Marxist- Governmen Unitary Marxist-


t Leninist one- t Leninist one-
partysocialist republic [5] partysocialist republic[5]

• Party Xi Jinping[e] • Party Xi Jinping[e]


General General
Secretary Secretary
and Preside and Preside
nt nt
• Premier Li Keqiang • Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Li Zhanshu • Congress Li Zhanshu
Chairman Chairman
• Conference Wang Yang • Conference Wang Yang
Chairman Chairman
• First Wang Huning • First Wang Huning
Secretary of Secretary of
the Party the Party
Secretariat Secretariat
• Secretary of Zhao Leji • Secretary of Zhao Leji
the the
Discipline Discipline
Inspection Inspection
Commission Commission
• First Vice Han Zheng • First Vice Han Zheng
Premier Premier
• Vice Wang Qishan [f] • Vice Wang Qishan[f]
President President

Legislature National People's Legislature National People's


Congress Congress

Formation Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE • First imperial 221 BCE


unification unification
• Republic 1 January 1912 • Republic 1 January 1912
established established
• People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9] • People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
Republic Republic
declared declared
• Proclamation 1 October 1949 • Proclamation 1 October 1949
of the of the
People's People's
Republic Republic
• Current 4 December 1982 • Current 4 December 1982
constitution constitution
• Last 20 December 1999 • Last 20 December 1999
polity admitt polity admitt
ed ed

Area Area
• Total 9,596,961 km (3,705,407 s
2 • Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s
q mi)[g](3rd/4th) q mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h] • Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population Population
• 2016 1,403,500,365 [13] (1st) • 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
estimate estimate
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852 (1st) [14]
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) • Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi)
(83rd) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion (1st)
[16] • Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th) • Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nomin 2019 estimate GDP (nomin 2019 estimate


al) al)
• Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd) • Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st) • Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17] Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18] HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY) Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard
Time) Time)

Date format yyyy-mm-dd Date format yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日  or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)  (CE; CE-1949)

Driving right[j] Driving right[j]


side side
Calling +86 Calling +86
code code

ISO 3166 CN ISO 3166 CN


code code

Internet  .cn Internet  .cn


TLD  .中國 TLD  .中國
 .中国  .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China, officially the People's Republic of
China (PRC), is a country in East China (PRC), is a country in East
Asia and the world's most populous Asia and the world's most populous
country, with a population of country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square approximately 9,600,000 square
kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-
or fourth-largest country by total or fourth-largest country by total
area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist
Party of China, the state exercises Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, jurisdiction over 22 provinces,
five autonomous regions, four direct- five autonomous regions, four direct-
controlled controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Chongqing), and the special and Chongqing), and the special
administrative regions of Hong administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau. Kong and Macau.
China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the
world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)  中华人民共和国 (Chinese)


Zhōnghuá Rénmín Zhōnghuá Rénmín
Gònghéguó (Pinyin) Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag Flag

National Emblem National Emblem

Anthem: Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"  "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲 义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of Area controlled by the People's Republic of
China shown in dark green; claimed but China shown in dark green; claimed but
uncontrolled regions shown in light green. uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a] Capital Beijing[a]


39°55′N 116°23′E 39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest Shanghai[1] Largest Shanghai[1]


city city

Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b] Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b]


guages guages
Recognised Mongolian Recognised Mongolian
regional lan Uyghur regional lan Uyghur
guages  Tibetan guages  Tibetan
 Zhuang  Zhuang
 various others[3]  various others[3]

Official Simplified Chinese[c] Official Simplified Chinese[c]


script script

Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4] Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4]


ps ps
 55 minorities[d]  55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China Religion See Religion in China

Demonym( Chinese Demonym( Chinese


s) s)

Governmen Unitary Marxist- Governmen Unitary Marxist-


t Leninist one- t Leninist one-
partysocialist republic [5] partysocialist republic[5]

• Party Xi Jinping[e] • Party Xi Jinping[e]


General General
Secretary Secretary
and Preside and Preside
nt nt
• Premier Li Keqiang • Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Li Zhanshu • Congress Li Zhanshu
Chairman Chairman
• Conference Wang Yang • Conference Wang Yang
Chairman Chairman
• First Wang Huning • First Wang Huning
Secretary of Secretary of
the Party the Party
Secretariat Secretariat
• Secretary of Zhao Leji • Secretary of Zhao Leji
the the
Discipline Discipline
Inspection Inspection
Commission Commission
• First Vice Han Zheng • First Vice Han Zheng
Premier Premier
• Vice Wang Qishan [f] • Vice Wang Qishan[f]
President President

Legislature National People's Legislature National People's


Congress Congress

Formation Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE • First imperial 221 BCE


unification unification
• Republic 1 January 1912 • Republic 1 January 1912
established established
• People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9] • People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
Republic Republic
declared declared
• Proclamation 1 October 1949 • Proclamation 1 October 1949
of the of the
People's People's
Republic Republic
• Current 4 December 1982 • Current 4 December 1982
constitution constitution
• Last 20 December 1999 • Last 20 December 1999
polity admitt polity admitt
ed ed

Area Area
• Total 9,596,961 km (3,705,407 s
2 • Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s
q mi)[g](3rd/4th) q mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h] • Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population Population
• 2016 1,403,500,365 [13] (1st) • 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
estimate estimate
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852 (1st) [14]
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) • Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi)
(83rd) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion (1st)
[16] • Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th) • Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nomin 2019 estimate GDP (nomin 2019 estimate


al) al)
• Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd) • Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st) • Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17] Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18] HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY) Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard
Time) Time)

Date format yyyy-mm-dd Date format yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日  or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)  (CE; CE-1949)

Driving right[j] Driving right[j]


side side
Calling +86 Calling +86
code code

ISO 3166 CN ISO 3166 CN


code code

Internet  .cn Internet  .cn


TLD  .中國 TLD  .中國
 .中国  .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China, officially the People's Republic of
China (PRC), is a country in East China (PRC), is a country in East
Asia and the world's most populous Asia and the world's most populous
country, with a population of country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square approximately 9,600,000 square
kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-
or fourth-largest country by total or fourth-largest country by total
area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist
Party of China, the state exercises Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, jurisdiction over 22 provinces,
five autonomous regions, four direct- five autonomous regions, four direct-
controlled controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Chongqing), and the special and Chongqing), and the special
administrative regions of Hong administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau. Kong and Macau.
China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the
world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)  中华人民共和国 (Chinese)


Zhōnghuá Rénmín Zhōnghuá Rénmín
Gònghéguó (Pinyin) Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag Flag

National Emblem National Emblem

Anthem: Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"  "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲 义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of Area controlled by the People's Republic of
China shown in dark green; claimed but China shown in dark green; claimed but
uncontrolled regions shown in light green. uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a] Capital Beijing[a]


39°55′N 116°23′E 39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest Shanghai[1] Largest Shanghai[1]


city city

Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b] Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b]


guages guages
Recognised Mongolian Recognised Mongolian
regional lan Uyghur regional lan Uyghur
guages  Tibetan guages  Tibetan
 Zhuang  Zhuang
 various others [3]  various others[3]

Official Simplified Chinese[c] Official Simplified Chinese[c]


script script

Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4] Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4]


ps ps
 55 minorities[d]  55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China Religion See Religion in China

Demonym( Chinese Demonym( Chinese


s) s)
Governmen Unitary Marxist- Governmen Unitary Marxist-
t Leninist one- t Leninist one-
partysocialist republic [5] partysocialist republic[5]

• Party Xi Jinping[e] • Party Xi Jinping[e]


General General
Secretary Secretary
and Preside and Preside
nt nt
• Premier Li Keqiang • Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Li Zhanshu • Congress Li Zhanshu
Chairman Chairman
• Conference Wang Yang • Conference Wang Yang
Chairman Chairman
• First Wang Huning • First Wang Huning
Secretary of Secretary of
the Party the Party
Secretariat Secretariat
• Secretary of Zhao Leji • Secretary of Zhao Leji
the the
Discipline Discipline
Inspection Inspection
Commission Commission
• First Vice Han Zheng • First Vice Han Zheng
Premier Premier
• Vice Wang Qishan [f]
• Vice Wang Qishan[f]
President President

Legislature National People's Legislature National People's


Congress Congress

Formation Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE • First imperial 221 BCE


unification unification
• Republic 1 January 1912 • Republic 1 January 1912
established established
• People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9] • People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
Republic Republic
declared declared
• Proclamation 1 October 1949 • Proclamation 1 October 1949
of the of the
People's People's
Republic Republic
• Current 4 December 1982 • Current 4 December 1982
constitution constitution
• Last 20 December 1999 • Last 20 December 1999
polity admitt polity admitt
ed ed

Area Area
• Total 9,596,961 km (3,705,407 s
2 • Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s
q mi)[g](3rd/4th) q mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h] • Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population Population
• 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st) • 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
estimate estimate
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852 (1st) [14] • 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) • Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi)
(83rd) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st) • Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th) • Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nomin 2019 estimate GDP (nomin 2019 estimate


al) al)
• Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd) • Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st) • Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17] Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18] HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY) Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard
Time) Time)

Date format yyyy-mm-dd Date format yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日  or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)  (CE; CE-1949)

Driving right[j] Driving right[j]


side side

Calling +86 Calling +86


code code

ISO 3166 CN ISO 3166 CN


code code

Internet  .cn Internet  .cn


TLD  .中國 TLD  .中國
 .中国  .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China, officially the People's Republic of
China (PRC), is a country in East China (PRC), is a country in East
Asia and the world's most populous Asia and the world's most populous
country, with a population of country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square approximately 9,600,000 square
kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-
or fourth-largest country by total or fourth-largest country by total
area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist
Party of China, the state exercises Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, jurisdiction over 22 provinces,
five autonomous regions, four direct- five autonomous regions, four direct-
controlled controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Chongqing), and the special and Chongqing), and the special
administrative regions of Hong administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau. Kong and Macau.

China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of
the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was
based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia
dynasty in 21st century BCE.[20] Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206
BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time,
including papermaking and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and medical
improvements. The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty (618–
907) and Northern Song (960–1127) completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture
spread widely in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai
Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)  中华人民共和国 (Chinese)


Zhōnghuá Rénmín Zhōnghuá Rénmín
Gònghéguó (Pinyin) Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag Flag

National Emblem National Emblem

Anthem: Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"  "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲 义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ

Area controlled by the People's Republic of Area controlled by the People's Republic of
China shown in dark green; claimed but China shown in dark green; claimed but
uncontrolled regions shown in light green. uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
Capital Beijing[a] Capital Beijing[a]
39°55′N 116°23′E 39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest Shanghai[1] Largest Shanghai[1]


city city

Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b] Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b]


guages guages
Recognised Mongolian Recognised Mongolian
regional lan Uyghur regional lan Uyghur
guages  Tibetan guages  Tibetan
 Zhuang  Zhuang
 various others[3]  various others[3]

Official Simplified Chinese[c] Official Simplified Chinese[c]


script script

Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4] Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4]


ps ps
 55 minorities[d]  55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China Religion See Religion in China

Demonym( Chinese Demonym( Chinese


s) s)

Governmen Unitary Marxist- Governmen Unitary Marxist-


t Leninist one- t Leninist one-
partysocialist republic [5]
partysocialist republic[5]

• Party Xi Jinping[e] • Party Xi Jinping[e]


General General
Secretary Secretary
and Preside and Preside
nt nt
• Premier Li Keqiang • Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Li Zhanshu • Congress Li Zhanshu
Chairman Chairman
• Conference Wang Yang • Conference Wang Yang
Chairman Chairman
• First Wang Huning • First Wang Huning
Secretary of Secretary of
the Party the Party
Secretariat Secretariat
• Secretary of Zhao Leji • Secretary of Zhao Leji
the the
Discipline Discipline
Inspection Inspection
Commission Commission
• First Vice Han Zheng • First Vice Han Zheng
Premier Premier
• Vice Wang Qishan [f] • Vice Wang Qishan[f]
President President

Legislature National People's Legislature National People's


Congress Congress

Formation Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE • First imperial 221 BCE


unification unification
• Republic 1 January 1912 • Republic 1 January 1912
established established
• People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9] • People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
Republic Republic
declared declared
• Proclamation 1 October 1949 • Proclamation 1 October 1949
of the of the
People's People's
Republic Republic
• Current 4 December 1982 • Current 4 December 1982
constitution constitution
• Last 20 December 1999 • Last 20 December 1999
polity admitt polity admitt
ed ed

Area Area
• Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s • Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s
q mi) (3rd/4th)
[g] q mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h] • Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population Population
• 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st) • 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
estimate estimate
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st) • 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) • Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi)
(83rd) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st) • Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th) • Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nomin 2019 estimate GDP (nomin 2019 estimate


al) al)
• Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd) • Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st) • Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17] Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18] HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY) Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard
Time) Time)

Date format yyyy-mm-dd Date format yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日  or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)  (CE; CE-1949)

Driving right[j] Driving right[j]


side side

Calling +86 Calling +86


code code

ISO 3166 CN ISO 3166 CN


code code

Internet  .cn Internet  .cn


TLD  .中國 TLD  .中國
 .中国  .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China, officially the People's Republic of
China (PRC), is a country in East China (PRC), is a country in East
Asia and the world's most populous Asia and the world's most populous
country, with a population of country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square approximately 9,600,000 square
kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-
or fourth-largest country by total or fourth-largest country by total
area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist
Party of China, the state exercises Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, jurisdiction over 22 provinces,
five autonomous regions, four direct- five autonomous regions, four direct-
controlled controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Chongqing), and the special and Chongqing), and the special
administrative regions of Hong administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau. Kong and Macau.
China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the
world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)  中华人民共和国 (Chinese)


Zhōnghuá Rénmín Zhōnghuá Rénmín
Gònghéguó (Pinyin) Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag Flag
National Emblem National Emblem

Anthem: Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"  "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲 义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ

Area controlled by the People's Republic of Area controlled by the People's Republic of
China shown in dark green; claimed but China shown in dark green; claimed but
uncontrolled regions shown in light green. uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a] Capital Beijing[a]


39°55′N 116°23′E 39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest Shanghai[1] Largest Shanghai[1]


city city

Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b] Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b]


guages guages
Recognised Mongolian Recognised Mongolian
regional lan Uyghur regional lan Uyghur
guages  Tibetan guages  Tibetan
 Zhuang  Zhuang
 various others[3]  various others[3]

Official Simplified Chinese[c] Official Simplified Chinese[c]


script script

Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4] Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4]


ps ps
 55 minorities[d]  55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China Religion See Religion in China

Demonym( Chinese Demonym( Chinese


s) s)

Governmen Unitary Marxist- Governmen Unitary Marxist-


t Leninist one- t Leninist one-
partysocialist republic [5] partysocialist republic[5]

• Party Xi Jinping[e] • Party Xi Jinping[e]


General General
Secretary Secretary
and Preside and Preside
nt nt
• Premier Li Keqiang • Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Li Zhanshu • Congress Li Zhanshu
Chairman Chairman
• Conference Wang Yang • Conference Wang Yang
Chairman Chairman
• First Wang Huning • First Wang Huning
Secretary of Secretary of
the Party the Party
Secretariat Secretariat
• Secretary of Zhao Leji • Secretary of Zhao Leji
the the
Discipline Discipline
Inspection Inspection
Commission Commission
• First Vice Han Zheng • First Vice Han Zheng
Premier Premier
• Vice Wang Qishan [f] • Vice Wang Qishan[f]
President President

Legislature National People's Legislature National People's


Congress Congress
Formation Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE • First imperial 221 BCE


unification unification
• Republic 1 January 1912 • Republic 1 January 1912
established established
• People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9] • People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
Republic Republic
declared declared
• Proclamation 1 October 1949 • Proclamation 1 October 1949
of the of the
People's People's
Republic Republic
• Current 4 December 1982 • Current 4 December 1982
constitution constitution
• Last 20 December 1999 • Last 20 December 1999
polity admitt polity admitt
ed ed

Area Area
• Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s • Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s
q mi)[g](3rd/4th) q mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h] • Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population Population
• 2016 1,403,500,365 [13] (1st) • 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
estimate estimate
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st) • 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) • Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi)
(83rd) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion (1st)
[16] • Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th) • Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nomin 2019 estimate GDP (nomin 2019 estimate


al) al)
• Total $14.172 trillion (2nd)
[16] • Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st) • Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17] Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18] HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY) Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard
Time) Time)

Date format yyyy-mm-dd Date format yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日  or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)  (CE; CE-1949)

Driving right[j] Driving right[j]


side side

Calling +86 Calling +86


code code

ISO 3166 CN ISO 3166 CN


code code

Internet  .cn Internet  .cn


TLD  .中國 TLD  .中國
 .中国  .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China, officially the People's Republic of
China (PRC), is a country in East China (PRC), is a country in East
Asia and the world's most populous Asia and the world's most populous
country, with a population of country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square approximately 9,600,000 square
kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-
or fourth-largest country by total or fourth-largest country by total
area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist
Party of China, the state exercises Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, jurisdiction over 22 provinces,
five autonomous regions, four direct- five autonomous regions, four direct-
controlled controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Chongqing), and the special and Chongqing), and the special
administrative regions of Hong administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau. Kong and Macau.
China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the
world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag

National Emblem

Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark
green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a]
39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest city Shanghai[1]

Official languages Standard Chinese[2][b]


Recognised  Mongolian
regional languages Uyghur
 Tibetan
 Zhuang
 various others[3]

Official script Simplified Chinese[c]

Ethnic groups  91.51% Han[4]

 55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China

Demonym(s) Chinese

Government Unitary Marxist-Leninist one-


partysocialist republic[5]

• Party General Xi Jinping[e]


Secretary
and President
• Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Chairman Li Zhanshu
• Conference Wang Yang
Chairman
• First Secretary of Wang Huning
the Party
Secretariat
• Secretary of the Zhao Leji
Discipline
Inspection
Commission
• First Vice Premier Han Zheng
• Vice President Wang Qishan[f]

Legislature National People's Congress

Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE


unification
• Republic 1 January 1912
established
• People's Republic 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
declared
• Proclamation of the 1 October 1949
People's Republic
• Current constitution 4 December 1982
• Last polity admitted 20 December 1999

Area
• Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 sq mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population
• 2016 estimate 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate


• Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time)

Date format  yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)

Driving side right[j]

Calling code +86

ISO 3166 code CN

Internet TLD  .cn


 .中國
 .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and
the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-
largest country by total area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state
exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative
regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the
world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag

National Emblem

Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark
green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a]
39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest city Shanghai[1]

Official languages Standard Chinese[2][b]


Recognised  Mongolian
regional languages Uyghur
 Tibetan
 Zhuang
 various others[3]

Official script Simplified Chinese[c]

Ethnic groups  91.51% Han[4]

 55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China

Demonym(s) Chinese

Government Unitary Marxist-Leninist one-


partysocialist republic[5]

• Party General Xi Jinping[e]


Secretary
and President
• Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Chairman Li Zhanshu
• Conference Wang Yang
Chairman
• First Secretary of Wang Huning
the Party
Secretariat
• Secretary of the Zhao Leji
Discipline
Inspection
Commission
• First Vice Premier Han Zheng
• Vice President Wang Qishan[f]

Legislature National People's Congress

Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE


unification
• Republic 1 January 1912
established
• People's Republic 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
declared
• Proclamation of the 1 October 1949
People's Republic
• Current constitution 4 December 1982
• Last polity admitted 20 December 1999

Area
• Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 sq mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population
• 2016 estimate 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate


• Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time)

Date format  yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)

Driving side right[j]

Calling code +86

ISO 3166 code CN

Internet TLD  .cn


 .中國
 .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and
the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-
largest country by total area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state
exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative
regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the
world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)  中华人民共和国 (Chinese)


Zhōnghuá Rénmín Zhōnghuá Rénmín
Gònghéguó (Pinyin) Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag Flag

National Emblem National Emblem

Anthem: Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"  "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲 义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of Area controlled by the People's Republic of
China shown in dark green; claimed but China shown in dark green; claimed but
uncontrolled regions shown in light green. uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a] Capital Beijing[a]


39°55′N 116°23′E 39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest Shanghai[1] Largest Shanghai[1]


city city

Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b] Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b]


guages guages
Recognised Mongolian Recognised Mongolian
regional lan Uyghur regional lan Uyghur
guages  Tibetan guages  Tibetan
 Zhuang  Zhuang
 various others[3]  various others[3]

Official Simplified Chinese[c] Official Simplified Chinese[c]


script script

Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4] Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4]


ps ps
 55 minorities[d]  55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China Religion See Religion in China

Demonym( Chinese Demonym( Chinese


s) s)
Governmen Unitary Marxist- Governmen Unitary Marxist-
t Leninist one- t Leninist one-
partysocialist republic[5] partysocialist republic[5]

• Party Xi Jinping[e] • Party Xi Jinping[e]


General General
Secretary Secretary
and Preside and Preside
nt nt
• Premier Li Keqiang • Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Li Zhanshu • Congress Li Zhanshu
Chairman Chairman
• Conference Wang Yang • Conference Wang Yang
Chairman Chairman
• First Wang Huning • First Wang Huning
Secretary of Secretary of
the Party the Party
Secretariat Secretariat
• Secretary of Zhao Leji • Secretary of Zhao Leji
the the
Discipline Discipline
Inspection Inspection
Commission Commission
• First Vice Han Zheng • First Vice Han Zheng
Premier Premier
• Vice Wang Qishan[f] • Vice Wang Qishan[f]
President President

Legislature National People's Legislature National People's


Congress Congress

Formation Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE • First imperial 221 BCE


unification unification
• Republic 1 January 1912 • Republic 1 January 1912
established established
• People's 21 September 1949 [7][8][9] • People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
Republic Republic
declared declared
• Proclamation 1 October 1949 • Proclamation 1 October 1949
of the of the
People's People's
Republic Republic
• Current 4 December 1982 • Current 4 December 1982
constitution constitution
• Last 20 December 1999 • Last 20 December 1999
polity admitt polity admitt
ed ed

Area Area
• Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s • Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s
q mi) (3rd/4th)
[g] q mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h] • Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population Population
• 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st) • 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
estimate estimate
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st) • 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) • Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi)
(83rd) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st) • Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th) • Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nomin 2019 estimate GDP (nomin 2019 estimate


al) al)
• Total $14.172 trillion (2nd)
[16] • Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st) • Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17] Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18] HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY) Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard
Time) Time)

Date format yyyy-mm-dd Date format yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日  or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)  (CE; CE-1949)

Driving right[j] Driving right[j]


side side
Calling +86 Calling +86
code code

ISO 3166 CN ISO 3166 CN


code code

Internet  .cn Internet  .cn


TLD  .中國 TLD  .中國
 .中国  .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China, officially the People's Republic of
China (PRC), is a country in East China (PRC), is a country in East
Asia and the world's most populous Asia and the world's most populous
country, with a population of country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square approximately 9,600,000 square
kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-
or fourth-largest country by total or fourth-largest country by total
area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist
Party of China, the state exercises Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, jurisdiction over 22 provinces,
five autonomous regions, four direct- five autonomous regions, four direct-
controlled controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Chongqing), and the special and Chongqing), and the special
administrative regions of Hong administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau. Kong and Macau.

China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the


world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)  中华人民共和国 (Chinese)


Zhōnghuá Rénmín Zhōnghuá Rénmín
Gònghéguó (Pinyin) Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag Flag

National Emblem National Emblem

Anthem: Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"  "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲 义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of Area controlled by the People's Republic of
China shown in dark green; claimed but China shown in dark green; claimed but
uncontrolled regions shown in light green. uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a] Capital Beijing[a]


39°55′N 116°23′E 39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest Shanghai[1] Largest Shanghai[1]


city city

Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b] Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b]


guages guages
Recognised Mongolian Recognised Mongolian
regional lan Uyghur regional lan Uyghur
guages  Tibetan guages  Tibetan
 Zhuang  Zhuang
 various others[3]  various others[3]

Official Simplified Chinese[c] Official Simplified Chinese[c]


script script

Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4] Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4]


ps ps
 55 minorities[d]  55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China Religion See Religion in China

Demonym( Chinese Demonym( Chinese


s) s)
Governmen Unitary Marxist- Governmen Unitary Marxist-
t Leninist one- t Leninist one-
partysocialist republic[5] partysocialist republic[5]

• Party Xi Jinping[e] • Party Xi Jinping[e]


General General
Secretary Secretary
and Preside and Preside
nt nt
• Premier Li Keqiang • Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Li Zhanshu • Congress Li Zhanshu
Chairman Chairman
• Conference Wang Yang • Conference Wang Yang
Chairman Chairman
• First Wang Huning • First Wang Huning
Secretary of Secretary of
the Party the Party
Secretariat Secretariat
• Secretary of Zhao Leji • Secretary of Zhao Leji
the the
Discipline Discipline
Inspection Inspection
Commission Commission
• First Vice Han Zheng • First Vice Han Zheng
Premier Premier
• Vice Wang Qishan[f] • Vice Wang Qishan[f]
President President

Legislature National People's Legislature National People's


Congress Congress

Formation Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE • First imperial 221 BCE


unification unification
• Republic 1 January 1912 • Republic 1 January 1912
established established
• People's 21 September 1949 [7][8][9] • People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
Republic Republic
declared declared
• Proclamation 1 October 1949 • Proclamation 1 October 1949
of the of the
People's People's
Republic Republic
• Current 4 December 1982 • Current 4 December 1982
constitution constitution
• Last 20 December 1999 • Last 20 December 1999
polity admitt polity admitt
ed ed

Area Area
• Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s • Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s
q mi) (3rd/4th)
[g] q mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h] • Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population Population
• 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st) • 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
estimate estimate
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st) • 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) • Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi)
(83rd) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st) • Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th) • Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nomin 2019 estimate GDP (nomin 2019 estimate


al) al)
• Total $14.172 trillion (2nd)
[16] • Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st) • Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17] Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18] HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY) Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard
Time) Time)

Date format yyyy-mm-dd Date format yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日  or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)  (CE; CE-1949)

Driving right[j] Driving right[j]


side side
Calling +86 Calling +86
code code

ISO 3166 CN ISO 3166 CN


code code

Internet  .cn Internet  .cn


TLD  .中國 TLD  .中國
 .中国  .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China, officially the People's Republic of
China (PRC), is a country in East China (PRC), is a country in East
Asia and the world's most populous Asia and the world's most populous
country, with a population of country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square approximately 9,600,000 square
kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-
or fourth-largest country by total or fourth-largest country by total
area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist
Party of China, the state exercises Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, jurisdiction over 22 provinces,
five autonomous regions, four direct- five autonomous regions, four direct-
controlled controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Chongqing), and the special and Chongqing), and the special
administrative regions of Hong administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau. Kong and Macau.

China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the


world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)  中华人民共和国 (Chinese)


Zhōnghuá Rénmín Zhōnghuá Rénmín
Gònghéguó (Pinyin) Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag Flag

National Emblem National Emblem

Anthem: Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"  "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲 义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of Area controlled by the People's Republic of
China shown in dark green; claimed but China shown in dark green; claimed but
uncontrolled regions shown in light green. uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a] Capital Beijing[a]


39°55′N 116°23′E 39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest Shanghai[1] Largest Shanghai[1]


city city

Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b] Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b]


guages guages
Recognised Mongolian Recognised Mongolian
regional lan Uyghur regional lan Uyghur
guages  Tibetan guages  Tibetan
 Zhuang  Zhuang
 various others[3]  various others[3]

Official Simplified Chinese[c] Official Simplified Chinese[c]


script script

Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4] Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4]


ps ps
 55 minorities[d]  55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China Religion See Religion in China

Demonym( Chinese Demonym( Chinese


s) s)
Governmen Unitary Marxist- Governmen Unitary Marxist-
t Leninist one- t Leninist one-
partysocialist republic[5] partysocialist republic[5]

• Party Xi Jinping[e] • Party Xi Jinping[e]


General General
Secretary Secretary
and Preside and Preside
nt nt
• Premier Li Keqiang • Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Li Zhanshu • Congress Li Zhanshu
Chairman Chairman
• Conference Wang Yang • Conference Wang Yang
Chairman Chairman
• First Wang Huning • First Wang Huning
Secretary of Secretary of
the Party the Party
Secretariat Secretariat
• Secretary of Zhao Leji • Secretary of Zhao Leji
the the
Discipline Discipline
Inspection Inspection
Commission Commission
• First Vice Han Zheng • First Vice Han Zheng
Premier Premier
• Vice Wang Qishan[f] • Vice Wang Qishan[f]
President President

Legislature National People's Legislature National People's


Congress Congress

Formation Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE • First imperial 221 BCE


unification unification
• Republic 1 January 1912 • Republic 1 January 1912
established established
• People's 21 September 1949 [7][8][9] • People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
Republic Republic
declared declared
• Proclamation 1 October 1949 • Proclamation 1 October 1949
of the of the
People's People's
Republic Republic
• Current 4 December 1982 • Current 4 December 1982
constitution constitution
• Last 20 December 1999 • Last 20 December 1999
polity admitt polity admitt
ed ed

Area Area
• Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s • Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s
q mi) (3rd/4th)
[g] q mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h] • Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population Population
• 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st) • 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
estimate estimate
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st) • 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) • Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi)
(83rd) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st) • Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th) • Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nomin 2019 estimate GDP (nomin 2019 estimate


al) al)
• Total $14.172 trillion (2nd)
[16] • Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st) • Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17] Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18] HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY) Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard
Time) Time)

Date format yyyy-mm-dd Date format yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日  or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)  (CE; CE-1949)

Driving right[j] Driving right[j]


side side
Calling +86 Calling +86
code code

ISO 3166 CN ISO 3166 CN


code code

Internet  .cn Internet  .cn


TLD  .中國 TLD  .中國
 .中国  .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China, officially the People's Republic of
China (PRC), is a country in East China (PRC), is a country in East
Asia and the world's most populous Asia and the world's most populous
country, with a population of country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square approximately 9,600,000 square
kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-
or fourth-largest country by total or fourth-largest country by total
area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist
Party of China, the state exercises Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, jurisdiction over 22 provinces,
five autonomous regions, four direct- five autonomous regions, four direct-
controlled controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Chongqing), and the special and Chongqing), and the special
administrative regions of Hong administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau. Kong and Macau.

China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the


world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)  中华人民共和国 (Chinese)


Zhōnghuá Rénmín Zhōnghuá Rénmín
Gònghéguó (Pinyin) Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag Flag

National Emblem National Emblem

Anthem: Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"  "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲 义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of Area controlled by the People's Republic of
China shown in dark green; claimed but China shown in dark green; claimed but
uncontrolled regions shown in light green. uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a] Capital Beijing[a]


39°55′N 116°23′E 39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest Shanghai[1] Largest Shanghai[1]


city city

Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b] Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b]


guages guages
Recognised Mongolian Recognised Mongolian
regional lan Uyghur regional lan Uyghur
guages  Tibetan guages  Tibetan
 Zhuang  Zhuang
 various others [3]  various others[3]

Official Simplified Chinese[c] Official Simplified Chinese[c]


script script

Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4] Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4]


ps ps
 55 minorities[d]  55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China Religion See Religion in China

Demonym( Chinese Demonym( Chinese


s) s)
Governmen Unitary Marxist- Governmen Unitary Marxist-
t Leninist one- t Leninist one-
partysocialist republic [5] partysocialist republic[5]

• Party Xi Jinping[e] • Party Xi Jinping[e]


General General
Secretary Secretary
and Preside and Preside
nt nt
• Premier Li Keqiang • Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Li Zhanshu • Congress Li Zhanshu
Chairman Chairman
• Conference Wang Yang • Conference Wang Yang
Chairman Chairman
• First Wang Huning • First Wang Huning
Secretary of Secretary of
the Party the Party
Secretariat Secretariat
• Secretary of Zhao Leji • Secretary of Zhao Leji
the the
Discipline Discipline
Inspection Inspection
Commission Commission
• First Vice Han Zheng • First Vice Han Zheng
Premier Premier
• Vice Wang Qishan [f]
• Vice Wang Qishan[f]
President President

Legislature National People's Legislature National People's


Congress Congress

Formation Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE • First imperial 221 BCE


unification unification
• Republic 1 January 1912 • Republic 1 January 1912
established established
• People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9] • People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
Republic Republic
declared declared
• Proclamation 1 October 1949 • Proclamation 1 October 1949
of the of the
People's People's
Republic Republic
• Current 4 December 1982 • Current 4 December 1982
constitution constitution
• Last 20 December 1999 • Last 20 December 1999
polity admitt polity admitt
ed ed

Area Area
• Total 9,596,961 km (3,705,407 s
2 • Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s
q mi)[g](3rd/4th) q mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h] • Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population Population
• 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st) • 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
estimate estimate
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852 (1st) [14] • 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) • Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi)
(83rd) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st) • Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th) • Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nomin 2019 estimate GDP (nomin 2019 estimate


al) al)
• Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd) • Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st) • Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17] Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18] HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY) Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard
Time) Time)

Date format yyyy-mm-dd Date format yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日  or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)  (CE; CE-1949)

Driving right[j] Driving right[j]


side side

Calling +86 Calling +86


code code

ISO 3166 CN ISO 3166 CN


code code

Internet  .cn Internet  .cn


TLD  .中國 TLD  .中國
 .中国  .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China, officially the People's Republic of
China (PRC), is a country in East China (PRC), is a country in East
Asia and the world's most populous Asia and the world's most populous
country, with a population of country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square approximately 9,600,000 square
kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-
or fourth-largest country by total or fourth-largest country by total
area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist
Party of China, the state exercises Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, jurisdiction over 22 provinces,
five autonomous regions, four direct- five autonomous regions, four direct-
controlled controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Chongqing), and the special and Chongqing), and the special
administrative regions of Hong administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau. Kong and Macau.

China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the


world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)  中华人民共和国 (Chinese)


Zhōnghuá Rénmín Zhōnghuá Rénmín
Gònghéguó (Pinyin) Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag Flag

National Emblem National Emblem

Anthem: Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"  "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲 义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of Area controlled by the People's Republic of
China shown in dark green; claimed but China shown in dark green; claimed but
uncontrolled regions shown in light green. uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a] Capital Beijing[a]


39°55′N 116°23′E 39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest Shanghai[1] Largest Shanghai[1]


city city

Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b] Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b]


guages guages
Recognised Mongolian Recognised Mongolian
regional lan Uyghur regional lan Uyghur
guages  Tibetan guages  Tibetan
 Zhuang  Zhuang
 various others [3]  various others[3]

Official Simplified Chinese[c] Official Simplified Chinese[c]


script script

Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4] Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4]


ps ps
 55 minorities[d]  55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China Religion See Religion in China

Demonym( Chinese Demonym( Chinese


s) s)
Governmen Unitary Marxist- Governmen Unitary Marxist-
t Leninist one- t Leninist one-
partysocialist republic [5] partysocialist republic[5]

• Party Xi Jinping[e] • Party Xi Jinping[e]


General General
Secretary Secretary
and Preside and Preside
nt nt
• Premier Li Keqiang • Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Li Zhanshu • Congress Li Zhanshu
Chairman Chairman
• Conference Wang Yang • Conference Wang Yang
Chairman Chairman
• First Wang Huning • First Wang Huning
Secretary of Secretary of
the Party the Party
Secretariat Secretariat
• Secretary of Zhao Leji • Secretary of Zhao Leji
the the
Discipline Discipline
Inspection Inspection
Commission Commission
• First Vice Han Zheng • First Vice Han Zheng
Premier Premier
• Vice Wang Qishan [f]
• Vice Wang Qishan[f]
President President

Legislature National People's Legislature National People's


Congress Congress

Formation Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE • First imperial 221 BCE


unification unification
• Republic 1 January 1912 • Republic 1 January 1912
established established
• People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9] • People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
Republic Republic
declared declared
• Proclamation 1 October 1949 • Proclamation 1 October 1949
of the of the
People's People's
Republic Republic
• Current 4 December 1982 • Current 4 December 1982
constitution constitution
• Last 20 December 1999 • Last 20 December 1999
polity admitt polity admitt
ed ed

Area Area
• Total 9,596,961 km (3,705,407 s
2 • Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s
q mi)[g](3rd/4th) q mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h] • Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population Population
• 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st) • 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
estimate estimate
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852 (1st) [14] • 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) • Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi)
(83rd) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st) • Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th) • Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nomin 2019 estimate GDP (nomin 2019 estimate


al) al)
• Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd) • Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st) • Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17] Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18] HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY) Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard
Time) Time)

Date format yyyy-mm-dd Date format yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日  or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)  (CE; CE-1949)

Driving right[j] Driving right[j]


side side

Calling +86 Calling +86


code code

ISO 3166 CN ISO 3166 CN


code code

Internet  .cn Internet  .cn


TLD  .中國 TLD  .中國
 .中国  .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China, officially the People's Republic of
China (PRC), is a country in East China (PRC), is a country in East
Asia and the world's most populous Asia and the world's most populous
country, with a population of country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square approximately 9,600,000 square
kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-
or fourth-largest country by total or fourth-largest country by total
area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist
Party of China, the state exercises Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, jurisdiction over 22 provinces,
five autonomous regions, four direct- five autonomous regions, four direct-
controlled controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Chongqing), and the special and Chongqing), and the special
administrative regions of Hong administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau. Kong and Macau.

China emerged as one of the China emerged as one of the


world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North basin of the Yellow River in the North
China Plain. For millennia, China's political China Plain. For millennia, China's political
system was based on hereditary system was based on hereditary
monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with
the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China century BCE.[20] Since then, China
has expanded, fractured, and re- has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century unified numerous times. In the 3rd century
BCE, the Qin reunited core China and BCE, the Qin reunited core China and
established the first Chinese empire. The established the first Chinese empire. The
succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from
206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that the most advanced technology at that
time, including papermaking and time, including papermaking and
the compass,[21] along with agricultural and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and
medical improvements. The invention medical improvements. The invention
of gunpowder and movable type in of gunpowder and movable type in
the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern
Song (960–1127) completed the Four Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread Great Inventions. Tang culture spread
widely in Asia, as the new Silk widely in Asia, as the new Silk
Route brought traders to as far Route brought traders to as far
as Mesopotamia and Horn of as Mesopotamia and Horn of
Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with
the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic repl

People's Republic of China People's Republic of China

 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)  中华人民共和国 (Chinese)


Zhōnghuá Rénmín Zhōnghuá Rénmín
Gònghéguó (Pinyin) Gònghéguó (Pinyin)

Flag Flag

National Emblem National Emblem

Anthem: Anthem:

 "March of the Volunteers"  "March of the Volunteers"


义勇军进行曲 义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
Area controlled by the People's Republic of Area controlled by the People's Republic of
China shown in dark green; claimed but China shown in dark green; claimed but
uncontrolled regions shown in light green. uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

Capital Beijing[a] Capital Beijing[a]


39°55′N 116°23′E 39°55′N 116°23′E

Largest Shanghai[1] Largest Shanghai[1]


city city

Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b] Official lan Standard Chinese[2][b]


guages guages
Recognised Mongolian Recognised Mongolian
regional lan Uyghur regional lan Uyghur
guages  Tibetan guages  Tibetan
 Zhuang  Zhuang
 various others [3]  various others[3]

Official Simplified Chinese[c] Official Simplified Chinese[c]


script script

Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4] Ethnic grou 91.51% Han[4]


ps ps
 55 minorities[d]  55 minorities[d]

Religion See Religion in China Religion See Religion in China

Demonym( Chinese Demonym( Chinese


s) s)
Governmen Unitary Marxist- Governmen Unitary Marxist-
t Leninist one- t Leninist one-
partysocialist republic [5] partysocialist republic[5]

• Party Xi Jinping[e] • Party Xi Jinping[e]


General General
Secretary Secretary
and Preside and Preside
nt nt
• Premier Li Keqiang • Premier Li Keqiang
• Congress Li Zhanshu • Congress Li Zhanshu
Chairman Chairman
• Conference Wang Yang • Conference Wang Yang
Chairman Chairman
• First Wang Huning • First Wang Huning
Secretary of Secretary of
the Party the Party
Secretariat Secretariat
• Secretary of Zhao Leji • Secretary of Zhao Leji
the the
Discipline Discipline
Inspection Inspection
Commission Commission
• First Vice Han Zheng • First Vice Han Zheng
Premier Premier
• Vice Wang Qishan [f]
• Vice Wang Qishan[f]
President President

Legislature National People's Legislature National People's


Congress Congress

Formation Formation

• First imperial 221 BCE • First imperial 221 BCE


unification unification
• Republic 1 January 1912 • Republic 1 January 1912
established established
• People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9] • People's 21 September 1949[7][8][9]
Republic Republic
declared declared
• Proclamation 1 October 1949 • Proclamation 1 October 1949
of the of the
People's People's
Republic Republic
• Current 4 December 1982 • Current 4 December 1982
constitution constitution
• Last 20 December 1999 • Last 20 December 1999
polity admitt polity admitt
ed ed

Area Area
• Total 9,596,961 km (3,705,407 s
2 • Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 s
q mi)[g](3rd/4th) q mi)[g](3rd/4th)
• Water (%) 2.8%[h] • Water (%) 2.8%[h]

Population Population
• 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st) • 2016 1,403,500,365 [13](1st)
estimate estimate
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852 (1st) [14] • 2010 census 1,339,724,852[14](1st)
• Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi) • Density 145[15]/km2(375.5/sq mi)
(83rd) (83rd)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate


• Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st) • Total $27.449 trillion[16](1st)
• Per capita $19,559[16] (79th) • Per capita $19,559[16] (79th)

GDP (nomin 2019 estimate GDP (nomin 2019 estimate


al) al)
• Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd) • Total $14.172 trillion[16](2nd)
• Per capita $10,099[16] (71st) • Per capita $10,099[16] (71st)

Gini (2015) 46.2[17] Gini (2015) 46.2[17]


high high

HDI (2017) 0.752[18] HDI (2017) 0.752[18]


high · 86th high · 86th

Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY) Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[i](CNY)

Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard
Time) Time)

Date format yyyy-mm-dd Date format yyyy-mm-dd


 or yyyy年m月d日  or yyyy年m月d日
 (CE; CE-1949)  (CE; CE-1949)

Driving right[j] Driving right[j]


side side

Calling +86 Calling +86


code code

ISO 3166 CN ISO 3166 CN


code code

Internet  .cn Internet  .cn


TLD  .中國 TLD  .中國
 .中国  .中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China, officially the People's Republic of
China (PRC), is a country in East China (PRC), is a country in East
Asia and the world's most populous Asia and the world's most populous
country, with a population of country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square approximately 9,600,000 square
kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-
or fourth-largest country by total or fourth-largest country by total
area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist
Party of China, the state exercises Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, jurisdiction over 22 provinces,
five autonomous regions, four direct- five autonomous regions, four direct-
controlled controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Chongqing), and the special and Chongqing), and the special
administrative regions of Hong administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau. Kong and Macau.

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and
the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering
approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest
country by total area.[k][19] Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative
regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow
River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on
hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st
century BCE.[20] Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times.
In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin reunited core China and established the first Chinese
empire. The succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of
the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass,[21] along
with agricultural and medical improvements. The invention of gunpowder and movable
type in the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern Song (960–1127) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders
to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa.[22]Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai
Revolution, when a republic repl